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pediatric immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635516/concentration-of-uhcl1-in-the-serum-of-children-with-acute-appendicitis-before-and-after-surgery-and-its-correlation-with-crp-and-prealbumin
#1
Ewa Matuszczak, Marzena Tylicka, Wojciech Dębek, Anna Tokarzewicz, Ewa Gorodkiewicz, Adam Hermanowicz
Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell differentiation, and stress response. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1) is a unique deubiquitinating enzyme that has both hydrolase and ligase activities. The aim of this study was the determination of UCHL1 concentration in serum of children with appendicitis, before and after the surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 42 children with acute appendicitis, who were managed at the Pediatric Surgery Department, between 2013 and 2014, were randomly included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622628/limitations-and-opportunities-for-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-pediatric-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Jeong A Park, Nai-Kong V Cheung
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown great promise in a wide spectrum of adult solid and hematological malignancies, achieving objective tumor responses and prolonging survival. However, there is limited clinical success amongst pediatric patients. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of ICI and present an up-to-date overview of recent and ongoing clinical trials of ICI in pediatric malignancies. In addition, we will discuss immunologic and clinical difficulties in this young population, as well as future prospects for combination of ICI with other immune-based and conventional treatments...
June 1, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603089/specific-allergen-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-allergic-asthma-a-review-of-current-evidence
#3
J Dominguez-Ortega, J Delgado, C Blanco, L Prieto, E Arroabarren, M Cimarra, A Henriquez-Santana, J Iglesias-Souto, J M Vega-Chicote, A I Tabar
Asthma is frequently associated with atopy, characterized by the production of specific immunoglobulin E in response to environmental allergens. Currently, two types of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are used in clinical practice: subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, both accepted as key components of the therapeutic repertoire for allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. However, their role in asthma remains controversial. The present document is aimed at providing the clinicians with a review of the evidence on the use of AIT in asthma, focusing on the most relevant aspects of its mechanism of action, its efficacy, and existing data on safety, tolerability, and cost-effectivity, both in pediatric and adult populations...
June 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599028/transitioning-the-allergy-immunology-patient-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#4
Flavia C L Hoyte
Allergic disorders and immunodeficiencies are generally chronic and even lifelong conditions, often changing over time, making the cautious transition of care from childhood to adulthood particularly important. Many, but not all, patients can continue to receive their care from the same physician as they transition through adolescence and emerging adulthood, made possible because allergy/immunology training programs require cross-training in the care of both pediatric and adult patients. Although keeping the same physician makes the transition easier for many allergy/immunology patients, even these patients face psychosocial issues unique to adolescents and emerging adults, including increased autonomy, risk-taking behavior, and medical self-management...
June 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596843/magnitude-and-predictors-of-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-children-in-fiche-and-kuyu-hospitals-oromia-region-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Seid Yassin, Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle
The objective of the study was to assess the magnitude and predictors of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among HIV-infected children. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2015. All pediatric patients of <15 years old and who took at least 6 months of ART in Fiche and Kuyu hospitals of Oromia region, Ethiopia were included in the study. Collected data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of treatment failure...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594978/association-of-gel-forming-mucins-and-aquaporin-gene-expression-with-hearing-loss-effusion-viscosity-and-inflammation-in-otitis-media-with-effusion
#6
Tina L Samuels, Justin C Yan, Pawjai Khampang, Peter W Dettmar, Alexander MacKinnon, Wenzhou Hong, Nikki Johnston, Blake C Papsin, Robert H Chun, Michael E McCormick, Joseph E Kerschner
Importance: Persistent, viscous middle ear effusion in pediatric otitis media (OM) contributes to increased likelihood of anesthesia and surgery, conductive hearing loss, and subsequent developmental delays. Biomarkers of effusion viscosity and hearing loss have not yet been identified despite the potential that such markers hold for targeted therapy and screening. Objective: To investigate the association of gel-forming mucins and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) gene expression with inflammation, effusion viscosity, and hearing loss in pediatric OM with effusion (OME)...
