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Lucie-Marie Scailteux, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Sébastien Vincendeau, Frédéric Balusson, Emmanuel Nowak, Emmanuel Oger
BACKGROUND: To assess the association between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use and high grade (Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer. METHODS: We set up a population-based nested matched case-control study using the French Health Insurance Database linked to data from all Brittany (France) path labs. Among 74,596 men with ≥ 1 drug reimbursement for symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy between January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011, 767 incident prostate cancer cases between January 1, 2012 through December 31, 2013 were matched on age and delay between the first observed delivery of drug for benign prostate hypertrophy (5-ARI, alpha-blockers or phytotherapy) and diagnostic date of the case to five controls, using an incidence density sampling design...
July 19, 2018: BJU International
Subha Bakthavatsalam, Mark L Sleeper, Azim Dharani, Daniel J George, Tian Zhang, Katherine J Franz
The avidity of prostate cancer cells for copper sensitizes them to cytotoxicity by disulfiram, a dithiocarbamate-containing drug approved for alcohol aversion therapy. While disulfiram has received attention as a possible therapy for various cancers, its lack of cancer specificity is a liability that limits this promise. Here we present a prodrug approach to direct copper-dependent cytotoxicity of dithiocarbamate pharmacophores to prostate cancer cells. The prochelator GGTDTC requires activation by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) to release the metal chelator diethyldithiocarbamate from a linker that masks the thiol reactivity and metal binding properties of the pharmacophore prior to activation...
July 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Shantanu Gupta, Daner A Silveira, José Carlos M Mombach
Recent studies showed that induced microRNA-449a (miR-449a) enhances a G2/M cell cycle checkpoint arrest in prostate cancer (LNCaP) and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. In the case of LNCaP cells, upregulated miR-449a directly downregulates c-Myc that is required to induce the cell cycle regulators Cdc25A and Cdc2/CyclinB whose inactivation blocks G2 to M phase transition. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are yet unclear, although in other prostate cancer cells the interactions among p53, miR-449a and Sirt-1 can affect the induction of the G2/M arrest...
2018: PloS One
H-F Li, Q Xie, Q-W Nie, X Ye
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) could serve as a biomarker for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an electronic search on Medline, PubMed, SPRINGER, John Wiley, Science Direct, EBSCO, CNKI and Wanfang Data to identify relevant studies for our meta-analysis. The search terms included ['prostate specific antigen' or 'PSA' (MESH)] and ['breast cancer' or 'breast carcinoma' (MESH)]. RESULTS: A comprehensive meta-analysis of 10 studies comprising of 770 cases and 799 controls were included...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ruth Anyango, Joel Ojwando, Clifford Mwita, Edward Mugalo
July 17, 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Laura D Scherer, K D Valentine, Niraj Patel, S Glenn Baker, Angela Fagerlin
Research that has explored public enthusiasm for cancer screening has suggested that the public may be overly enthusiastic about being screened with certain tests, and this has been attributed, in part, to lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits. In this article the authors considered the possibility that some people may be enthusiastic about screening even when they are informed and also accept that the test unquestionably does not save lives. Two studies were conducted, one that involved a nationally representative U...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Yanzhi Jiang, Wenjuan Mei, Yan Gu, Xiaozeng Lin, Lizhi He, Hui Zeng, Fengxiang Wei, Xinhong Wan, Huixiang Yang, Pierre Major, Damu Tang
We report here numerous novel genes and multiple new signatures which robustly predict prostate cancer (PC) recurrence. We extracted 696 differentially expressed genes relative to a reported PC signature from the TCGA dataset (n=492) and built a 15-gene signature (SigMuc1NW) using Elastic-net with 10 fold cross validation through analyzing their expressions at 1.5 standard deviation/SD below and 2SD above a population mean. SigMuc1NW predicts biochemical recurrence (BCR) following surgery with 56.4% sensitivity, 72...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Yuxin Zhang, Shane A Wells, Diego Hernando
PURPOSE: To present a stimulated-echo based mapping (STEM) approach for simultaneous T1 , T2 , and ADC mapping. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted stimulated-echo images with various combinations of mixing time (TM), TE, and b-value were acquired to enable simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and ADC. The proposed STEM method was performed by densely sampling the TM-TE-b space in a phantom and in brain and prostate of healthy volunteers. T1 , T2 , and ADC from STEM were compared to reference mapping methods...
July 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mehmet Akif Diri, Banu Diri, Levent Yildiz, Recep Büyükalpelli
Testosterone replacement therapy has a growing interest in daily practice; however, debates on its safety for prostate cancer still continue. Dutasteride-a 5α-reductase inhibitor-was shown to be effective in preventing prostate cancer. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy and dutasteride treatment on prostate tissue in castrated rats. Rats were randomised in four groups after bilateral orchidectomy as follows: Group I received testosterone + dutasteride, Group II received only testosterone, Group III had no medical treatment, and Group IV was the control group...
