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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351745/the-associations-between-weight-related-anthropometrics-during-childhood-and-lung-function-in-late-childhood-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Kristine Kjer Byberg, Ingvild Bruun Mikalsen, Geir Egil Eide, Michele R Forman, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Knut Øymar
BACKGROUND: An association between body weight in childhood and subsequent lung function and asthma has been suggested, but few longitudinal studies exist. Our aim was to explore whether weight-related anthropometric measurements through childhood were associated with lung function in late childhood. METHODS: From an original nested case-control study, a cohort study was conducted, where lung function was measured in 463 children aged 12.8 years, and anthropometry was measured at several ages from birth through 12...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#2
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325586/high-frequency-percussive-ventilation-increases-alveolar-recruitment-in-early-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-experimental-physiological-and-ct-scan-study
#4
Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Raïko Blondonnet, Aymeric Tremblay, Jules Audard, Benjamin Rieu, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Marc Garcier, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Eight patients with early non-focal ARDS were enrolled and five swine with early non-focal ARDS were studied in prospective computed tomography (CT) scan and animal studies, in a university-hospital tertiary ICU and an animal laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321247/aberrant-regulation-of-autophagy-in-mammalian-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Jun Zhou
Autophagy is a major cellular metabolic pathway that facilitates degradation of a subset of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. This pathway plays a vital role in preserving the cellular homeostasis of the cells themselves, in addition to maintaining the normal physiological state of cell renewal. Many stressors, such as starvation, ischaemia and oxidative stress can induce autophagy. In addition to its physiological roles, autophagy also occurs in a wide variety of pathological processes, including tumour progression, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative and lung diseases...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#6
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297365/regional-physiology-of-ards
#7
REVIEW
Luciano Gattinoni, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
The acute respiratory distress (ARDS) lung is usually characterized by a high degree of inhomogeneity. Indeed, the same lung may show a wide spectrum of aeration alterations, ranging from completely gasless regions, up to hyperinflated areas. This inhomogeneity is normally caused by the presence of lung edema and/or anatomical variations, and is deeply influenced by the gravitational forces.For any given airway pressure generated by the ventilator, the pressure acting directly on the lung (i.e., the transpulmonary pressure or lung stress) is determined by two main factors: 1) the ratio between lung elastance and the total elastance of the respiratory system (which has been shown to vary widely in ARDS patients, between 0...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289410/respiratory-and-laryngeal-function-in-teachers-pre-and-postvocal-loading-challenge
#8
Nicole E Herndon, Anusha Sundarrajan, M Preeti Sivasankar, Jessica E Huber
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine laryngeal and respiratory physiological changes in teachers before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge. METHODS: Twelve teachers completed ratings of vocal tiredness, vocal effort, and produced a reading passage and monologue before and after a 1-hour vocal loading challenge (reading aloud in noise). Sound pressure level, lung volume parameters, cepstral peak prominence, and low/high spectral ratio were measured...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274016/quantitative-pulmonary-blood-flow-measurement-using-15o-h2o-pet-with-and-without-tissue-fraction-correction-a-comparison-study
#9
Keiko Matsunaga, Masahiro Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Otsuka, Haruhiko Hirata, Takashi Kijima, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Noriyuki Tomiyama, Eku Shimosegawa, Jun Hatazawa
BACKGROUND: Physiological measures per lung parenchyma, rather than per lung volume, sometimes reflect the disease status. PET images of the lung, which are usually expressed per lung volume, could confound the interpretation of the disease status, especially in cases with a prominent heterogeneity in aeration. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for measuring pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with aeration correction using 15O-H2O PET and to compare the results with those obtained using a conventional method...