June 8, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593864/oral-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy-a-spanish-guideline-egg-and-milk-immunotherapy-spanish-guide-items-guide-part-ii
#7
A Martorell, E Alonso, L Echeverría, C Escudero, R García-Rodríguez, C Blasco, J Bone, J Borja-Segade, T Bracamonte, A Claver, J L Corzo, B De la Hoz, R Del Olmo, O Dominguez, V Fuentes-Aparicio, I Guallar, H Larramona, F Martín-Muñoz, V Matheu, A Michavila, I Ojeda, P Ojeda, M Piquer, P Poza, M Reche, P Rodríguez Del Río, M Rodríguez, F Ruano, S Sánchez-García, S Terrados, L Valdesoiro, M Vazquez-Ortiz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow´s milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593863/oral-immunotherapy-for-food-allergy-a-spanish-guideline-egg-and-milk-immunotherapy-spanish-guide-items-guide-part-i
#8
A Martorell, E Alonso, L Echeverría, C Escudero, R García-Rodríguez, C Blasco, J Bone, J Borja-Segade, T Bracamonte, A Claver, J L Corzo, B De la Hoz, R Del Olmo, O Dominguez, V Fuentes-Aparicio, I Guallar, H Larramona, F Martín-Muñoz, V Matheu, A Michavila, I Ojeda, P Ojeda, M Piquer, P Poza, M Reche, P Rodríguez Del Río, M Rodríguez, F Ruano, S Sánchez-García, S Terrados, L Valdesoiro, M Vazquez-Ortiz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cow´s milk and egg are the most frequent causes of food allergy in the first years of life. Treatments such as oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been investigated as an alternative to avoidance diets. No clinical practice guides on the management of OIT with milk and egg are currently available. Objectives: To develop a clinical guide on OIT based on the available scientific evidence and the opinions of experts. METHODS: A review was made of studies published in the period between 1984 and June 2016, Doctoral Theses published in Spain, and summaries of communications at congresses (SEAIC, SEICAP, EAACI, AAAAI), with evaluation of the opinion consensus established by a group of experts pertaining to the scientific societies SEICAP and SEAIC...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591258/immune-development-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-women
#9
Maristela Miyamoto, Aída F T B Gouvêa, Erika Ono, Regina Célia M Succi, Savita Pahwa, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566880/immune-response-to-vaccines-in-children-with-celiac-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Caterina Anania, Francesca Olivero, Alessandra Spagnolo, Claudio Chiesa, Lucia Pacifico
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition evoked by ingestion of gluten and related prolamines in genetically susceptible subjects. The disease is featured by a variable combination of clinical signs, specific antibodies, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes, and enteropathy. Vaccination is the most potent intervention for infectious disease prevention. Several factors including age, gender, ethnicity, quality and quantity of vaccine antigen, doses, and route of administration can influence immune response to vaccination, although the main cause of variation in the responsiveness among vaccine recipients is host genetic variability...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565836/the-immune-mechanism-of-intestinal-tract-toll-like-receptor-in-mediating-ev71-virus-type-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-the-mapk-pathway
#11
Lei Zhu, Weihua Li, Gongjian Qi, Na Liu, Liping Sheng, Lei Shang, Boxiang Qi
Immunological response is thought to play a crucial role in the development of a severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) infection in children, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study was designed to help in elucidating the immunopathological pathways involved in the disease by quantifying Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs, MAPK factors and cytokine levels in children experiencing the disease. A total of 86 enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected HFMD children (49 with mild and 27 with severe disease), along with 30 healthy children were involved in the study...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542109/application-and-interpretation-of-histocompatibility-data-in-pediatric-kidney-transplantation
#13
Hilda E Fernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in technology to assess immunologic risk in solid organ transplant offer an opportunity to optimize the approach to pediatric deceased donor kidney transplant in the setting of a new allocation system in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: Degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch, class II HLA mismatch, unacceptable antigens and donor-specific antibody (DSA) detected by solid-phase assays, and epitope matching pretransplant affect pediatric kidney transplant outcomes...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538014/precision-medicine-in-pediatric-rheumatology
#14
Joo Guan Yeo, Chin Teck Ng, Salvatore Albani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision medicine is the tailoring of medical care to subcategories of disease. In pediatric rheumatology, these subcategories must first be defined by their specific molecular immunological profiles, and then the effects of growth and puberty, developmental immunological changes, and differences in treatment options and adherence considered when designing therapeutic strategies. In the present review, we summarize the unmet needs in pediatric rheumatology before such precision medical care can be effectively delivered to affected patients...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528339/molecular-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-from-fine-needle-aspirates-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) in pediatric patients is often a challenge because features evident on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or tissue biopsy can be deceptive for the reason that they result from an immunological response. This study aimed to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in pediatric patients under clinical suspicion for TBLN and to assess its role in the evaluation of cases cytodiagnosed as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia...
