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Philip C. Calder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980402/is-palmitoleic-acid-a-plausible-non-pharmacological-strategy-to-prevent-or-control-chronic-metabolic-and-inflammatory-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Camila O Souza, Gretchen K Vannice, José C Rosa Neto, Philip C Calder
Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid was described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β-cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935438/lipids-in-the-intensive-care-unit-recommendations-from-the-espen-expert-group
#2
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Michael Adolph, Nicolaas E Deutz, Teodoro Grau, Jacqueline K Innes, Stanislaw Klek, Shaul Lev, Konstantin Mayer, Adina T Michael-Titus, Lorenzo Pradelli, Mark Puder, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Pierre Singer
This article summarizes the presentations given at an ESPEN Workshop on "Lipids in the ICU" held in Tel Aviv, Israel in November 2014 and subsequent discussions and updates. Lipids are an important component of enteral and parenteral nutrition support and provide essential fatty acids, a concentrated source of calories and building blocks for cell membranes. Whilst linoleic acid-rich vegetable oil-based enteral and parenteral nutrition is still widely used, newer lipid components such as medium-chain triglycerides and olive oil are safe and well tolerated...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934137/evidence-for-involvement-of-il-9-and-il-22-in-cows-milk-allergy-in-infants
#3
Karina V Barros, Vera L Flor Silveira, Marisa S Laranjeira, Neusa F Wandalsen, Susana Passeti, Roberta de Oliveira, Regina V Munekata, Paul S Noakes, Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows' milk allergy (CMA), who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months) with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows' milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula (n = 26) or a free amino acid formula (n = 20)...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#4
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#5
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
October 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#6
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterized by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defense, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891198/targeted-medical-nutrition-for-cachexia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Philip C Calder, Alessandro Laviano, Fredrik Lonnqvist, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Maria Öhlander, Annemie Schols
BACKGROUND: Cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may benefit from nutritional support. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of targeted medical nutrition (TMN) vs. an isocaloric comparator in pre-cachectic and cachectic patients with COPD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥50 years with moderate-to-severe COPD and involuntary weight loss or low body mass index (16-18 kg/m(2) ) were randomized 1:1 to receive TMN (~230 kcal; 2 g omega-3 fatty acids; 10 μg 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3) or isocaloric comparator twice daily for 12 weeks (ClinicalTrials...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821313/the-influence-of-the-position-of-palmitate-in-infant-formula-triacylglycerols-on-health-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754005/can-early-omega-3-fatty-acid-exposure-reduce-risk-of-childhood-allergic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations...
July 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712532/influence-of-different-intravenous-lipid-emulsions-on-growth-development-and-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-in-hospitalised-paediatric-patients-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Roy-Rosshan Edward, Jacqueline K Innes, Luise V Marino, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fats in the form of lipid emulsions (LEs) are an integral part of intravenous nutrition. The fatty acid composition of different LEs varies. The exact composition of a LE may influence cell and tissue function and clinical outcome. Currently, it is not clear which LE might be best for paediatric patients. We conducted a systematic review of the effects of different intravenous LEs in hospitalised paediatric patients. METHODS: Randomised controlled trials published in a peer reviewed journal, written in the English language, and comparing two or more different intravenous LEs in hospitalised paediatric patients were included...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651694/maternal-plasma-phosphatidylcholine-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-growth-and-adiposity
#11
Jonathan Y Bernard, Mya-Thway Tint, Izzuddin M Aris, Ling-Wei Chen, Phaik Ling Quah, Kok Hian Tan, George Seow-Heong Yeo, Marielle V Fortier, Fabian Yap, Lynette Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Mary F F Chong, Michael S Kramer, Jérémie Botton, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for offspring development, but it is less clear whether pregnancy PUFA status affects growth and adiposity. METHODS: In 985 mother-offspring pairs from the ongoing Singaporean GUSTO cohort, we analyzed the associations between offspring growth and adiposity outcomes until age 5 years and five PUFAs of interest, measured in maternal plasma at 26-28 weeks' gestation: linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606571/effect-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-arthritic-pain-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mozghan Abdulrazaq, Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
OBJECTIVES: Pain is a significant problem in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is associated with prostaglandins derived from the ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid. The ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have been shown to reduce inflammation, with some studies showing clinical improvements in RA. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs on arthritic pain. METHOD: A systematic literature review of ω-3 PUFAs and pain associated with RA was performed up to December 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606567/yeast-derived-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-glucan-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-and-innate-immunity-in-older-adults
