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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944063/carbon-nanotubes-induced-fibrogenesis-on-nanostructured-substrates
#1
Kai Wang, Xiaoqing He, Will Linthicum, Ryan Mezan, Liying Wang, Yon Rojanasakul, Qi Wen, Yong Yang
While the rapidly evolving nanotechnology has shown promise in electronics, energy, healthcare and many other fields, there is an increasing concern about the adverse health consequences of engineered nanomaterials. To accurately evaluate the toxicity of nanomaterials, in vitro models incorporated with in vivo microenvironment characteristics are desirable. This study aims to delineate the influence of nanotopography on fibrogenic response of normal human lung fibroblasts to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929951/the-fate-of-inhaled-nanoparticles-detection-and-measurement-by-enhanced-dark-field-microscopy
#2
Robert R Mercer, James F Scabilloni, Liying Wang, Lori A Battelli, James M Antonini, Jenny R Roberts, Yong Qian, Jennifer D Sisler, Vincent Castranova, Dale W Porter, Ann F Hubbs
Assessing the potential health risks for newly developed nanoparticles poses a significant challenge. Nanometer-sized particles are not generally detectable with the light microscope. Electron microscopy typically requires high-level doses, above the physiologic range, for particle examination in tissues. Enhanced dark-field microscopy (EDM) is an adaption of the light microscope that images scattered light. Nanoparticles scatter light with high efficiency while normal tissues do not. EDM has the potential to identify the critical target sites for nanoparticle deposition and injury in the lungs and other organs...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929692/-metabolomics-of-bovine-serum-albumin-induced-allergic-reactions-based-on-uplc-q-tof-ms
#3
Yuan-Yuan Gu, Dan-Dan Zhang, Cheng Feng, Yu Wang, Da-Zhong Chen, Yan-Hong Wang
The metabonomic techniques were used to study the changes in endogenous metabolites between urines of rats in normal physiological conditions and bovine serum albumin induced allergic reactions, identify potential biomarkers associated with allergic reactions, and then analyze the metabolic pathways and the metabolic mechanisms of allergic reactions. The bovine serum albumin-induced allergic reactions in rats were adopted as a model to detect histamine and tryptase in rat serum and observe the issue morphology of lungs and trachea in rats...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928613/clarifying-the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-totally-anomalous-systemic-venous-connection
#4
REVIEW
Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Rajnish Juneja, Robert H Anderson, Gurpreet S Gulati, Velayoudam Devagorou
The description of totally anomalous systemic venous connection is limited to case reports. In this review, we seek to clarify anatomic, physiologic, and hemodynamic aspects of this extremely rare anomaly. We also present findings of two patients in whom connection of all the systemic veins was anomalous. In the first patient, with usual atrial arrangement, all systemic veins, including the coronary sinus, were connected anomalously to the morphologically left atrium. Limited left-to-right shunt across an atrial septal defect provided the only source of blood flow to the lungs...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882651/in-cystic-fibrosis-lung-clearance-index-is-sensitive-to-detecting-abnormalities-appearing-at-exercise-in-children-with-normal-spirometry
#5
Riyadh Chelabi, Thibaud Soumagne, Alicia Guillien, Marc Puyraveau, Bruno Degano
Symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed in school-age children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis (CF), all with normal spirometry. Physiological parameters were compared between patients with normal lung clearance index (LCI; n=6) and patients with elevated LCI (n=6). Dyspnoea ratings during exercise were similar in both groups. Although no patient had significant dynamic hyperinflation, end-expiratory lung volumes were higher throughout exercise in patients with elevated LCI...
September 4, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870355/mechanical-ventilation-state-of-the-art
#6
REVIEW
Tài Pham, Laurent J Brochard, Arthur S Slutsky
Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863039/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-end-stage-interstitial-lung-disease-with-secondary-pulmonary-hypertension-at-rest-and-exercise-insights-from-simulation-modeling
#7
Scott Chicotka, Daniel Burkhoff, Marc L Dickstein, Matthew Bacchetta
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a collection of lung disorders with a lethal trajectory with few therapeutic options with the exception of lung transplantation. Various extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) configurations have been used for bridge to transplant (BTT), yet no optimal configuration has been clearly demonstrated. Using a cardiopulmonary simulation, we assessed different ECMO configurations for patients with end-stage ILD to assess the physiologic deficits and help guide the development of new long-term pulmonary support devices...
