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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072848/physiologic-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-in-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-multidimensional-analysis
#1
Camille Rolland-Debord, Stephanie Fry, Jonathan Giovannelli, Carole Langlois, Nicolas Bricout, Bernard Aguilaniu, Agnes Bellocq, Olivier Le Rouzic, Stephane Dominique, Alain Delobbe, Geraldine François, Abdellatif Tazi, Benoit Wallaert, Cecile Chenivesse
BACKGROUND: Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. METHODS: Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V'O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069192/acoustic-cavitation-induced-generation-of-stabilizer-free-extremely-stable-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanodispersion-for-efficient-delivery-of-paclitaxel-in-cancer-cells
#2
Renu Geetha Bai, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Fiona Natalia Shipton, Sivakumar Manickam
Graphene is one of the highly explored nanomaterials due to its unique and extraordinary properties. In this study, by utilizing a hydrothermal reduction method, graphene oxide (GO) was successfully converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without using any toxic reducing agents. Following this, with the use of ultrasonic cavitation, profoundly stable few layer thick RGO nanodispersion was generated without employing any stabilizers or surfactants. During ultrasonication, shockwaves from the collapse of bubbles cause a higher dispersing energy to the graphene nanosheets which surpass the forces of Van der Waal's and π-π stacking and thus pave the way to form a stable aqueous nanodispersion of graphene...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051153/the-metastasis-suppressor-rarres3-as-an-endogenous-inhibitor-of-the-immunoproteasome-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Alison M Anderson, Murugan Kalimutho, Sarah Harten, Devathri M Nanayakkara, Kum Kum Khanna, Mark A Ragan
In breast cancer metastasis, the dynamic continuum involving pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators can become compromised. Over 600 genes have been implicated in metastasis to bone, lung or brain but how these genes might contribute to perturbation of immune function is poorly understood. To gain insight, we adopted a gene co-expression network approach that draws on the functional parallels between naturally occurring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our network analyses indicate a key role for metastasis suppressor RARRES3, including potential to regulate the immunoproteasome (IP), a specialized proteasome induced under inflammatory conditions...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041954/lung-lavage-and-surfactant-replacement-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-for-treatment-of-gastric-acid-aspiration-induced-donor-lung-injury
#4
Daisuke Nakajima, Mingyao Liu, Akihiro Ohsumi, Ricardo Kalaf, Ilker Iskender, Michael Hsin, Takashi Kanou, Manyin Chen, Brandon Baer, Rafael Coutinho, Lucas Maahs, Paula Behrens, Sassan Azad, Tereza Martinu, Thomas K Waddell, James F Lewis, Martin Post, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) provides opportunities to treat injured donor lungs before transplantation. We investigated whether lung lavage, to eliminate inflammatory inhibitory components, followed by exogenous surfactant replacement, could aid lung recovery and improve post-transplant lung function after gastric aspiration injury. METHODS: Gastric acid aspiration was induced in donor pigs, which were ventilated for 6 hours to develop lung injury...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035616/effects-of-renal-function-on-crizotinib-pharmacokinetics-dose-recommendations-for-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Weiwei Tan, Shinji Yamazaki, Theodore R Johnson, Rong Wang, Melissa T O'Gorman, Leonid Kirkovsky, Tanya Boutros, Nicoletta M Brega, Akintunde Bello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crizotinib (250 mg twice daily) is the first anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor approved for treatment of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment on crizotinib pharmacokinetics and to make crizotinib dosing recommendations for ALK-positive NSCLC patients with renal impairment on the basis of the findings. METHODS: The effects of varying degrees of renal impairment on crizotinib pharmacokinetics were evaluated by: (1) analysis of mild and moderate renal impairment on multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC patients from the PROFILE 1001 and PROFILE 1005 trials; (2) analysis of severe renal impairment on single-dose pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in volunteers (Study 1020); and (3) prediction of the effect of severe renal impairment on multiple-dose crizotinib pharmacokinetics using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of crizotinib...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028053/mrtf-potentiates-tead-yap-transcriptional-activity-causing-metastasis
#6
Tackhoon Kim, Daehee Hwang, Dahye Lee, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Dae-Sik Lim
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) play similar roles and exhibit significant crosstalk in directing transcriptional responses to chemical and physical extracellular cues. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk, however, remains unclear. Here, we show MRTF family proteins bind YAP via a conserved PPXY motif that interacts with the YAP WW domain. This interaction allows MRTF to recruit NcoA3 to the TEAD-YAP transcriptional complex and potentiate its transcriptional activity...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012785/compensation-for-acid-base-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Chiara De Caro Carella, Helio Autran de Morais
Hydrogen concentration is a critical determinant of many physiologic functions and is tightly regulated. Any alteration in acid-base equilibrium sets into motion a compensatory response by either the lungs or the kidneys. The compensatory response attempts to return the ratio between Pco2 and [HCO3(-)] to normal and thereby minimize the pH change. A primary increase or decrease in one component is associated with a predictable compensatory change in the same direction in the other component, and the expected compensation can be estimated clinically in dogs and cats...