#13
Richard Fuller, Michael V Moore, George Lewith, Beth L Stuart, Rory V Ormiston, Helena L Fisk, Paul S Noakes, Philip C Calder
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to test whether yeast-derived β-1,3/1,6 glucan can prevent the occurrence or reduce the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and modulate innate immune responses during winter months in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of community-dwelling adults ages 50 to 70 y randomized to once-daily β-1,3/1,6 glucan (Wellmune 250 mg/d; n = 50) or identical placebo capsule (n = 50) over 90 d during winter...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587463/lipidomics-profiling-of-human-adipose-tissue-identifies-a-pattern-of-lipids-associated-with-fish-oil-supplementation
#14
Elizabeth G Stanley, Benjamin J Jenkins, Celia G Walker, Albert Koulman, Lucy Browning, Annette L West, Philip C Calder, Susan A Jebb, Julian L Griffin
To understand the interaction between diet and health, biomarkers that accurately reflect consumption of foods of perceived health relevance are needed. The aim of this investigation was to use direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS) lipidomics to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on lipid profiles of human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue samples from an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation study (n = 66) were analyzed to compare the pattern following supplementation equivalent to zero or four portions of oily fish per week...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562657/correction-oral-administration-of-linoleic-acid-induces-new-vessel-formation-and-improves-skin-wound-healing-in-diabetic-rats
#15
Hosana G Rodrigues, Marco A R Vinolo, Fabio T Sato, Juliana Magdalon, Carolina M C Kuhl, Ana S Yamagata, Ana Flávia M Pessoa, Gabriella Malheiros, Marinilce F Dos Santos, Camila Lima, Sandra H Farsky, Niels O S Camara, Maria R Williner, Claudio A Bernal, Philip C Calder, Rui Curi
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165115.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473239/anril-promoter-dna-methylation-a-perinatal-marker-for-later-adiposity
#16
Karen Lillycrop, Robert Murray, Clara Cheong, Ai Ling Teh, Rebecca Clarke-Harris, Sheila Barton, Paula Costello, Emma Garratt, Eloise Cook, Philip Titcombe, Bhuvaneshwari Shunmuganathan, Samantha J Liew, Yong-Cai Chua, Xinyi Lin, Yonghui Wu, Graham C Burdge, Cyrus Cooper, Hazel M Inskip, Neerja Karnani, James C Hopkins, Caroline E Childs, Carolina Paras Chavez, Philip C Calder, Fabian Yap, Yung Seng Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Philip E Melton, Lawrie Beilin, Rae-Chi Huang, Peter D Gluckman, Nick Harvey, Mark A Hanson, Joanna D Holbrook, Keith M Godfrey
Experimental studies show a substantial contribution of early life environment to obesity risk through epigenetic processes. We examined inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human birth tissues associated with child's adiposity. We identified a novel association between the level of CpG methylation at birth within the promoter of the long non-coding RNA ANRIL (encoded at CDKN2A) and childhood adiposity at age 6-years. An association between ANRIL methylation and adiposity was also observed in three additional populations; in birth tissues from ethnically diverse neonates, in peripheral blood from adolescents, and in adipose tissue from adults...
May 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#17
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330907/plasma-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acids-in-pregnancy-are-inversely-associated-with-postpartum-weight-retention-in-a-multiethnic-asian-cohort
#18
See Ling Loy, Michelle Jia Hui Ng, Yin Bun Cheung, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Ngee Lek, Fabian Yap, Falk Müller-Riemenschneider, Padmapriya Natarajan, Yap-Seng Chong, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Jerry Kok Yen Chan
Background: Studies have demonstrated associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and adiposity. It is unclear whether PUFAs in pregnancy have an effect on maternal weight retention after childbirth, which can contribute to long-term obesity.Objective: We examined the association of maternal plasma PUFAs in pregnancy with 18-mo postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a multiethnic Asian cohort.Design: We studied pregnant women (n = 653) recruited between June 2009 and September 2010 from a prospective cohort...
May 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288701/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-mechanisms-animal-models-and-potential-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Lara T Meital, Shaun L Sandow, Philip C Calder, Fraser D Russell
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with macrophage accumulation in the adventitia, oxidative stress, medial elastin degradation and aortic dilation. Progression of AAA is linked to increased risk of rupture, which carries a high mortality rate. Drug therapies trialled to date lack efficacy and although aneurysm repair is available for patients with large aneurysm, peri-surgical morbidity and mortality have been widely reported. Recent studies using rodent models of AAA suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) and their metabolites can moderate inflammation and oxidative stress perpetuated by infiltrating macrophages and intervene in the destruction of medial elastin...
March 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224969/consensus-statement-immunonutrition-and-exercise
#20
Stephane Bermon, Lindy M Castell, Philip C Calder, Nicolette C Bishop, Eva Blomstrand, Frank C Mooren, Karsten Krüger, Andreas N Kavazis, John C Quindry, David S Senchina, David C Nieman, Michael Gleeson, David B Pyne, Cecilia M Kitic, Graeme L Close, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Ascension Marcos, Simin N Meydani, Dayong Wu, Neil P Walsh, Ryochi Nagatomi
In this consensus statement on immunonutrition and exercise, a panel of knowledgeable contributors from across the globe provides a consensus of updated science, including the background, the aspects for which a consensus actually exists, the controversies and, when possible, suggested directions for future research.
2017: Exercise Immunology Review
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