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orally active Enkephalinase Inhibitor

Elisabeth Bonnard, Hervé Poras, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
Neuropathic pain remains difficult to treat due to the involvement of various pathophysiological mechanisms in its pathogeny. Among the different opioidergic systems the enkephalinergic one is primarily recruited via activation of delta opioid receptor (DOP) in chronic pain and of mu opioid receptor (MOP) in acute pain. To investigate the role of their endogenous ligands Met and Leu-enkephalin in neuropathic pain control, a dual inhibitor of their degrading enzymes, PL265, which acts restrictively at the level of peripheral nociceptors, was administered per os to assess its efficacy in pain prevention and alleviation using a partial sciatic nerve ligation model (PSNL) in mice...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hervé Poras, Elisabeth Bonnard, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
The endogenous opioid system, essentially constituted by two opioid receptors which are stimulated by the natural internal effectors enkephalins (Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin), is present at the different sites (peripheral, spinal, central) of the control of pain. We have demonstrated that the protection of the enkephalin inactivation by the two metallopeptidases (neprilysin and neutral aminopeptidase) increases their local concentration selectively induced by pain stimuli triggering analgesic responses...
September 18, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Elisabeth Bonnard, Hervé Poras, Xavier Nadal, Rafael Maldonado, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
The peripheral endogenous opioid system is critically involved in neuropathic and inflammatory pain generation as suggested by the modulation of opioid receptors expression and enkephalins (ENKs) release observed in these painful conditions. Accordingly, an innovative approach in the treatment of these nocifensive events is to increase and maintain high local concentrations of extracellular pain-evoked ENKs, by preventing their physiological enzymatic inactivation by two Zn metallopeptidases, the neutral endopeptidase (NEP, neprilysin, EC 3...
March 2015: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Hervé Poras, Elisabeth Bonnard, Emilie Dangé, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
Protecting enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides released in response to nociceptive stimuli, is an innovative approach for acute and neuropathic pain alleviation. This is achieved by inhibition of their enzymatic degradation by two membrane-bound Zn-metallopeptidases, neprilysin (NEP, EC and aminopeptidase N (APN, EC Selective and efficient inhibitors of both enzymes, designated enkephalinases, have been designed that markedly increase extracellular concentrations and half-lives of enkephalins, inducing potent antinociceptive effects...
July 10, 2014: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Marie Hagbom, Sumit Sharma, Ove Lundgren, Lennart Svensson
While the clinical importance of human rotavirus (RV) disease is well recognized and potent vaccines have been developed, our understanding of how human RV causes diarrhoea, vomiting and death remains unresolved. The fact that oral rehydration corrects electrolyte and water loss, indicates that enterocytes in the small intestine have a functional sodium-glucose co-transporter. Moreover, RV infection delays gastric emptying and loperamide appears to attenuate RV diarrhoea, thereby suggesting activation of the enteric nervous system...
August 2012: Current Opinion in Virology
Luis Menéndez, Agustín Hidalgo, Alvaro Meana, Hervé Poras, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques, Ana Baamonde
We have previously shown that stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors by exogenous opiates counteracts the thermal hyperalgesia elicited by a tibial osteosarcoma due to intraosteal inoculation of NCTC 2472 cells to mice. Aiming to study whether pheripheral endogenous enkephalins could also counteract this painful symptom, we assayed in this model the effects of PL37, an orally active dual inhibitor of enkephalin inactivating enzymes. Oral administration of PL37 (25 mg/kg) completely supressed osteosarcoma-induced thermal hyperalgesia through the activation of micro-opioid receptors, since the administration of cyprodime (1 mg/kg) inhibited its antihyperalgesic effect...
October 31, 2008: European Journal of Pharmacology
Michael J G Farthing
Acute diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Infants and pre-school children are the most vulnerable in whom there are 2-3 million deaths each year as a result of the associated dehydration and acidosis. Although oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality during the past 30 years ago, the search for agents that will directly inhibit intestinal secretory mechanisms and thereby reduce faecal losses in patients with high-volume watery diarrhea has continued for more than 20 years. A variety of potential targets for antisecretory agents have been explored which include loci within the enterocyte (the chloride channel, calcium-calmodulin) and other sites such as enteric nerves and endogenous mediators (such as 5-HT, prostaglandins)...
