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Kevin Mortimer, John R Balmes
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February 21, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Minerva Catalán-Vázquez, Rosario Fernández-Plata, David Martínez-Briseño, Blanca Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Laura Suárez-González, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Astrid Schilmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors enabling/limiting the use of improved cookstoves among rural fuel wood users from one mestizo and two indigenous communities eight years after an intervention in the state of Michoacan, in Mexico. METHODS: A qualitative study with an ethnographic perspective was conducted in 2013/2014 based on 62 interviews with women who had participated in an improved firewood cookstove program in 2005. Thematic qualitative content analysis was performed...
2018: PloS One
Héctor Jorquera, Francisco Barraza, Johanna Heyer, Gonzalo Valdivia, Luis N Schiappacasse, Lupita D Montoya
Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; however, little is known about the indoor air quality in this region. A field measurement campaign at 63 households in the Temuco urban area was conducted in winter 2014 and is reported here. In this study, indoor and outdoor (24-hr) PM2.5 and its elemental composition were measured and compared. Infiltration parameters and outdoor/indoor contributions to indoor PM2.5 were also determined. A statistical evaluation of how various air quality interventions and household features influence indoor PM2...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Katherine Lucarelli, Kevin Wyne, James E Svenson
INTRODUCTION: Installation of ventilated cookstoves has been shown to improve 24-h carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate exposure in the Guatemalan highlands. However, a survey of villagers around San Lucas Tolimán found much higher than expected CO levels. Our purpose is to evaluate the effects of improved cookstoves on CO levels in these villagers. METHODS: This is cross sectional observational study in six rural communities. Blood carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) was measured at three different times during the day...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Yong Ho Kim, Sarah H Warren, Q Todd Krantz, Charly King, Richard Jaskot, William T Preston, Barbara J George, Michael D Hays, Matthew S Landis, Mark Higuchi, David M DeMarini, M Ian Gilmour
BACKGROUND: The increasing size and frequency of wildland fires are leading to greater potential for cardiopulmonary disease and cancer in exposed populations; however, little is known about how the types of fuel and combustion phases affect these adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the mutagenicity and lung toxicity of particulate matter (PM) from flaming vs. smoldering phases of five biomass fuels, and compared results by equal mass or emission factors (EFs) derived from amount of fuel consumed...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Akshay Sood, Nour A Assad, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Churg, Stephen B Gordon, Kevin S Harrod, Hammad Irshad, Om P Kurmi, William J Martin, Paula Meek, Kevin Mortimer, Curtis W Noonan, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Kirk R Smith, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Tony Ward, John Balmes
Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Cell culture and animal studies with controlled exposure conditions and genetic homogeneity provide important insights into HAP mechanisms. Impaired bacterial phagocytosis in exposed human alveolar macrophages possibly mediates several HAP-related health effects...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Guofeng Shen, Michael D Hays, Kirk R Smith, Craig Williams, Jerroll W Faircloth, James J Jetter
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cookstoves are considered to be an important solution for mitigating household air pollution; however, their performance has rarely been evaluated. To fill the data and knowledge gaps in this important area, eighty-nine laboratory tests were conducted to quantify efficiencies and pollutant emissions from five commercially available household LPG stoves under different burning conditions. The mean thermal efficiency (± standard deviation) for the tested LPG cookstoves was 51±6%, meeting guidelines for the highest tier level (Tier 4) under the International Organization for Standardization, International Workshop Agreement 11...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Kyle Steenland, Ajay Pillarisetti, Miles Kirby, Jennifer Peel, Maggie Clark, Will Checkley, Howard H Chang, Thomas Clasen
INTRODUCTION: Improved biomass and advanced fuel cookstoves can lower household air pollution (HAP), but levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) often remain above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended interim target of 35μg/m3 . METHODS: Based on existing literature, we first estimate a range of likely levels of personal PM2.5 before and after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention. Using simulations reflecting uncertainty in both the exposure estimates and exposure-response coefficients, we estimate corresponding expected health benefits for systolic blood pressure (SBP) in adults, birthweight, and pneumonia incidence among children <2years old...
February 2018: Environment International
Anindita Dutta, Galina Khramtsova, Katherine Brito, Donee Alexander, Ariel Mueller, Sireesha Chinthala, Damilola Adu, Tope Ibigbami, John Olamijulo, Abayomi Odetunde, Kehinde Adigun, Liese Pruitt, Ian Hurley, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Oladosu Ojengbede, Sarosh Rana, Christopher O Olopade
BACKGROUND: Household air pollution (HAP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: Investigate impact of in-utero HAP exposure on placental development and chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Markers of chronic placental hypoxia [Hofbauer cells (HBC), syncytial knots (SK), chorionic vascular density (cVD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)] were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and/or immunohistochemically in placenta samples collected from firewood-/kerosene-users (A,n=16), and ethanol-users (B,n=20) that participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial in Ibadan, Nigeria...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
George S Downward, Hugo P van der Zwaag, Leon Simons, Kees Meliefste, Yifokire Tefera, J Rosales Carreon, Roel Vermeulen, Lidwien A M Smit
The indoor air pollution (IAP) produced by the domestic combustion of solid fuels is responsible for up to 4 million deaths annually, especially among low and middle income countries. Occupational exposure within the food preparation industries of these nations remains underexplored. We investigated occupational exposure to the IAP produced during the commercial production of injera, a staple of the Ethiopian diet, from bakeries in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Measurements of PM2.5, black carbon (via the proxy measure PM2...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Raphael E Arku, Majid Ezzati, Jill Baumgartner, Günther Fink, Bin Zhou, Perry Hystad, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Approximately three billion people are exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel cookstoves. Studies from single settings have linked HAP with elevated blood pressure (BP), but no evidence exists from multi-country analyses. OBJECTIVES: Using nationally representative and internationally comparable data, we examined the association between solid fuel use and BP in 77,605 largely premenopausal women (aged 15-49) from ten resource-poor countries...
