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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544158/molecular-and-physiological-manifestations-and-measurement-of-aging-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
Sadiya S Khan, Benjamin D Singer, Douglas E Vaughan
Biological aging is associated with a reduction in the reparative and regenerative potential in tissues and organs. This reduction manifests as a decreased physiological reserve in response to stress (termed homeostenosis) and a time-dependent failure of complex molecular mechanisms that cumulatively create disorder. Aging inevitably occurs with time in all organisms and emerges on a molecular, cellular, organ, and organismal level with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental modulators. Individuals with the same chronological age exhibit differential trajectories of age-related decline, and it follows that we should assess biological age distinctly from chronological age...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532223/preliminary-study-on-fabrication-characterization-and-synergistic-anti-lung-cancer-effects-of-self-assembled-micelles-of-covalently-conjugated-celastrol-polyethylene-glycol-ginsenoside-rh2
#2
Peng Li, XiaoYue Zhou, Ding Qu, Mengfei Guo, Chenyi Fan, Tong Zhou, Yang Ling
The aim of this study was to develop an amphipathic polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative that was bi-terminally modified with celastrol and ginsenoside Rh2 (Celastrol-PEG-G Rh2). Such derivative was capable of forming novel, celastrol-loaded polymeric micelles (CG-M) for endo/lysosomal delivery and thereby synergistic treatment of lung cancer. Celastrol-PEG-G Rh2 with a yield of 55.6% was first synthesized and characterized. Its critical micellar concentration was 1 × 10(-5 )M, determined by pyrene entrapment method...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526615/lung-inflammation-after-bleomycin-treatment-in-mice-selection-of-an-accurate-normalization-strategy-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-an-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-model
#3
Veronica Della Latta, Manuela Cabiati, Silvia Burchielli, Giada Frenzilli, Margherita Bernardeschi, Antonella Cecchettini, Federica Viglione, Maria-Aurora Morales, Silvia Del Ry
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the most common and aggressive interstitial lung disease, characterized by a patchy development of fibrosis leading to progressive destruction of the normal lung architecture which is preceded by an inflammatory process. Gene expression studies are important to understand the development of PF but the accuracy and reproducibility of Real-Time PCR depend on appropriate normalization strategies. This study aimed to analyze the expression variability of eight commonly used reference genes during the initial inflammatory phase of bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model and to verify whether the selected reference genes could be applied to an in-vitro model of BLM-treated primary murine lung fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525342/effects-of-long-term-construction-noise-on-health-of-adult-female-wistar-rats
#4
J Zymantiene, R Zelvyte, I Pampariene, A Aniuliene, N Juodziukyniene, J Kantautaite, V Oberauskas
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term building construction noise from refurbishment, which including vibration, on some physiological parameters and histopathological changes of organs of Wistar rats. Twenty 12 month old female rats were divided into two groups: rats group I (n = 10) were exposed to long-term construction noise and rats group II (n = 10) were kept under normal noise level. Study results revealed that long-term construction noise from building refurbishment has an influence on body weight, haematological and some serum biochemical parameters affects caecal microbiota, and causes histopathological changes in the organs of adult female Wistar rats...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#5
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507099/carbon-dioxide-dependent-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-family-members-relb-and-p100-gives-molecular-insight-into-co2-dependent-immune-regulation
#6
Ciara E Keogh, Carsten C Scholz, Javier Rodriguez, Andrew C Selfridge, Alexander von Kriegshiem, Eoin P Cummins
CO2 is a physiological gas normally produced in the body during aerobic respiration. Hypercapnia (elevated blood pCO2 > ≈ 50mmHg) is a feature of several lung pathologies e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypercapnia is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections and suppression of inflammatory signaling. The NF-κB pathway has been implicated in these effects, however, the molecular mechanisms underpinning cellular sensitivity of the NF-κB pathway to CO2 is not fully elucidated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492512/aldosterone-and-mineralocorticoid-receptors-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#7
John W Funder
Aldosterone is a uniquely terrestrial hormone, first appearing in lungfish, which have both gills and lungs. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), on the other hand, evolved much earlier, and are found in cartilaginous and bony fish, presumptive ligand cortisol. MRs have equivalent high affinity for aldosterone, progesterone, and cortisol; in epithelia, despite much higher cortisol circulating levels, aldosterone selectively activates MRs by co-expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, Type 11...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471738/regional-ventilation-changes-in-the-lung-treatment-response-mapping-by-using-hyperpolarized-gas-mr-imaging-as-a-quantitative-biomarker
#8
Felix C Horn, Helen Marshall, Guilhem J Collier, Richard Kay, Salman Siddiqui, Christopher E Brightling, Juan Parra-Robles, Jim M Wild
Purpose To assess the magnitude of regional response to respiratory therapeutic agents in the lungs by using treatment response mapping (TRM) with hyperpolarized gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. TRM was used to quantify regional physiologic response in adults with asthma who underwent a bronchodilator challenge. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the national research ethics committee and was performed with informed consent. Imaging was performed in 20 adult patients with asthma by using hyperpolarized helium 3 ((3)He) ventilation MR imaging...