2006: Digestive Diseases
D Prado
BACKGROUND: Racecadotril (acetorphan) is an orally active, potent inhibitor of enkephalinase, which exerts an antihypersecretory effect without increasing intestinal transit time. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of racecadotril with those of loperamide by assessing their effects on the resolution of the signs and symptoms of diarrhoea in patients in developing countries who had acute watery diarrhoea of less than 5 days' duration. METHODS: 945 outpatients from 21 centres in 14 countries received racecadotril (100 mg) or loperamide (2 mg) three times daily in a single-blind study...
June 2002: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
M J Farthing
Diarrhoea is a problem, not only of the developing world, but also of the Western world. However, the economic implications of diarrhoeal diseases are particularly evident in the poorer countries. The most common worldwide cause of diarrhoea is intestinal infection and infants, pre-school children, the elderly, and those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency run a high risk of contracting such infections. Diarrhoeal disease can be classified into three major clinical syndromes: acute watery diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea, and persistent diarrhoea...
February 2000: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
M P Primi, L Bueno, P Baumer, H Berard, J M Lecomte
BACKGROUND: Racecadotril (acetorphan), a potent enkephalinase inhibitor, protects endogenous enkephalins from degradation. Racecadotril exhibits experimental and clinical antidiarrhoeal activity without any effect on intestinal motility, suggesting selective antisecretory activity. The antisecretory effect of racecadotril was directly assessed in the present study. METHODS: A 1 m, jejunal, Thiry-Vella loop was created in six mongrel dogs, and water and ionic fluxes were evaluated during infusion (2 mL/min) of Tyrode solution labelled with 14C-polyethylene glycol...
December 1999: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
T Mizuma, K Ohta, S Awazu
Leucine enkephalinamide (LEamide), aminopeptidase-degradable opioid peptide, was coupled with cellobiose (cellobiose-coupled LEamide, CcpLEamide). CcpLEamide was absorbed from the rat small intestine in vitro, whereas LEamide was not. CcpLEamide on the mucosal side was more stable than aminopeptidase-resistant cellobiose-coupled leucine enkephalin (CcpLE) in the presence of inhibitors of enkephalinase and angiotensin converting enzyme, and much more stable than LEamide. The absorption rate (clearance) of CcpLEamide was comparable with that of CcpLE in the presence of these peptidase inhibitors...
December 1998: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
K Senokuchi, H Nakai, Y Nagao, Y Sakai, N Katsube, M Kawamura
A series of (4S)-4-[(2S)-benzyl-3-mercaptopropionylamino]-4-(N-phenylcarbamoyl )-butyric acids has been identified as potent systemically active enkephalinase inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. Further chemical modification of the inhibitors was carried out in order to identify the inhibitors which are orally active in an animal model. Compounds of particular interest are the prodrug-like analogues, including 5b (ONO-9902). Their analgesic effects after oral administration were evaluated...
April 1998: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
A Kita, K Imano, Y Seto, I Yakuo, T Deguchi, H Nakamura
To clarify the properties of BL-2401 ((+/-)-3-[2-benzyl-3-(propionylthio) propionyl]amino-5-methylbenzoic acid), a novel enkephalinase inhibitor, we examined its antinociceptive and antidepressant-like activities after oral administration, along with their association with endogenous opioid systems. BL-2401 produced an antinociceptive effect after oral administration in the mouse phenylbenzoquinone writhing test (ED50: 12.4 mg/kg) and the rat acetic acid writhing test (ED50: 55.8 mg/kg), the antinociceptive effect being antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride...
December 1997: Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
J Turvill, M Farthing
Opioids have long been known to inhibit intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion. They act locally on central and peripheral opiate receptors where they are rapidly degraded by neuropeptidases, the major one being enkephalinase (EC A number of studies have shown that, when the problem of degradation can be overcome, enkephalins have potent antisecretory properties. In 1980, an enkephalinase inhibitor was described which increased the functional availability of enkephalins. More recently an orally active enkephalinase inhibitor, acetorphan, has been shown to inhibit infectious and chemically induced diarrhoea...
