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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628040/-patterns-of-brain-ageing
#1
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627040/insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-test-performance-in-elderly-adults-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#2
Ayesha Z Sherzai, Magda Shaheen, Jeffrey J Yu, Konrad Talbot, Dean Sherzai
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and cognitive test performance among population≥60years in a national database. HYPOTHESIS: Higher insulin resistance is associated with lower cognitive test performance score in the population≥60years. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive test performance was measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) exercise score...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624339/relationship-between-bone-remodeling-and-metabolism-in-the-elderly
#3
Lourdes Basurto-Acevedo, Renata Saucedo-García, Ana Vázquez-Martínez, Miriam Cruz-García, María Magdalena Valle-Hernández, Erika Rosales-Cruz, Rosalinda Sánchez-Arenas
Background: Recent studies have shown that osteocalcin (OC) is related to not only bone metabolism but also energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether OC was associated with metabolic factors and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly men. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done including 122 healthy men aged 60 years or older. Serum glucose, lipids, insulin, adiponectin and OC were measured and BMD was estimated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623210/new-onset-insulin-dependent-diabetes-due-to-nivolumab
#4
Ali A Zaied, Halis K Akturk, Richard W Joseph, Augustine S Lee
Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death-1 receptor, is increasingly used in advanced cancers. While nivolumab use enhances cancer therapy, it is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We describe an elderly man who presented in ketoacidosis after receiving nivolumab for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. On presentation, he was hyperpneic and laboratory analyses showed hyperglycemia and anion-gapped metabolic acidosis consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis. No other precipitating factors, besides nivolumab, were identified...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622707/paediatric-non-ketotic-hyperglycaemic-hemichorea-hemiballismus
#5
Cezar Thomas Reyes Suratos, James Albert Edward Lim Benitez, Sheen Corvera Urquiza, Cheryl Anne Lubaton Sacro
Non-ketotic hyperglycaemic hemichorea-hemiballismus (NHHH) is commonly seen among elderly Asian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we present a case of a 16-year-old Filipina with type 1 diabetes mellitus who is poorly compliant to her medications and subsequently developed right hemichorea-hemiballismus (HH). She was initially admitted with hyperglycaemia but was negative for ketonuria or metabolic acidosis. Neuroimaging showed bilateral lentiform nuclei and left caudate hyperdensities on CT and T1-weighted hyperintensity on MRI...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621814/a-meta-analysis-of-the-associations-between-the-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-abca1-r219k-rs2230806-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-asians
#6
Dongju Jung, Shihua Cao, Meiling Liu, Sunmin Park
Asians have relatively low insulin secretion capacity and readily develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) when insulin resistant. For that reason, insufficient insulin secretion is critical factor for Asians at the early stage of T2DM. ATP-binding cassette transporter1 (ABCA1) is a membrane protein responsible for cholesterol efflux and its function is also important for secreting insulin in pancreatic β-cells. Given the importance of its role, different polymorphisms of ABCA1 gene might contribute differently to the development of T2DM...
April 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620270/pioglitazone-microrna%C3%A2-141-foxa2-a-novel-axis-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cells-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion
#7
Xin Yu, Liyong Zhong
MicroRNAs (miRs) are considered to be effective, post‑transcriptional regulators in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and promising treatment targets. However, the function of miR‑141 remains to be elucidated. In the present study, upregulation of miR‑141 was demonstrated in diabetic mice and elderly diabetic patients. Using reverse transcriptase‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, luciferase reporter assays and western blotting, forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) was identified as a direct target gene of miR‑141...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605680/low-peripheral-levels-of-insulin-growth-factor-1-are-associated-with-high-incidence-of-delirium-among-elderly-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Dian-Jeng Li, Ping-Tao Tseng, Brendon Stubbs, Tien-Yu Chen, Pao-Yen Lin, Shiou-Lan Chen, Trevor Thompson, Dimitrios Adamis, Che-Sheng Chu
INTRODUCTION: Delirium, a serious condition observed in critically ill patients, clinically presents with impaired cognition and consciousness. The relationship between delirium and peripheral levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is unclear. Thus we conducted a meta-analysis to address this issue. METHODS: Seven major electronic databases were searched from inception until October 2, 2017 to obtain relevant clinical variables to compare the difference in IGF-1 levels between delirious and non-delirious elderly in-patients...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603556/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-guards-against-benign-prostate-hypertrophy-in-rats-role-of-igf-1r-protein-kinase-b-akt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
Hany A Omar, Mai F Tolba
Benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) is among the most common diseases with a huge impact on the quality of life of elderly men. There is a current need for the development of well-tolerated and effective preventive strategies to improve the clinical outcome. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an important active ingredient isolated from honey-bee propolis with potent anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These properties promote CAPE as a promising candidate to be tested as an alternative therapy for BPH, which is still uninvestigated...
March 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596212/perioperative-nutritional-optimization-in-spine-surgery
#10
Rabia Qureshi, Mohammad Rasool, Varun Puvanesarajah, Hamid Hassanzadeh
Nutritional optimization in patients undergoing spine surgery is important as improved surgical outcomes and decreased rates of complications have been noted in optimized patients. With the increasingly high numbers of elderly patient and patients with metabolic comorbidities undergoing spine procedures, perioperative nutritional status should be enhanced for the best possible surgical outcomes. Methods of optimization include preoperative screening with Nutritional Risk Score or other scoring systems, looking for changes in body mass index, detecting sarcopenia, and screening for metabolic abnormalities...