December 22, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248440/jtc801-induces-ph-dependent-death-specifically-in-cancer-cells-and-slows-growth-of-tumors-in-mice
#10
Xinxin Song, Shan Zhu, Yangchun Xie, Jiao Liu, Lingyi Sun, Dexing Zeng, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Guido Kroemer, David L Bartlett, Timothy R Billiar, Michael Lotze, Herbert Zeh, Rui Kang, Daolin Tang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maintenance of acid-base homeostasis is required for normal physiology, metabolism, and development. It is not clear how cell death is activated in response to changes in pH. We performed a screen to identify agents that induce cell death in a pH-dependent manner (we call this alkaliptosis) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer (PDAC) cells and tested their effects in mice. METHODS: We screened a library of 254 compounds that interact with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to identify those with cytotoxic activity against a human PDAC cell line (PANC1)...
December 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245341/case-report-on-the-role-of-radiofrequency-assisted-spleen-preserving-surgery-for-splenic-metastasis-in-the-era-of-check-point-inhibitors
#11
Satvinder Mudan, Jayant Kumar, Neves C Mafalda, Tomokazu Kusano, Isabella Reccia, Artur Zanallato, Angus Dalgleish, Nagy Habib
RATIONALE: An isolated splenic metastasis is a rare phenomenon noted in advanced stage melanoma. We report the role of radiofrequency (RF) -based splenic-preserving splenectomy in a patient with a solitary splenic metastasis from advanced stage melanoma that was managed with checkpoint inhibitors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with multiple lung metastases and a solitary splenic metastasis with advanced stage melanoma following excision of primary from his trunk 2...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236544/gene-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis-improved-delivery-techniques-and-conditioning-with-lysophosphatidylcholine-enhance-lentiviral-gene-transfer-in-mouse-lung-airways
#12
Patricia Cmielewski, Nigel Farrow, Sharnna Devereux, David Parsons, Martin Donnelley
Purpose/Aim: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, fatal recessive genetic disease among the Caucasian population. Gene therapy has the potential to treat CF long term, however physiological barriers can prevent VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral (LV) vectors from efficiently accessing the relevant receptors on the basolateral membrane of airway epithelial cells. The aims of this experiment were to use our new dose delivery techniques to determine whether conditioning the mouse lung conducting airways with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) improves the level of airway gene expression...
November 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211494/exhaustion-of-airway-basal-progenitor-cells-in-early-and-established-copd
#13
Moumita Ghosh, York E Miller, Ichiro Nakachi, Jennifer B Kwon, Anna E Barón, Alexandra E Brantley, Daniel T Merrick, Wilbur A Franklin, Robert L Keith, R William Vandivier
RATIONALE: Up to 40% of smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) over a period that spans decades. Despite the importance of COPD, much remains to be learned about susceptibility and pathogenesis, especially during early, pre-diagnostic stages of disease. Airway basal progenitor cells are crucial for lung health and resilience, because of their ability to repair injured airways. In COPD, the normal airway epithelium is replaced with increased basal and secretory (mucous) cells and decreased ciliated cells, suggesting that progenitors are impaired...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208177/human-haematological-and-epithelial-tumor-derived-cell-lines-express-distinct-patterns-of-onco-micrornas
#14
Flavia Biamonte, Fabiana Zolea, Gianluca Santamaria, Anna M Battaglia, Giovanni Cuda, Francesco Costanzo
MicroRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression thus playing a critical role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including cancer initiation and progression. Moreover, a growing number of evidences highlights that miRNAs themselves are differentially expressed between normal and malignant tissues. In this study, we analysed differences in miRNA expression profile between haematological and epithelial tumor-derived cell lines and explored their role in definying different cancer cells phenotypes...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190612/assessment-of-bronchial-obstruction-using-lateral-pressure-measurement-during-bronchoscopy
#15
Hiroki Nishine, Takehiko Hiramoto, Takeo Inoue, Naoki Furuya, Hirotaka Kida, Hiroshi Handa, Seiichi Nobuyama, Masamichi Mineshita, Teruomi Miyazawa
BACKGROUND: In patients with bronchial obstruction estimating the location of the maximal obstruction is crucial for guiding interventional bronchoscopy. However, flow-volume curves cannot discriminate between the right and left lungs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to physiologically evaluate bronchial obstruction during interventional bronchoscopy. METHODS: We prospectively measured lateral airway pressure (Plat) at either side of the obstruction using a double-lumen catheter (pressure-pressure [P-P] curve) simultaneously to assess the degree of bronchial obstruction in 22 patients...