August 31, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836573/stress-and-stability-applying-the-anna-karenina-principle-to-animal-microbiomes
#8
Jesse R Zaneveld, Ryan McMinds, Rebecca Vega Thurber
All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states...
August 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822739/experimental-characterization-and-model-identification-of-the-nonlinear-compressible-material-behavior-of-lung-parenchyma
#9
Anna M Birzle, Christian Martin, Lena Yoshihara, Stefan Uhlig, Wolfgang A Wall
The mechanical properties of lung parenchyma are essential both in lung function and biology; consequently, experimental methods are developed to describe the mechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. During breathing and mechanical ventilation, volume change is the physiologically dominating deformation mode of lung parenchyma; nevertheless, most studies examine lung tissue in mainly isochoric tension tests. In this paper, a novel experimental method for the quantification of the compressible material behavior at high volume changes of viable lung parenchyma is proposed...
August 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822024/glycosaminoglycans-and-glycolipids-as-potential-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer
#10
Guoyun Li, Lingyun Li, Eun Ji Joo, Ji Woong Son, Young Jin Kim, Jae Ku Kang, Kyung Bok Lee, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
In this report, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Western blotting to analyze the content and structure of glycosaminoglycans, glycolipids and selected proteins to compare differences between patient-matched normal and cancerous lung tissues obtained from lung cancer patients. The cancer tissue samples contained over twice as much chondroitin sulfate (CS)/dermatan sulfate (DS) as did the normal tissue samples, while the amount of heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronan (HA) in normal and cancer tissues were not significantly different...
August 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819421/simultaneous-quantification-of-serum-multi-phospholipids-as-potential-biomarkers-for-differentiating-different-pathophysiological-states-of-lung-stomach-intestine-and-pancreas
#11
Yumei Guo, Junling Ren, Xiaoou Li, Xiaofeng Liu, Ning Liu, Yanmin Wang, Zhili Li
Background: Aberrant lipid metabolism is closely associated with cancer. Materials & Methods: Serum levels of sphingomyelins (SM) (34:1), phosphatidylcholine (PC) (34:2), PC(34:1), PC(36:4), PC(36:3), and PC(36:2) in 1449 serum samples (including 599 normal controls, 69 patients with benign lung diseases (BLDs), 61 with benign colorectal diseases, 54 with benign gastric diseases, 67 with benign pancreatic diseases, and 246 with lung cancer (LC), 144 with colorectal cancer, 94 with gastric cancer, 115 with pancreatic cancer) were quantified simultaneously based on their respective calibration equations with correlation coefficient of >0...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819410/characterization-of-the-role-of-the-malate-dehydrogenases-to-lung-tumor-cell-survival
#12
Boxi Zhang, Johan Tornmalm, Jerker Widengren, Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Erik Norberg
Cellular compartmentalization of biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells is critical for many functions including shuttling of reducing equivalents across membranes. Although coordination of metabolic flux between different organelles is vital for cell physiology, its impact on tumor cell survival is not well understood. By using an integrative approach, we have dissected the role of the key metabolic enzymes Malate dehydrogenases (MDH1 and MDH2) to the survival of Non-small Cell Lung Carcinomas. Here, we report that while both the MDH1 (cytosolic) and the MDH2 (mitochondrial) enzymes display elevated levels in patients compared to normal counterparts, only high expression of MDH1 is associated with poor prognosis...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810589/phenotypic-switch-in-lung-interstitial-macrophage-polarization-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-mouse-model-of-asthma
#13
Hanxiang Nie, Ailing Wang, Qing He, Qiaoyu Yang, Linlin Liu, Guqin Zhang, Yi Huang, Xuhong Ding, Hongying Yu, Suping Hu
Macrophage phenotype and function varies according to their polarized state, which in turn is dependent on microenvironmental stimuli. Under normal physiological conditions, lung interstitial macrophages that express interleukin (IL)-10 are considered to serve regulatory roles in the prevention of allergic reactions in the airways. However, the phenotypic profile of lung interstitial macrophages during the pathophysiology of asthma remains unknown. In the current study, the phenotypic characteristics of lung interstitial macrophages were investigated in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801407/the-boundaries-of-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-design-of-the-searching-clinical-copd-onset-soon-study
#14
