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soil contamination

Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chengjiao Duan, Linchuan Fang, Congli Yang, Weibin Chen, Yongxing Cui, Shiqing Li
Enzymes in the soil are vital for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. Although the presence of heavy metals is thought to change the soil enzyme system, the distribution of enzyme activities in heavy metal polluted-soil is still unknown. For the first time, using soil zymography, we analyzed the distribution of enzyme activities of alfalfa rhizosphere and soil surface in the metal-contaminated soil. The results showed that the growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited, and an impact that was most pronounced in seedling biomass and chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qian Zhang, Shengli Wang, Zhongren Nan, Yepu Li, Fei Zang
Wastewater irrigation can increase metal concentrations in soil and wheat, thereby posing metal-associated health risk via food ingestion. We investigated levels of mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in roots, husks, stems, leaves, and grains of wheat and their fractionations in farmland soil from Baiyin City, an industrial and mining city, northwest China. Results show that the mean concentrations of Hg in soils from Dongdagou and Xidagou stream in Baiyin were 8.5 times and three times higher than local soil background values, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Xiaohui Zhao, Fuqiang Fan, Huaidong Zhou, Panwei Zhang, Gaofeng Zhao
In-depth understanding of indigenous microbial assemblages resulted from aged contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of vital importance in successful in situ bioremediation treatments. Soil samples of three boreholes were collected at 12 different vertical depths. Overall, the dominating three-ring PAHs (76.2%) were closely related to distribution patterns of soil dehydrogenase activity, microbial cell numbers, and Shannon biodiversity index (H') of indigenous microorganisms. High-molecular-weight PAHs tend to yield more diverse communities...
March 15, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jieyong Ou, Hong Li, Zengguang Yan, Youya Zhou, Liping Bai, Chaoyan Zhang, Xuedong Wang, Guikui Chen
Clay minerals have been proposed as amendments for remediating metal-contaminated soils owing to their abundant reserves, high performance, simplicity of use and low cost. Two novel clay minerals, Maifan stone and illite/smectite clay, were examined in the in situ immobilisation of soil metals. The application of 0.5% Maifan stone or illite/smectite clay to field soils significantly decreased the fractions of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and Pb. Furthermore, reductions of 35...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paulo R Frade, Luiza Notini, Sara V Santos, Regina F P M Moreira, Mônica M D Leão, Camila C Amorim
In this study, the steel manufacturing waste Basic Oxygen Furnace Sludge (BOFS) was tested as permeable reactive material for the remediation of soil contaminated with chromium. The material presents a high content of elemental iron and iron oxides typical of the steel manufacturing process. Here we propose a scheme of the chemical reactions responsible for remediation process including BOFS dissolution, Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) precipitation. Batch reactors showed that Cr(VI) removal increases as the pH decreases...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Adeline Janus, Christophe Waterlot, Sophie Heymans, Christophe Deboffe, Francis Douay, Aurélie Pelfrêne
Different remediation techniques have been used to restore metal-contaminated sites, including stabilizing metals by adding amendments to the soils. This study experimented three biochars, made from wood and miscanthus, cultivated on contaminated and uncontaminated soils, used as amendments at a 2% application rate on a metal-contaminated soil for 9 months in laboratory-controlled conditions. The objective was to evaluate whether biochars were able to decrease the availability and human oral bioaccessibility of metals in an alkaline soil...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Valerie Bauza, Diana M Byrne, John T Trimmer, Amanda Lardizabal, Philip Atiim, Mawuli A K Asigbee, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this work were to evaluate (i) the prevalence and frequency of caregiver-reported soil ingestion by children, (ii) whether household flooring material in the bedroom (earth versus concrete) affected caregiver-reported soil ingestion, (iii) whether caregiver-reported soil ingestion was associated with caregiver-reported diarrhoea, and (iv) caregivers' perceptions of their children ingesting soil. METHODS: We conducted 309 household surveys in northern Ghana, including 529 children under five (249 children aged 6-36 months), and measured faecal contamination in soil from 31 households...
