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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635619/on-the-importance-of-accurate-quantification-of-individual-volatile-metabolites-in-exhaled-breath
#1
David Smith, Patrik Spanel
It is argued that shortcomings of certain approaches to breath analysis research based on superficial interpretation of non-quantitative data are inadvertently inhibiting the progression of non-invasive breath analysis into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to suggest more clinically profitable approaches to breath research. Thus, following a discourse on the challenges and expectations in breath research, a brief indication is given of the analytical techniques currently used for the analysis of very humid exhaled breath...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634719/a-sugarcane-pathogenesis-related-protein-scpr10-plays-a-positive-role-in-defense-responses-under-sporisorium-scitamineum-srmv-sa-and-meja-stresses
#2
Qiong Peng, Yachun Su, Hui Ling, Waqar Ahmad, Shiwu Gao, Jinlong Guo, Youxiong Que, Liping Xu
A pathogenesis-related gene, ScPR10 , was isolated from sugarcane and its bio-function was characterized, demonstrating that ScPR10 was involved in plant defense responses to Sporisorium scitamineum , SrMV, SA, and MeJA stresses. Plant fungal and viral diseases are the major concerns in sugarcane industry. Many anti-fungal and antivirus components, including pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, have been identified. The pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR10) is the dominant group in PR families, involved in the plant defense mechanism...
June 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634241/psl-produced-by-mucoid-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-biofilms-and-immune-evasion
#3
Christopher J Jones, Daniel J Wozniak
Despite years of research and clinical advances, chronic pulmonary infections with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa remain the primary concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Much of the research on these strains has focused on the contributions of the polysaccharide alginate; however, it is becoming evident that the neutral polysaccharide Psl also contributes to biofilm formation and the maintenance of chronic infections. Here, we demonstrate that Psl produced by mucoid strains has significant roles in biofilm structure and evasion of immune effectors...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634121/population-pharmacokinetics-of-tobramycin-inhalation-solution-in-pediatric-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Xinting Wang, Stephan Koehne-Voss, SivaNaga S Anumolu, Jing Yu
Tobramycin inhalation solution (TOBI) given as a twice-daily inhalation of nebulized aerosols of 300 mg is approved for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over 6 years of age. To investigate tobramycin pharmacokinetics (PK) after inhalation of TOBI in pediatric CF patients below 7 years, a population PK approach was used to evaluate tobramycin PK data in patients 6 months to 44 years of age from four clinical studies. The final model used a two-compartmental, first-order absorption model with effect of body mass index on the apparent central volume of distribution...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633678/variation-in-empiric-coverage-versus-detection-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hospitalizations-for-community-onset-pneumonia-across-128-us-veterans-affairs-medical-centers
#5
Barbara E Jones, Kevin Antoine Brown, Makoto M Jones, Benedikt D Huttner, Tom Greene, Brian C Sauer, Karl Madaras-Kelly, Michael A Rubin, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Matthew H Samore
OBJECTIVE To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system. PARTICIPANTS Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010. METHODS We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631634/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-cefotaximases-temoniera-and-sulfhydryl-variable-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-pseudomonas-and-acinetobacter-isolates-in-an-indian-tertiary-health-care-center
#6
Sana Jamali, Mohammed Shahid, Farrukh Sobia, Anuradha Singh, Haris M Khan
BACKGROUND: Cefotaximases (CTX-M), temoniera (TEM), and sulfhydryl variable (SHV) constitute a rapidly growing cluster of enzymes that have disseminated geographically. They are spreading to species other than Enterobacteriaceae and might be responsible for the presence of blaCTX-M,blaTEM, and blaSHVgenes in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. The present study was designed to characterize CTX-M, TEM, and SHV phenotypically and genotypically in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 90 isolates (73 Pseudomonas and 17 Acinetobacter spp...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630688/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-pathogens-from-blood-cultures-results-from-a-laboratory-based-nationwide-surveillance-in-ghana
#7
Japheth Awuletey Opintan, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) are critical medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality. There is paucity of information on BSI from surveillance studies in Ghana. AIM: This study sought to demonstrate how useful BSI data can be gleaned from population-based surveillance, especially from resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from a nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) in Ghana were extracted and analyzed...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630204/a-low-molecular-weight-alginate-oligosaccharide-disrupts-pseudomonal-microcolony-formation-and-enhances-antibiotic-effectiveness
#8
Manon F Pritchard, Lydia C Powell, Alison A Jack, Kate Powell, Konrad Beck, Hannah Florance, Julian Forton, Philip D Rye, Arne Dessen, Katja E Hill, David W Thomas
In chronic respiratory disease the formation of dense, 3-dimensional 'micro colonies' by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the airway plays an important role in contributing to resistance to treatment. An in vitro biofilm model of pseudomonal microcolony formation using artificial sputum (AS) medium was established to study the effects of low molecular weight alginate oligomers (OligoG CF-5/20) on pseudomonal growth, microcolony formation and the efficacy of colistin. The studies employed clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates (n=3) and reference non-mucoid and mucoid multi-drug resistant (MDR) CF isolates (n=7)...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630192/in-vitro-activity-of-aztreonam-avibactam-against-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-by-clinical-laboratories-in-40-countries-from-2012-to-2015
#9
James A Karlowsky, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Meredith A Hackel, Daniel F Sahm, Patricia A Bradford
The combination of the monobactam, aztreonam, and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of serious infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a difficult to treat subtype of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae for which therapeutic options are currently very limited. The present study tested clinically significant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n=51,352) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=11,842) collected from hospitalized patients in 208 medical center laboratories from 40 countries from 2012 to 2015 for in vitro susceptibility to aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam, and comparator antimicrobial agents using standard broth microdilution methodology...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630188/identification-of-a-novel-antibacterial-compound-1-2-4-dichlorophenethyl-amino-3-phenoxypropan-2-ol-active-against-persisters-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Veerle Liebens, Valerie Defraine, Wouter Knapen, Toon Swings, Serge Beullens, Romu Corbau, Arnaud Marchand, Patrick Chaltin, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Antibiotics typically fail to completely eradicate a bacterial population, leaving a small fraction of transiently antibiotic-tolerant persister cells intact. Persisters are therefore seen as a major cause of treatment failure and greatly contribute to the recalcitrant nature of chronic infections. The current report is focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative pathogen belonging to the notorious ESKAPE group and, due to an increasing resistance against most conventional antibiotics, posing a serious threat to human health...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630178/efficacy-of-cefiderocol-against-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-in-immunocompetent-rat-respiratory-tract-infection-models-recreating-human-plasma-pharmacokinetics