May 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467681/luminescent-strategies-for-label-free-g-quadruplex-based-enzyme-activity-sensing
#9
REVIEW
Dik-Lung Ma, Zhen-Zhen Dong, Kasipandi Vellaisamy, Ka-Man Cheung, Guanjun Yang, Chung-Hang Leung
By catalyzing highly specific and tightly controlled chemical reactions, enzymes are essential to maintaining normal cellular physiology. However, aberrant enzymatic activity can be linked to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Therefore, the unusual activity of particular enzymes can represent testable biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of certain diseases. In recent years, G-quadruplex-based platforms have attracted wide attention for the monitoring of enzymatic activities. In this Personal Account, we discuss our group's works on the development of G-quadruplex-based sensing system for enzyme activities by using mainly iridium(III) complexes as luminescent label-free probes...
May 3, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444932/the-association-of-lamb1-polymorphism-and-expression-changes-with-the-risk-of-coal-workers-pneumoconiosis
#10
Xiaoming Ji, Baiqun Wu, Ruhui Han, Jingjin Yang, Esther Ayaaba, Ting Wang, Lei Han, Chunhui Ni
BACKGROUND: Pneumoconiosis is a serious occupational disease worldwide, which is characterized by irreversible and diffuse lung fibrotic lesions. Laminin beta 1(LAMB1) is widely expressed in tissues and it is crucial for both lung morphogenesis and physiological function. In this study, we explored the association between LAMB1 rs4320486 and risk of pneumoconiosis in a Chinese population, as well as its mechanisms. METHODS: In this case-control study, 600 CWP patients and 605 controls were genotyped for the LAMB1 rs4320486 polymorphism using TaqMan methods...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#11
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440201/investigation-of-the-ph-dependent-cytotoxicity-of-paclitaxel-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles
#12
Zahrah Alhalili, Nur Hikmatul Auliya, Barbara Sandersonb, J G Shapter
Breast cancer, apart from skin cancer, is the most common cancer among women accounting for nearly 1 in 3 cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women after lung cancer. Finding new approaches to treat such cancers is critically important. OBJECTIVE: This work investigated the ability of a simple system based on paclitaxel conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) to induce efficient cytotoxicity against T47D breast cancerous cells at different pH values. METHOD: The synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles using two approaches is presented...
April 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416951/spirometry-and-bronchodilator-test
#13
REVIEW
Yun Su Sim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Dong In Suh, Yeon-Mok Oh, Jong-Seo Yoon, Jin Hwa Lee, Jae Hwa Cho, Cheol Seok Kwon, Jung Hyun Chang
Spirometry is a physiological test for assessing the functional aspect of the lungs using an objective indicator to measure the maximum amount of air that a patient can inhale and exhale. Acceptable spirometry testing needs to be conducted three times by an acceptable and reproducible method for determining forced vital capacity (FVC). Until the results of three tests meet the criteria of reproducibility, the test should be repeated up to eight times. Interpretation of spirometry should be clear, concise, and informative...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406813/effects-of-hypercapnia-and-hypercapnic-acidosis-on-hospital-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#14
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, David Pilcher, Hergen Buscher, John Botha, Michael Bailey
OBJECTIVES: Lung-protective ventilation is used to prevent further lung injury in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. However, lung-protective ventilation can cause hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis. There are no large clinical studies evaluating the effects of hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Multicenter, binational, retrospective study aimed to assess the impact of compensated hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis in patients receiving mechanical ventilation...