2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524128/-placement-of-a-ventricular-catheter-into-narrow-lateral-ventricles-popular-navigation
#16
S S Ozerov, A E Samarin, A V Mel'nikov, E V Kumirova
Placement of a ventricular catheter is the most common and easiest procedure in neurosurgery. Usually, the procedure is performed using anatomical landmarks. However, despite the apparent ease of this manipulation, its results are not always satisfactory. According to the literature data, the rate of improperly placed ventricular catheters amounts to 10-40%, which is directly correlated with the risk of shunt dysfunction. The use of special equipment, such as ultrasound scanners, endoscopes, stereotactic devices, and neuronavigation systems, significantly increases success of surgery...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516235/clinical-imaging-and-genotypical-features-of-three-deceased-and-five-surviving-cases-with-ada2-deficiency
#17
Sezgin Sahin, Amra Adrovic, Kenan Barut, Serdal Ugurlu, Eda Tahir Turanli, Huri Ozdogan, Ozgur Kasapcopur
Deficiency of adenosine deaminase type 2 (DADA2) is a rare form of autoinflammatory disorder with limited reported cases. In this paper, we have presented the clinico-immunological, radiological and genetic characteristics of five surviving and three deceased childhood-onset DADA2 patients. We aimed to compare surviving and deceased patients in terms of clinical features and treatment modalities. Moreover, we have evaluated the causes of death in our DADA2 subjects together with the previously reported cases...
May 17, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504570/saliva-a-reliable-sample-matrix-in-bioanalytics
#18
Michael Gröschl
Saliva is gaining increasing attention as a bioanalytical sample matrix. Mostly because of the easy and noninvasive collection, it is not only beneficial in endocrinological and behavioral science, but also in pediatrics. Saliva also has the advantage of being the only body fluid which can be collected even during physical exercise, for example, during sportive activities, and there are physiological characteristics that make it superior to serum/plasma or urine for specific scientific questions. This review provides an insight into the physiology of saliva formation, explaining how certain compounds enter this bodily fluid, and gives advice for collection, storage and analytical methods...
May 15, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498087/an-expert-opinion-on-pandas-pans-highlights-and-controversies
#19
Francesca Chiarello, Silvia Spitoni, Eric Hollander, Marco Matucci Cerinic, Stefano Pallanti
OBJECTIVES: 'Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections' (PANDAS) identified a unique subgroup of patients with abrupt onset of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms clinically related to Streptococcus infection and accompanied by neuropsychological and motor symptoms. After almost 20 years, PANDAS has not been accepted as distinct disorder and new criteria for paediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) have been replaced it, highlighting the fact that several agents rather than only Streptococcus might be involved...
June 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495415/rhinovirus-from-bench-to-bedside
#20
REVIEW
Kelvin K W To, Cyril C Y Yip, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
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