Gonzalo Labarca, Andrea Bustamante, Gonzalo Valdivia, Rodrigo Díaz, Álvaro Huete, Paul Mac Nab, Laura Mendoza, Jaime Leppe, Carmen Lisboa, Fernando Saldías, Orlando Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754682/autoimmunity-to-vimentin-is-associated-with-outcomes-of-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Fu Jun Li, Ranu Surolia, Huashi Li, Zheng Wang, Tejaswini Kulkarni, Gang Liu, Joao A de Andrade, Daniel J Kass, Victor J Thannickal, Steven R Duncan, Veena B Antony
Autoimmunity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the repertoire of autoantigens involved in this disease and the clinical relevance of these autoimmune responses are still being explored. Our initial discovery assays demonstrated that circulating and intrapulmonary vimentin levels are increased in IPF patients. Subsequent studies showed native vimentin induced HLA-DR-dependent in vitro proliferation of CD4 T cells from IPF patients and enhanced the production of IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-β1 by these lymphocytes in contrast to normal control specimens...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711016/therapeutic-supermolecular-micelles-of-vitamin-e-succinate-grafted-%C3%AE%C2%B5-polylysine-as-potential-carriers-for-curcumin-enhancing-tumour-penetration-and-improving-therapeutic-effect-on-glioma
#16
He-Lin Xu, Zi-Liang Fan, De-Li ZhuGe, Bi-Xin Shen, Bing-Hui Jin, Jian Xiao, Cui-Tao Lu, Ying-Zheng Zhao
Severe toxicity and poor tumour penetration are two intrinsic limited factors to hinder the broad clinical application for most of first-line chemotherapeutics. In this study, a novel vitamin E succinate-grafted ε-polylysine (VES-g-PLL) polymer was synthesized by using ε-polylysine as backbone. By adjusting VES graft ratio, VES-g-PLL (50) with a theoretic VES graft ratio of 50% could self-assemble into a supermolecular micelle with a hydrodynamic diameter (Dh) of ca.20nm, and Zeta potential of 19.6mV. VES-g-PLL micelles themselves displayed a strong anti-tumour effect on glioma...
July 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690548/optimization-of-variable-ventilation-for-physiology-immune-response-and-surfactant-enhancement-in-preterm-lambs
#17
Erzsébet Bartolák-Suki, Peter B Noble, Samer Bou Jawde, Jane J Pillow, Béla Suki
Preterm infants often require mechanical ventilation due to lung immaturity including reduced or abnormal surfactant. Since cyclic stretch with cycle-by-cycle variability is known to augment surfactant release by epithelial cells, we hypothesized that such in vivo mechanotransduction improves surfactant maturation and hence lung physiology in preterm subjects. We thus tested whether breath-by-breath variability in tidal volume (VT) in variable ventilation (VV) can be tuned for optimal performance in a preterm lamb model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670316/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-channel-6-channels-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature
#18
REVIEW
Monika Malczyk, Alexandra Erb, Christine Veith, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Ralph T Schermuly, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann, Akylbek Sydykov
Canonical or classical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) is a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel that is widely expressed in the heart, lung, and vascular tissues. The use of TRPC6-deficient ("knockout") mice has provided important insights into the role of TRPC6 in normal physiology and disease states of the pulmonary vasculature. Evidence indicates that TRPC6 is a key regulator of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Moreover, several studies implicated TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662821/the-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-development-repair-and-destruction-of-the-lungs
#19
Amanda Y Hendrix, Farrah Kheradmand
Normal gas exchange after birth requires functional lung alveolar units that are lined with epithelial cells, parts of which are intricately fused with microvascular capillaries. A significant phase of alveolar lung development occurs in the perinatal period, continues throughout early stages in life, and requires activation of matrix-remodeling enzymes. Failure to achieve an optimum number of alveoli during lung maturation can cause several untoward medical consequences including disabling obstructive and/or restrictive lung diseases that limit physiological endurance and increase mortality...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658842/a-case-series-of-young-patients-with-completely-reversed-severe-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Aniketh Vijay Balegadde, Vikrant Vijan, Rajesh Thachathodiyl
Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressive symptomatic disorder, which may ultimately lead to death if left untreated. Although majority of PAH cases are idiopathic, pulmonary hypertension resulting due to certain underlying conditions are also observed frequently. In such cases, it becomes essential to identify any potentially treatable or reversible causes for PAH. There have been significant advances in the medical management of PAH and various medicines have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for various stages of PAH...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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