April 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393574/transbronchial-biopsies-safely-diagnose-amyloid-lung-disease
#15
Praveen Govender, Colleen M Keyes, Elizabeth A Hankinson, Carl J O'Hara, Vaishali Sanchorawala, John L Berk
BACKGROUND: Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58-92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies...
April 10, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391192/estimation-of-large-motion-in-lung-ct-by-integrating-regularized-keypoint-correspondences-into-dense-deformable-registration
#16
Jan Ruhaak, Thomas Polzin, Stefan Heldmann, Ivor Simpson, Heinz Handels, Jan Modersitzki, Mattias Paul Heinrich
We present a novel algorithm for the registration of pulmonary CT scans. Our method is designed for large respiratory motion by integrating sparse keypoint correspondences into a dense continuous optimization framework. The detection of keypoint correspondences enables robustness against large deformations by jointly optimizing over a large number of potential discrete displacements, whereas the dense continuous registration achieves sub-voxel alignment with smooth transformations. Both steps are driven by the same normalized gradient fields data term...
April 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382694/quantitative-analysis-of-hyperpolarized-129-xe-gas-transfer-mri
#17
Ziyi Wang, Scott Haile Robertson, Jennifer Wang, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Geoffry M Schrank, Elianna A Bier, Sudarshan Rajagopal, Yuh Chin Huang, Thomas G O'Riordan, Craig R Rackley, H Page McAdams, Bastiaan Driehuys
PURPOSE: Hyperpolarized (129) Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Dixon-based decomposition enables single-breath imaging of (129) Xe in the airspaces, interstitial barrier tissues, and red blood cells (RBCs). However, methods to quantitatively visualize information from these images of pulmonary gas transfer are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel method to transform these data into quantitative maps of pulmonary ventilation, and (129) Xe gas transfer to barrier and RBC compartments...
April 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377487/sleep-duration-across-the-adult-lifecourse-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-mortality-a-cohort-study-in-xuanwei-china
#18
Jason Y Wong, Bryan A Bassig, Roel Vermeulen, Wei Hu, Bofu Ning, Wei Jie Seow, Bu-Tian Ji, George Downward, Hormuzd A Katki, Francesco Barone-Adesi, Nathaniel Rothman, Robert Chapman, Qing Lan
Sufficient sleep duration is crucial for maintaining normal physiological function and has been linked to cancer risk; however, its contribution to lung cancer mortality is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between average sleep duration in various age-periods across the adult lifecourse, and risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. An ambidirectional cohort study was conducted in 42,422 farmers from Xuanwei, China. Participants or their surrogates were interviewed in 1992 to assess average sleep hours in the age-periods of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥71 years, which were categorized as ≤7, 8 (reference), 9, and ≥10 hours/day...
April 4, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368706/resting-physiological-correlates-of-reduced-exercise-capacity-in-smokers-with-mild-airway-obstruction
#19
Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Jordan A Guenette, Dennis Jensen, Katherine A Webb, Rashid Ahmed, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Smokers with minor spirometric abnormalities can experience persistent activity-related dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Additional resting tests can expose heterogeneous physiological abnormalities, but their relevance and association with clinical outcomes remain uncertain. Subjects included sixty-two smokers (≥20 pack-years), with cough and/or dyspnea and minor airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1) ≥80% predicted and >5th percentile lower limit of normal (LLN) (i.e., z-score >-1...
April 3, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356006/body-fluids-derived-exosomes-paving-the-novel-road-to-lung-cancer-diagnosis-and-therapy
#20
Yu Sun, Lin Li, Jing Liu, Liang Wang
Lung cancer is a major human malignancy. Nowadays, the lack of specific diagnostic marker of lung cancer restricts the early diagnosis and therapy of patients. Exosomes, as spherical 30-100 nm microvesicles, are released by normal and cancer cells in both physiological and pathological circumstances. Exosomes carry various molecular cargos such as miRNA, proteins, mRNA, DNA and lipids. Therefore, analysis the molecular profiles of exosomes may provide beneficial biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Exosomes can be transported by body fluids...
March 27, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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