#11
Shuhei Matsumoto, Christine M Singley, Jennifer Hoover, Rio Nakamura, Roger Echols, Stephen Rittenhouse, Masakatsu Tsuji, Yoshinori Yamano
Cefiderocol (S-649266), a novel siderophore cephalosporin, shows potent activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of cefiderocol against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae) in immunocompetent rat respiratory tract infection models recreating plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) profiles in healthy human subjects. A total of 6 clinical isolates (1 cephalosporin-susceptible P. aeruginosa, 1 multidrug-resistant P...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630087/paucimannose-rich-n-glycosylation-of-spatiotemporally-regulated-human-neutrophil-elastase-modulates-its-immune-functions
#12
Ian Loke, Ole Østergaard, Niels H H Heegaard, Nicolle H Packer, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is an important N-glycosylated serine protease in the innate immune system, but the structure and immune-modulating functions of HNE N-glycosylation remain undescribed. Herein, LC-MS/MS-based glycan, glycopeptide and glycoprotein profiling were utilised to first determine the heterogeneous N-glycosylation of HNE purified from neutrophil lysates and then from isolated neutrophil granules of healthy individuals. The spatiotemporal expression of HNE during neutrophil activation and the biological importance of its N-glycosylation were also investigated using immunoblotting, cell surface capture, native MS, receptor interaction, protease inhibition, and bacteria growth assays...
June 19, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630072/pseudomonas-quinolone-signal-pqs-induces-oxidative-stress-and-inhibits-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#13
Maher Y Abdalla, Traci Hoke, Javier Seravalli, Barbara L Switzer, Melissa Bavitz, Jill D Fliege, Peter J Murphy, Bradley E Britigan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) is a secreted PA virulence factor that contributes to the pathogenicity of PA. We were able to detect PQS in sputum samples from CF patients infected with PA, but not in samples from uninfected patients. We then tested the hypothesis that PQS induces oxidative stress in host cells by determining the ability of PQS to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung epithelial cells (A549 and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE)) and macrophages (J774A...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630071/albumin-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-and-alters-polymicrobial-interactions
#14
Allie Clinton Smith, Anne Rice, Bryan Sutton, Rebecca Gabrilska, Aimee K Wessel, Marvin Whiteley, Kendra P Rumbaugh
Polymicrobial interactions are complex and can influence the course of an infection, as is the case when two or more species exhibit a synergism that produces a disease state not seen with any of the individual species alone. Cell-to-cell signaling is key to many of these interactions, but little is understood about how the host environment influences polymicrobial interactions or signaling between bacteria. Chronic wounds are typically polymicrobial, with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the two most commonly isolated species...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629721/a-16-year-retrospective-surveillance-report-on-the-pathogenic-features-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-fahju-in-guangzhou-representative-of-southern-china
#15
Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Brian M Peters, Lequn Chen, Dingqiang Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. A 16-year retrospective report from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in Southern China. A total of 1387 P. aeruginosa were collected from inpatients and outpatients. Susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2015). Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and carbapenems remained to be active against P...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628280/combination-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-infection-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628217/mouse-model-of-burn-wound-and-infection-thermal-hot-air-lesion-induced-immunosuppression
#17
Henrik Calum, Niels Høiby, Claus Moser
The immunosuppression induced by thermal injury renders the burned victim susceptible to infection. A mouse model was developed to examine the immunosuppression, which was possible to induce even at a minor thermal insult of 6% total body surface area. After induction of the burn (48 hr) a depression of leukocytes in the peripheral blood was found of the burned mice. This depression was due to a reduction in the polymorphonuclear cells. The burned mice were not able to clear a Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection, since the infection spread to the blood as compared to mice only infected with P...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626739/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-imipenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-prevalence-in-iran
#18
Hamid Vaez, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Farzad Khademi
INTRODUCTION: Imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IRPA), due to resistance to different classes of antibiotics and its remarkable capacity to survive in harsh and adverse conditions such as those in the hospital environment, is considered a serious threat to the healthcare system. Given the great impact of IRPA on patients' outcome and in order to possibly improve antibiotic prescription, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of clinical isolates of IRPA in different parts of Iran...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625800/arsenic-alters-transcriptional-responses-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-and-decreases-antimicrobial-defense-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#19
B C Goodale, E J Rayack, B A Stanton
Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen...
June 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625600/where-to-do-water-testing-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-healthcare-setting
#20
Mark I Garvey, Craig W Bradley, Elisabeth Holden, Mike Weibren
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen commonly colonising hospital water supplies. HTM 04-01 addresses the risk posed by recommending water testing in augmented care areas which includes outpatient haemodialysis. We discuss how two teaching hospitals independently reviewed the risk to outpatient haemodialysis patients drawing the same conclusion. The highest number of infection episodes with P. aeruginosa was seen in critical care followed by burns and haematology with the lowest in haemodialysis...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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