January 2018: Environmental Research
Eugene A Gibbs-Flournoy, M Ian Gilmour, Mark Higuchi, James Jetter, Ingrid George, Lisa Copeland, Randy Harrison, Virginia C Moser, Janice A Dye
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to provide access to cleaner end user energy technologies for the nearly 40% of the world's population who currently depend on rudimentary cooking and heating systems. Advanced cookstoves (CS) are designed to cut emissions and solid-fuel consumption, thus reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts. STUDY PREMISE: We hypothesized that, compared to a traditional (Tier 0) three-stone (3-S) fire, acute inhalation of solid-fuel emissions from advanced natural-draft (ND; Tier 2) or forced-draft (FD; Tier 3) stoves would reduce exposure biomarkers and lessen pulmonary and innate immune system health effects in exposed mice...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Research
Evan R Coffey, Didier Muvandimwe, Yolanda Hagar, Christine Wiedinmyer, Ernest Kanyomse, Ricardo Piedrahita, Katherine L Dickinson, Abraham Oduro, Michael P Hannigan
Household cooking using solid biomass fuels is a major global health and environmental concern. As part of the Research on Emissions Air quality Climate and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana study, we conducted 75 in-field uncontrolled cooking tests designed to assess emissions and efficiency of the Gyapa woodstove, Philips HD4012, threestone fire and coalpot (local charcoal stove). Emission factors (EFs) were calculated for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM). Moreover, modified combustion (MCE), heat transfer (HTE) and overall thermal efficiencies (OTE) were calculated across a variety of fuel, stove and meal type combinations...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Ka Hung Chan, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Om P Kurmi, Yu Guo, Derrick Bennett, Zheng Bian, Paul Sherliker, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Disease burden estimates related to household air pollution (HAP) relied on cross-sectional data on cooking fuel, overlooking other important sources (e.g. heating) and temporal-regional variations of exposure in geographically diverse settings. We aimed to examine the trends and variations of for cooking and heating fuel use and ventilation in 500,000 adults recruited from 10 diverse localities of China. METHODS: At baseline (2004-08) and two subsequent resurveys (2008-14), participants of China Kadoorie Biobank, aged 30-79, reported their past and current fuel use for cooking and heating and the availability of cookstove ventilation...
November 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Monikankana Sharma, S Dasappa
Biomass as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in rural India, and about 700 million people use traditional stoves to meet their energy demand. However, the thermal and the combustion efficiencies of these stoves are very low, leading to an inefficient use of biomass, and also, resulting in significant indoor air pollution. Research development has however led to the development of some improved stoves viz., natural draft and forced draft for both domestic as well as large scale cooking applications and government is trying to promote them...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Vianney Tumwesige, Gabriel Okello, Sean Semple, Jo Smith
Over 700 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa depend on solid biomass fuel and use simple cookstoves in poorly ventilated kitchens, which results in high indoor concentrations of household air pollutants. Switching from biomass to biogas as a cooking fuel can reduce airborne emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO), but households often only partially convert to biogas, continuing to use solid biomass fuels for part of their daily cooking needs. There is little evidence of the benefits of partial switching to biogas...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sutyajeet I Soneja, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Benjamin Zaitchik, Frank C Curriero, Patrick N Breysse
Alternative stoves are an intervention option to reduce household air pollution. The amount of air pollution exiting homes when alternative stoves are utilized is not known. In this paper, particulate matter exfiltration estimates are presented for four types of alternative stoves within a village-like home, which was built to reflect the use of local materials and common size, in rural Nepal. Four alternative stoves with chimneys were examined, which included an alternative mud brick stove, original Envirofit G3355 model, manufacture altered Envirofit G3355, and locally altered Envirofit G3355...
November 2017: Environmental Management
Ashlinn K Quinn, Kenneth Ayuurebobi Ae-Ngibise, Patrick L Kinney, Seyram Kaali, Blair J Wylie, Ellen Boamah, Daichi Shimbo, Oscar Agyei, Steven N Chillrud, Mohammed Mujtaba, Joseph E Schwartz, Marwah Abdalla, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Darby W Jack, Kwaku Poku Asante
BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to household air pollution may intermittently raise blood pressure (BP) and affect cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether hourly carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were associated with acute increases in ambulatory blood pressure (ABP); and secondarily, if switching to an improved cookstove was associated with BP changes. We also evaluated the feasibility of using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a cohort of pregnant women in Ghana...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jennyfer Wolf, Daniel Mäusezahl, Hector Verastegui, Stella M Hartinger
This study examined measures of clean cookstove adoption after improved solid fuel stove programmes in three geographically and culturally diverse rural Andean settings and explored factors associated with these measures. A questionnaire was administered to 1200 households on stove use and cooking behaviours including previously defined factors associated with clean cookstove adoption. Logistic multivariable regressions with 16 pre-specified explanatory variables were performed for three outcomes; (1) daily improved solid fuel stove use, (2) use of liquefied petroleum gas stove and (3) traditional stove displacement...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stephen M Reece, Aditya Sinha, Andrew P Grieshop
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from cookstoves used in developing countries may make important contributions to their climate and air quality impacts. We present results from laboratory experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) to study the evolution of emissions over hours to weeks of equivalent atmospheric aging. Lab tests, using dry red oak, measured fresh and aged emissions from a 3 stone fire (TSF), a "rocket" natural draft stove (NDS), and a forced draft gasifier stove (FDGS), in order of increasing modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and decreasing particulate matter emission factors (EF)...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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