March 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Zhi Ran, Cheng Chen, Fabo Chen, Ming'an Liao, Lijin Lin, Xiulan Lv, Qunxian Deng, Xun Wang, Jin Wang, Yi Tang, Huaxiong Li
Plant hormones can improve the phytoremediation capabilities of heavy metal hyperaccumulator plants. In this study, different doses of indole-3-butytric acid (IBA) were sprayed on the leaves of the lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulator plant Pseudostellaria maximowicziana, which was planted in Pb-Zn contaminated soil, and the effects of IBA on Pb and Zn accumulation levels in P. maximowicziana were studied. Spraying 25- and 50-mg/L IBA doses increased the stem, leaf and shoot biomasses of P. maximowicziana compared with the control, while 75- and 100-mg/L IBA doses decreased them...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nestor D Ortega-de la Rosa, Jose L Vázquez-Vázquez, Sergio Huerta-Ochoa, Miquel Gimeno, Mariano Gutiérrez-Rojas
Acinetobacter species are identified as producing surface-active and emulsifying molecules known as bioemulsifiers. Production, characterization and stability of bioemulsifiers produced by Acinetobacter bouvetii UAM25 were studied. A. bouvetii UAM25 grew in three different carbon and energy sources: ethanol, a glycerol-hexadecane mixture and waste cooking oil in an airlift bioreactor, showing that bioemulsifier production was growth associated. The three purified bioemulsifiers were lipo-heteropolysaccharides of high molecular weight (4866 ± 533 and 462 ± 101 kDa)...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Soisungwan Satarug
Cadmium (Cd) is a food-chain contaminant that has high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This phenomenon makes dietary Cd intake unavoidable. Although long-term Cd intake impacts many organ systems, the kidney has long been considered to be a critical target of its toxicity. This review addresses how measurements of Cd intake levels and its effects on kidneys have traditionally been made. These measurements underpin the derivation of our current toxicity threshold limit and tolerable intake levels for Cd...
March 10, 2018: Toxics
Daniel Walsh, Katherine Glass, Samantha Morris, Horace Zhang, Isabel McRae, Noel Anderson, Alysha Alfieri, Sara Perl Egendorf, Shana Holberton, Shahandeh Owrang, Zhongqi Cheng
Urban soil is an ongoing source for lead (Pb) and other pollutant exposure. Sources of clean soil that are locally-available, abundant and inexpensive are needed to place a protective cover layer over degraded urban soil to eliminate direct and indirect pollutant exposures. This study evaluates a novel sediment exchange program recently established in New York City (NYC Clean Soil Bank, CSB) and found that direct exchange of surplus sediment extracted from urban construction projects satisfies these criteria...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Juliana M Saez, Ana L Bigliardo, Enzo E Raimondo, Gabriela E Briceño, Marta A Polti, Claudia S Benimeli
The biomixture is the major constituent of a biopurification system and one of the most important factors in its efficiency; hence the selection of the components is crucial to ensure the efficient pesticides removal. Besides, bioaugmentation is an interesting approach for the optimization of these systems. A mixed culture of the fungus Trametes versicolor SGNG1 and the actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. A2, A5, A11, and M7, was designed to inoculate the biomixtures, based on previously demonstrated ligninolytic and pesticide-degrading activities and the absence of antagonism among the strains...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Jean Bertrand Contina, Guy R Knudsen
The potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, is a globally regulated and quarantine potato pest. It was detected for the first time in the U.S. in the state of Idaho in 2006. A spatial analysis was performed to: (i) understand the spatial arrangement of PCN infested fields in southern Idaho using spatial point pattern analysis; and (ii) evaluate the potential threat of PCN for entry to new areas using spatial interpolation techniques. Data point locations, cyst numbers and egg viability values for each infested field were collected by USDA-APHIS during 2006-2014...
March 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Luisa F Gómez, Isaura P Torres, María Del P Jiménez, Juan G McEwen, Catalina de Bedout, Carlos A Peláez, José M Acevedo, María L Taylor, Myrtha Arango
Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis and this fungus inhabits soils rich in phosphorus and nitrogen that are enriched with bird and bat manure. The replacement of organic matter in agroecosystems is necessary in the tropics, and the use of organic fertilizers has increased. Cases and outbreaks due to the presence of the fungus in these components have been reported. The Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario resolution 150 of 2003 contains the parameters set by the Colombian Technical Standard (NTC 5167) on the physicochemical and microbiological features of fertilizers, but it does not regulate the search for H...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lijuan Yan, Petri Penttinen, Anu Mikkonen, Kristina Lindström
We investigated bacterial community dynamics in response to used motor oil contamination and perennial crop cultivation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing in a 4-year field study. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes were the major bacterial phyla, and Rhodococcus was the most abundant genus. Initially, oil contamination decreased the overall bacterial diversity. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were sensitive to oil contamination, exhibiting clear succession with time...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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