September 1997: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
L Beaugerie, P Baumer, S Chaussade, H Berard, W Rozenbaum, G Pialoux, Y Le Quintrec, J C Schwartz, J M Lecomte
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerance of acetorphan, an orally active enkephalinase inhibitor whose antidiarrhoeal properties derive from a purely antisecretory activity, to that of octreotide, a subcutaneously administered somatostatin analogue, in the treatment of refractory diarrhoea in AIDS patients. DESIGN: An open randomized crossover trial. SETTING: The inpatient medical units of three hospitals. PATIENTS: Thirteen adult inpatients with AIDS and refractory diarrhoea that lasted for 35 +/- 8 weeks despite use of traditional antidiarrhoeal agents and was characterized by 7...
May 1996: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
D M Lambert, F Mergen, C F Berens, J H Poupaert, P Dumont
The design of 1,3-dacylaminopropan-2-ols as CNS-directed carrier groups is based on their resemblance to endogenous lipids and the properties of pseudotriglyceride esters to facilitate the brain penetration of therapeutic agents. 2-[S-acetylthiorphan]-1,3-diacylaminopropan-2-ols, differing from the nature of 1,3-acyl chains, were synthesized and evaluated in vivo using the hot-plate jump test. The compounds exhibited naloxone reversible analgesic properties. The effects were superior to those of parent compounds thiorphan and S-acetylthiorphan...
February 1995: Pharmaceutical Research
S F Su, G L Amidon
The anti-AIDS drug, [D-Ala1] Peptide T amide (D-ASTTTNYT.NH2) is an octapeptide which competitively inhibits the attachment of HIV to the receptor CD4 molecule on the T-lymphocyte. The objective of the study is to investigate the degradative process of this peptide and its effective enzyme inhibitors. The metabolites of [D-Ala1] Peptide T amide in rabbit brush-border membrane vesicles at pH 6.5 are ASTT, ASTTTN, YT and Y. The sequential time-course study of each metabolite reveals that enkephalinase (EC 3.4...
August 17, 1995: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
H Marçais-Collado, G Uchida, J Costentin, J C Schwartz, J M Lecomte
Thiorphan and acetorphan, two potent inhibitors of enkephalinase (EC membrane-metalloendopeptidase) significantly reduced the castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats when administered intravenously (or orally, for acetorphan) but not when administered intracerebroventricularly. These effects were more marked during the 90 min period following the castor oil challenge but were still significant up to 4-8 h after the latter. Acetorphan was about 6 times more potent than thiorphan. The antidiarrheal activity of both compounds was completely prevented in rats receiving naloxone subcutaneously but not intracerebroventricularly (in the case of thiorphan)...
December 1, 1987: European Journal of Pharmacology
R E Chipkin, J G Berger, W Billard, L C Iorio, R Chapman, A Barnett
SCH 34826 [(S)-N-[N-[1-[[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4yl) methoxy]carbonyl]-2-phenylethyl]-L-phenylalanine]-beta-alanine] was synthesized as a p.o. active prodrug enkephalinase inhibitor. In vivo, it is de-esterified to SCH 32615 (N-[L-(-1-carboxy-2-phenyl)ethyl]-L-phenylalanyl-beta-alanine), the active constituent. In vitro, the Ki for SCH 32615 to block the degradation of Met5-enkephalin by isolated enkephalinase is 19.5 +/- 0.9 nM. In contrast, SCH 32615 did not inhibit aminopeptidase or diaminopeptidase III degradation of Met5-enkephalin up to 10 microM and did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme up to 10 microM...
June 1988: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
C Gros, A Souque, J C Schwartz, J Duchier, A Cournot, P Baumer, J M Lecomte
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) might be beneficial in several cardiovascular disorders, but its poor oral absorption and rapid inactivation in vivo have so far prevented its use in therapeutics. We have assessed the role of enkephalinase (membrane metallo-endopeptidase, EC in the in vivo inactivation of ANF in mice and healthy human volunteers by evaluating the effects of acetorphan, a potent inhibitor. In mice, the degradation of 125I-labeled ANF was markedly delayed, as shown by the levels of the intact peptide in the plasma and the kidney, a major target organ...
October 1989: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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