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Philip C. Calder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767745/preconception-maternal-iodine-status-is-positively-associated-with-iq-but-not-with-measures-of-executive-function-in-childhood
#1
Sian M Robinson, Sarah R Crozier, Elizabeth A Miles, Catharine R Gale, Philip C Calder, Cyrus Cooper, Hazel M Inskip, Keith M Godfrey
Background: Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. Objective: We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Methods: Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734952/arachidonic-acid-and-dha-status-in-pregnant-women-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-performance-of-their-children-at-4-or-6-7-years
#2
Sarah R Crozier, Charlene M Sibbons, Helena L Fisk, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Catharine R Gale, Sian M Robinson, Hazel M Inskip, Janis Baird, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Graham C Burdge
Arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA, supplied primarily from the mother, are required for early development of the central nervous system. Thus, variations in maternal ARA or DHA status may modify neurocognitive development. We investigated the relationship between maternal ARA and DHA status in early (11·7 weeks) or late (34·5 weeks) pregnancy on neurocognitive function at the age of 4 years or 6-7 years in 724 mother-child pairs from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort. Plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition was measured in early and late pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729672/association-of-oily-fish-intake-sex-age-bmi-and-apoe-genotype-with-plasma-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acid-composition
#3
Helena L Fisk, Michael Irvine, Elizabeth A Miles, Georg Lietz, John C Mathers, Chris J Packard, Christopher K Armah, Bettina M Kofler, Peter J Curtis, Anne M Minihane, Philip C Calder
n-3 Fatty acids are associated with better cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in different plasma lipid pools differs and factors influencing this heterogeneity are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate the association of oily fish intake, sex, age, BMI and APOE genotype with concentrations of EPA, DPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), NEFA, cholesteryl esters (CE) and TAG. Healthy adults (148 male, 158 female, age 20-71 years) were recruited according to APOE genotype, sex and age...
May 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614267/influence-of-delayed-sample-processing-on-blood-immune-cell-phenotypes-immune-cell-responses-and-serum-anti-influenza-vaccine-antibody-titres
#4
Vivian Castro-Herrera, Mark Lown, George Lewith, Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
Provision of blood from distant research partners to a central laboratory can result in delayed blood processing prior to assessment of immune parameters. It is important to evaluate the effect of such delays on immune parameters. This study investigated the effect of storage of blood at room temperature for up to 72 h prior to processing and analysis on a range of immune parameters. Blood was collected from 10 healthy participants and analysed immediately (day 0) or after storage at room temperature for 24, 48 or 72 h (days 1, 2 and 3)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610056/omega-6-fatty-acids-and-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
Inflammation is a normal process that is part of host defence and tissue healing. However, excessive or unresolved inflammation can lead to uncontrolled tissue damage, pathology and disease. In humans on a Western diet, the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA) makes a significant contribution to the fatty acids present in the membrane phospholipids of cells involved in inflammation. ARA is a precursor to a number of potent pro-inflammatory mediators including well described prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which has led to the development of anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals that target the ARA pathway to successfully control inflammation...
March 22, 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601492/obesity-inflammation-toll-like-receptor-4-and-fatty-acids
#6
REVIEW
Marcelo Macedo Rogero, Philip C Calder
Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction...
March 30, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556240/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-involving-%C3%AE-8-desaturation-and-differential-dna-methylation-of-fads2-regulates-proliferation-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#7
Charlene M Sibbons, Nicola A Irvine, J Eduardo Pérez-Mojica, Philip C Calder, Karen A Lillycrop, Barbara A Fielding, Graham C Burdge
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for immune function. Limited evidence indicates that immune cell activation involves endogenous PUFA synthesis, but this has not been characterised. To address this, we measured metabolism of 18:3n-3 in quiescent and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and in Jurkat T cell leukaemia. PBMCs from men and women ( n  = 34) were incubated with [1-13 C]18:3n-3 with or without Concanavalin A (Con. A). 18:3n-3 conversion was undetectable in unstimulated PBMCs, but up-regulated when stimulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518776/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-arachidonic-acid-in-early-life-what-is-the-best-evidence-for-policymakers
#8
Stewart Forsyth, Philip C Calder, Francis Zotor, Paul Amuna, Barbara Meyer, Bruce Holub
BACKGROUND: A wealth of information on the functional roles of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) from cellular, animal, and human studies is available. Yet, there remains a lack of cohesion in policymaking for recommended dietary intakes of DHA and ARA in early life. This is predominantly driven by inconsistent findings from a relatively small number of randomised clinical trials (RCTs), which vary in design, methodology, and outcome measures, all of which were conducted in high-income countries...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499978/evaluation-of-implementation-of-fasting-guidelines-for-enterally-fed-critical-care-patients
#9
Bethan Jenkins, Philip C Calder, Luise V Marino
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Critically ill adults have increased nutrition risk. Prior to procedures patients are often fasted, leading to nutritional deficits. The use of fasting guidelines may therefore help reduce deficits from accumulating. The aim of this work was to determine the impact on nutrition support delivery following the implementation of fasting guidelines in addition to characterizing staff knowledge of the guidelines. DESIGN: Retrospective data were collected on n = 74 patients at two different time points; prior to launch of fasting guidelines and post launch, with regards to estimated nutritional requirements, nutritional targets, volume of enteral nutrition (EN) delivered and periods of fasting...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436473/high-erythrocyte-levels-of-the-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-linoleic-acid-are-associated-with-lower-risk-of-subsequent-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-a-southern-european-nested-case-control-study
#10
Paola de Pablo, Dora Romaguera, Helena L Fisk, Philip C Calder, Anne-Marie Quirke, Alison J Cartwright, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Diana Gavrila, Carman Navarro, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Rosario Tumino, William E Ollier, Dominique S Michaud, Elio Riboli, Patrick J Venables, Benjamin A Fisher
OBJECTIVES: Findings relating to dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mixed. Erythrocyte membrane PUFA is an accurate objective biomarker of PUFA status; however, there are little data on erythrocyte membrane PUFA and risk of RA. The objective was therefore to compare erythrocyte membrane PUFA between pre-RA individuals and matched controls from a population-based sample, and specifically to test the hypothesis that higher levels of longer chain n-3 PUFA are associated with lower risk of RA...