July 19, 2018: Andrologia
Yelda Dere, Sümeyye Ekmekçi, Serkan Çelik, Özgür İlhan Çelik, Özcan Dere, Volkan Karakuş
Objective: In cases presenting with lymphadenopathies (LAP) without a primary focus detected by simple radiological methods, the primary tumor can be diagnosed by a histopathological evaluation of the metastatic lymph nodes. We aimed to discuss the nonhematological malignancies presenting with lymphadenopathies and the histopathological results for primary tumors. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, cases diagnosed with metastasis in excisional lymph nodes between January 2013 and June 2016 were assessed for a histopathological diagnostic approach...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Cemal Kaya, Emre Bozkurt, Pınar Yazıcı, Ufuk Oğuz İdiz, Mert Tanal, Mehmet Mihmanlı
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients diagnosed with mesenteric panniculitis. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with mesenteric panniculitis between January 2010 and March 2016. We recorded the demographic features, clinical symptoms, laboratory values, radiological methods, treatment approach, and outcomes of the patients. Results: We evaluated 22 patients (17 male and five female) with a mean age of 45...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Jiwei Yao, Yuan Wang, Yifan Dai, Chung Chiun Liu
Prostate cancer is prevalent among cancers in men. A simple method for screening of reliable biomarkers is pivotal for early detection of prostate cancer.  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been a commonly used biomarker for prostate cancer, in spite of its false-positive limitation. On the other hand, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a metabolic enzyme, has been proven to be a highly expressed biomarker in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, a method or tool, which can detect either PSA or AMACR or both simply, cost effectively, and with high sensitivity and selectivity is desirable...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Nathan Beals, Praveena S Thiagarajan, Eric Soehnlen, Arijit Das, Ofer Reizes, Justin D Lathia, Soumitra Basu
The CD44 receptor is common among many cancer types where overexpression is synonymous with poor prognosis in prostate, glioma, and breast cancer. More notably CD44 overexpression has been shown in a number of different cancer stem cells (CSC) which are present in many solid tumors and drive growth, recurrence, and resistance to conventional therapies. Triple negative breast cancer CSCs correlate to worse prognosis and early relapse due to higher drug resistance and increased tumor heterogeneity and thus are prime targets for anticancer therapy...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Eman M Saied, Hanan Alsaeid Alshenawy
Background: Prostatic carcinoma ranks as the second most common malignant tumor and the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Many studies now focus on the different molecules involved in prostatic carcinogenesis. Maspin and prohibitin (PHB) are suggested to play crucial roles in the development and progression of many cancers; however, their roles in prostatic carcinogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Aim: This work was designed to study the immunohistochemical expression of maspin and PHB in prostatic carcinoma in comparison to their expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) to give more insights about their roles in prostatic carcinogenesis...
January 2018: Journal of microscopy and ultrastructure
Xingkang He, Yue Li, Tingting Su, Sanchuan Lai, Wenrui Wu, Luyi Chen, Jianmin Si, Leimin Sun
Background and objective: Previous studies indicated cancer survivors had a higher risk of developing subsequent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However, the influence of prior cancer on survival outcomes of current pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Methods: Eligible populations were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results programs from 2000 to 2012. We adopted Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox analysis to compare survival differences between patients with and without prior cancer...
July 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Anna Minchom, Caterina Aversa, Juanita Lopez
Maintenance of genomic stability is a critical determinant of cell survival and relies on the coordinated action of the DNA damage response (DDR), which orchestrates a network of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair and cell-cycle progression. In cancer, the critical balance between the loss of genomic stability in malignant cells and the DDR provides exciting therapeutic opportunities. Drugs targeting DDR pathways taking advantage of clinical synthetic lethality have already shown therapeutic benefit - for example, the PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown benefit in BRCA -mutant ovarian and breast cancer...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Jessie E Lee, Chris J Diederich, Robert Bok, Renuka Sriram, Romelyn Delos Santos, Susan M Noworolski, Vasant A Salgaonkar, Matthew S Adams, Daniel B Vigneron, John Kurhanewicz
The goal of the study was to establish early hyperpolarized (HP) 13 C MRI metabolic and perfusion changes that predict effective high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation and lead to improved adjuvant treatment of partially treated regions. To accomplish this a combined HP dual-agent (13 C pyruvate and 13 C urea) 13 C MRI/multiparametric 1 H MRI approach was used to measure prostate cancer metabolism and perfusion 3-4 h, 1 d, and 5 d after exposure to ablative and sub-lethal doses of HIFU within adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate tumors using a focused ultrasound applicator designed for murine studies...
July 18, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Bart R Steensma, Ingmar Voogt, Abe J van der Werf, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Peter R Luijten, Dennis W J Klomp, Alexander J E Raaijmakers
PURPOSE: To design a forward view antenna for prostate imaging at 7 T, which is placed between the legs of the subject in addition to a dipole array. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forward view antenna is realized by placing a cross-dipole antenna at the end of a small rectangular waveguide. Quadrature drive of the cross-dipole can excite a circularly polarized wave propagating along the axial direction to and from the prostate region. Functioning of the forward view antenna is validated by comparing measurements and simulations...
July 18, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
M Koninckx, J L Marco, I Pérez, M T Faus, V Alcolea, F Gómez
PURPOSE: New therapies with diverse mechanisms of action are available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness, safety and cost of abiraterone acetate (AA) in patients with mCRPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort study in which mCRPC patients who initiated AA between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2017, were included. The patients were followed-up until death or March 31, 2018...
July 18, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Harvey J Murff, Christianne L Roumie, Robert A Greevy, Amber J Hackstadt, Lucy E D'Agostino McGowan, Adriana M Hung, Carlos G Grijalva, Marie R Griffin
PURPOSE: Several observational studies suggest that metformin reduces incidence cancer risk; however, many of these studies suffer from time-related biases and several cancer outcomes have not been investigated due to small sample sizes. METHODS: We constructed a propensity score-matched retrospective cohort of 84,434 veterans newly prescribed metformin or a sulfonylurea as monotherapy. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to assess the association between metformin use compared to sulfonylurea use and incidence cancer risk for 10 solid tumors...
July 18, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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