November 30, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177420/endothelin-1-may-play-an-important-role-in-the-fontan-circulation
#16
Masaya Aoki, Keiichi Hirono, Tomonori Higuma, Yoko Suzuki, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Fukiko Ichida, Hideki Origasa, Naoki Nishida, Johji Imura, Noriaki Emoto, Naoki Yoshimura
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate whether endothlin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in the Fontan circulation. METHODS: Thirteen patients with single-ventricle physiology (Glenn circulation, n = 7; Fontan circulation, n = 6) were evaluated using lung histopathological and immunohistochemical studies and then compared with the normal autopsied controls without congenital heart disease (n = 13). We evaluated the medial thickness of the small pulmonary arteries...
November 21, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176377/pulmonary-effects-of-aging
#17
Daniel Tran, Kapil Rajwani, David A Berlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the population ages, the increase in chronic illnesses among patients with decreasing lung function will pose a major public health challenge. Determining which elderly patients are fit for surgery is an increasingly important skill. Anesthetic care of elderly patients requires an understanding of the effects that chronic diseases have on normal age-related changes in physiology and function. Postoperative respiratory complications are significantly increased in patients over 65 years of age, especially those with preexisting diseases...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150410/lung-function-in-early-adulthood-and-health-in-later-life-a-transgenerational-cohort-analysis
#18
Alvar Agustí, Guillaume Noell, Josep Brugada, Rosa Faner
BACKGROUND: Early life events can affect health in later life. We hypothesised that low lung function (FEV1 <80% predicted) in early adulthood (25-40 years) is associated with higher prevalence and earlier incidence of respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic abnormalities, and premature death. METHODS: In this cohort analysis, we tested this hypothesis using data from the Framingham Offspring Cohort (FOC) and validated our observations in CARDIA (an independent cohort) and GenIII (which includes the direct descendants of FOC participants)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133847/female-mice-lacking-pald1-exhibit-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-and-emphysema
#19
Isabel Egaña, Hiroshi Kaito, Anja Nitzsche, Lore Becker, Carolina Ballester-Lopez, Colin Niaudet, Milena Petkova, Wei Liu, Michael Vanlandewijck, Alexandra Vernaleken, Thomas Klopstock, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Helge Rask-Andersen, Henrik J Johansson, Janne Lehtiö, Liqun He, Ali Ö Yildirim, Mats Hellström
Paladin (Pald1, mKIAA1274 or x99384) was identified in screens for vascular-specific genes and is a putative phosphatase. Paladin has also been proposed to be involved in various biological processes such as insulin signaling, innate immunity and neural crest migration. To determine the role of paladin we have now characterized the Pald1 knock-out mouse in a broad array of behavioral, physiological and biochemical tests. Here, we show that female, but not male, Pald1 heterozygous and homozygous knock-out mice display an emphysema-like histology with increased alveolar air spaces and impaired lung function with an obstructive phenotype...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127370/exosomal-mir-126-as-a-circulating-biomarker-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-regulating-cancer-progression
#20
Franco Grimolizzi, Federica Monaco, Francesca Leoni, Massimo Bracci, Sara Staffolani, Cristiana Bersaglieri, Simona Gaetani, Matteo Valentino, Monica Amati, Corrado Rubini, Franca Saccucci, Jiri Neuzil, Marco Tomasetti, Lory Santarelli
Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. It is diagnosed mostly at the locally advanced or metastatic stage. Recently, micro RNAs (miRs) and their distribution in circulation have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, miR-126 was evaluated in serum, exosome and exosome-free serum fractions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients at early and advanced stages, and compared with healthy controls. Down-regulation of miR-126 was found in serum of advanced stage NSCLC patients...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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