April 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594435/higher-serum-carotenoids-associated-with-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-a-prospective-study
#11
Mian-Li Xiao, Geng-Dong Chen, Fang-Fang Zeng, Rui Qiu, Wen-Qi Shi, Jie-Sheng Lin, Yi Cao, Hua-Bin Li, Wen-Hua Ling, Yu-Ming Chen
PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids might be inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little data came from longitudinal studies. We prospectively examined the associations between serum-carotenoid levels and NAFLD severity and the intermediary effects of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), HOMA insulin-resistance index (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), and serum triglycerides in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. METHODS: This prospective study included 3336 Chinese adults (40-75 years)...
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573998/painless-bilateral-bullous-keratopathy
#12
Stephen J Vincent
Bullous keratopathy is a pathological corneal condition that arises due to irreversible oedema associated with endothelial cell loss or dysfunction. Symptoms may vary from mild (transient blurred vision and increased glare from epithelial oedema) to severe (an acute and significant loss of vision associated with frank endothelial decompensation, and pain due to ruptured epithelial bullae). Possible treatments to restore vision and minimise pain include topical hypertonic agents, bandage contact lenses, superficial anterior corneal surgical procedures or penetrating full thickness or endothelial keratoplasty...
March 21, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570835/influence-of-diabetes-on-tissue-healing-in-orthopedic-injuries
#13
REVIEW
Artur Stolarczyk, Sylwia Sarzyńska, Agata Gondek, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jędrzejewska
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the defective action or secretion of insulin. Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to the damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. In the context of complications of healing and orthopedic rehabilitation, vascular (microangiopathy) and nerve (neuropathy) disorders deserve particular attention. About 12% of the patients admitted to orthopedic departments have diabetes. Studies indicate that there is an indisputable link between diabetes and: an increased risk of fractures, the difficult healing of injuries of bones, ligaments and musculotendinous...
March 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549648/the-relationship-between-employment-status-and-insulin-resistance-in-the-korean-elderly-population
#14
Jae-Min Park, Jae-June Dong, Ji-Won Lee, Jae-Yong Shim, Yong-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between employment status and insulin resistance in the Korean elderly population. METHODS: The study included 2325 healthy participants (862 men and 1463 women) who did not have diabetes, were 60-74 years old, and participated in the 2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Their employment status was categorized as employed or unemployed. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to assess insulin sensitivity...
March 16, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548848/effects-of-resveratrol-on-memory-performance-hippocampus-connectivity-and-microstructure-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547043/hypoglycemia-in-the-elderly-with-diabetes-a-growing-problem-with-emerging-solutions
#16
Martin M Grajower
Hypoglycemia is the major side effect of insulin therapy. The elderly are especially vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia, and with greater risks of complications such as falls. Two new long-acting basal insulins, glargine-300 (Gla-300) and degludec, are associated with lower incidences of hypoglycemia than previously available basal insulins. One of them, Gla-300, was studied in the elderly and has a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in patients over 65 years old. These new data should be incorporated into decision making when treating the elderly patient with insulin, whether they have type 1 or 2 diabetes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524565/impact-of-prenatal-hypoxia-on-fetal-bone-growth-and-osteoporosis-in-ovariectomized-offspring-rats
#17
Yuxian Yang, Xiaorong Fan, Jianying Tao, Ting Xu, Yingying Zhang, Wenna Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xiang Li, Hongmei Ding, Miao Sun, Qinqin Gao, Zhice Xu
Prenatal hypoxia causes intrauterine growth retardation. It is unclear whether/how hypoxia affects the bone in fetal and offspring life. This study showed that prenatal hypoxia retarded fetal skeletal growth in rats, inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and down-regulated of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. In addition, ovariectomized (OVX) was used for study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compared with the control, OVX offspring in prenatal hypoxic group showed an enhanced osteoporosis in the femurs, associated with reduced proteoglycan and IGF1 signaling...
March 7, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499005/inactivity-and-its-associated-factors-in-adults-scheduled-for-noncardiac-surgery-the-pamp-phase-i-study
#18
Olga L Cortés, Karen Moreno, Paula Alvarado, Camilo Povea, Monique Lloyd, Rodolfo Dennis
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and its associated factors in adult patients admitted to hospital for noncardiac surgery. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Five hundred able-bodied patients (age ≥45 years) admitted to hospital, also participants in the VISION study, were recruited before noncardiac surgery. The physical activity level (PAL) was assessed with the International Physical of Activity Questionnaire...
March 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497536/hypoinsulinemic-hypoglycemia-triggered-by-liver-injury-in-elderly-subjects-with-low-body-weight-case-reports
#19
Takatoshi Anno, Hideaki Kaneto, Ryo Shigemoto, Fumiko Kawasaki, Yasuhiro Kawai, Noriyo Urata, Hirofumi Kawamoto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476033/midlife-insulin-resistance-apoe-genotype-and-late-life-brain-amyloid-accumulation
#20
Laura L Ekblad, Jarkko Johansson, Semi Helin, Matti Viitanen, Hanna Laine, Pauli Puukka, Antti Jula, Juha O Rinne
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE ε4 genotype. METHODS: This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016...
February 23, 2018: Neurology
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