February 7, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425187/the-differential-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388176/high-dose-of-a-conjugated-linoleic-acid-mixture-increases-insulin-resistance-in-rats-fed-either-a-low-fat-or-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Priscila Nogueira Bezan, Héric Holland, Gabriela Salim de Castro, João Felipe Rito Cardoso, Paula Payão Ovidio, Philip C Calder, Alceu Afonso Jordao
Obesity and related diseases are becoming more prevalent. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) might be a useful coadjutant treatment helping to decrease fat mass. However, the precise impact of CLA is unclear because the decreased body fat mass is followed by an increase in insulin resistance. This study aimed to evaluate some of the consequences of a high dose of CLA in rats fed a normal low fat or a high fat diet for 30 days. Male Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups (each n = 10): Control group receiving 7% fat (soybean oil); CLA group receiving 4% soybean oil and 3% CLA mixture; animal fat (AF) group, receiving 45% fat (lard); and animal fat plus CLA (AF+CLA) group, receiving 42% lard and 3% CLA mixture...
January 31, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980402/is-palmitoleic-acid-a-plausible-nonpharmacological-strategy-to-prevent-or-control-chronic-metabolic-and-inflammatory-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Camila O de Souza, Gretchen K Vannice, José C Rosa Neto, Philip C Calder
Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid is described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome...
January 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935438/lipids-in-the-intensive-care-unit-recommendations-from-the-espen-expert-group
#14
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Michael Adolph, Nicolaas E Deutz, Teodoro Grau, Jacqueline K Innes, Stanislaw Klek, Shaul Lev, Konstantin Mayer, Adina T Michael-Titus, Lorenzo Pradelli, Mark Puder, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Pierre Singer
This article summarizes the presentations given at an ESPEN Workshop on "Lipids in the ICU" held in Tel Aviv, Israel in November 2014 and subsequent discussions and updates. Lipids are an important component of enteral and parenteral nutrition support and provide essential fatty acids, a concentrated source of calories and building blocks for cell membranes. Whilst linoleic acid-rich vegetable oil-based enteral and parenteral nutrition is still widely used, newer lipid components such as medium-chain triglycerides and olive oil are safe and well tolerated...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934137/evidence-for-involvement-of-il-9-and-il-22-in-cows-milk-allergy-in-infants
#15
Karina V Barros, Vera L Flor Silveira, Marisa S Laranjeira, Neusa F Wandalsen, Susana Passeti, Roberta de Oliveira, Regina V Munekata, Paul S Noakes, Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows' milk allergy (CMA), who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months) with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows' milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula (n = 26) or a free amino acid formula (n = 20)...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930197/red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-inversely-relates-to-mri-assessed-carotid-plaque-lipid-core-burden-in-elders-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#16
Núria Bargalló, Rosa Gilabert, Edwin-Saúl Romero-Mamani, Montserrat Cofán, Philip C Calder, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#17
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
October 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899766/health-relevance-of-the-modification-of-low-grade-inflammation-in-ageing-inflammageing-and-the-role-of-nutrition
#18
REVIEW
Philip C Calder, Nabil Bosco, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard, Lucile Capuron, Nathalie Delzenne, Joel Doré, Claudio Franceschi, Markus J Lehtinen, Tobias Recker, Stefano Salvioli, Francesco Visioli
Ageing of the global population has become a public health concern with an important socio-economic dimension. Ageing is characterized by an increase in the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream, a phenomenon that has been termed "inflammageing". The inflammatory response is beneficial as an acute, transient reaction to harmful conditions, facilitating the defense, repair, turnover and adaptation of many tissues. However, chronic and low grade inflammation is likely to be detrimental for many tissues and for normal functions...
September 9, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891198/targeted-medical-nutrition-for-cachexia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Philip C Calder, Alessandro Laviano, Fredrik Lonnqvist, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Maria Öhlander, Annemie Schols
BACKGROUND: Cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may benefit from nutritional support. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of targeted medical nutrition (TMN) vs. an isocaloric comparator in pre-cachectic and cachectic patients with COPD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥50 years with moderate-to-severe COPD and involuntary weight loss or low body mass index (16-18 kg/m2 ) were randomized 1:1 to receive TMN (~230 kcal; 2 g omega-3 fatty acids; 10 μg 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3) or isocaloric comparator twice daily for 12 weeks (ClinicalTrials...
February 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821313/the-influence-of-the-position-of-palmitate-in-infant-formula-triacylglycerols-on-health-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Miles, Philip C Calder
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies reporting on the influence of the position of palmitic acid in triacylglycerols in infant formula and relevant animal studies. Earlier experiments in rodents show that a diet with a higher proportion of palmitate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols improves dietary fat and calcium absorption compared with a diet with a lower sn-2 palmitate content. A high-sn-2 palmitate diet increased fecal short-chain fatty acids, reduced gut inflammation in a colitis model, and altered tissue endocannabinoid concentrations in laboratory rodents...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
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