December 21, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008608/increasing-pulmonary-blood-flow-at-birth-the-nerve-of-the-baby
#8
Noah H Hillman
The transition from a fetus to a newborn infant is one of the most dramatic and important physiologic changes in an individual's life. With the cutting of the umbilical cord, the fetus must almost instantly convert to newborn physiology, which relies on efficient gas exchange in the lungs, energy metabolism in the liver, and thermoregulation through brown fat (Hillman et al., 2012). The most crucial of these physiologic shifts at birth is the transition from the fetal circulator pattern to normal dual ventricular physiology (Hooper et al...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006093/catalase-modulated-heterogeneous-fenton-reaction-for-selective-cancer-cell-eradication-snfe2o4-nanocrystals-as-an-effective-reagent-for-treating-lung-cancer-cells
#9
Kuan-Ting Lee, Yu-Jen Lu, Fwu-Long Mi, Thierry Burnouf, Yi-Ting Wei, Shao-Chieh Chiu, Er-Yuan Chuang, Shih-Yuan Lu
Heterogeneous Fenton reactions have been proven to be an effective and promising selective cancer cell treatment method. The key working mechanism for this method to achieve the critical therapeutic selectivity however remains unclear. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated for the first time the critical role played by catalase in realizing the therapeutic selectivity for the heterogeneous Fenton reaction-driven cancer cell treatment. The heterogeneous Fenton reaction, with the lattice ferric ions of the solid catalyst capable of converting H2O2 to highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, can effectively eradicate cancer cells...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#10
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
December 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998953/leptin-pharmacokinetics-in-male-mice
#11
Robert A Hart, Robin C Dobos, Linda L Agnew, Neil A Smart, James R McFarlane
Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has not been studied in detail and only one study has examined more than one time point in non-mutant mice and this was in a female mice. This is the first study to describe leptin distribution over a detailed time course in normal male mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected into adult male mice via the lateral tail vein and tissues were dissected out and measured for radioactivity over a time course of up to two hours. Major targets were the digestive tract, kidneys, skin and lungs...
January 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987733/optimizing-structural-and-mechanical-properties-of-cryogel-scaffolds-for-use-in-prostate-cancer-cell-culturing
#12
A Cecilia, A Baecker, E Hamann, A Rack, T van de Kamp, F J Gruhl, R Hofmann, J Moosmann, S Hahn, J Kashef, S Bauer, T Farago, L Helfen, T Baumbach
Prostate cancer (PCa) currently is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and the second most cause of cancer death after lung cancer in Western societies. This sets the necessity of modelling prostatic disorders to optimize a therapy against them. The conventional approach to investigating prostatic diseases is based on two-dimensional (2D) cell culturing. This method, however, does not provide a three-dimensional (3D) environment, therefore impeding a satisfying simulation of the prostate gland in which the PCa cells proliferate...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982675/differential-responsiveness-in-vegf-receptor-subtypes-to-hypoxic-stress-in-various-tissues-of-plateau-animals
#13
Hui-Chun Xie, Jin-Gang Li, Jian-Ping He
With hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are elevated and their responses are altered in skeletal muscles of plateau animals [China Qinghai-Tibetan plateau pikas (ochotona curzoniae)] as compared with control animals [normal lowland Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats]. The results indicate that HIF-1alpha and VEGF are engaged in physiological functions under hypoxic environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine the protein levels of VEGF receptor subtypes (VEGFRs: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3) in the end organs, namely skeletal muscle, heart and lung in response to hypoxic stress...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981283/lung-artefacts-and-their-use
#14
REVIEW
Christoph F Dietrich, Gebhard Mathis, Michael Blaivas, Giovanni Volpicelli, Armin Seibel, Nathan S Atkinson, Xin Wu Cui, Fan Mei, Dagmar Schreiber-Dietrich, Dong Yi
The science of lung ultrasound has grown tremendously over the last two decades and lung ultrasound has not only entered the mainstream of point of care ultrasound but has become a dominant topic. Understanding lung ultrasound signs and artifacts is critical to being able to correlate findings with actual pathology and normal anatomy and physiology. Investigators have described multiple lung ultrasound artifacts and findings and it is important to understand both the physics and anatomic basis behind them...
December 5, 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959944/bemer-electromagnetic-field-therapy-reduces-cancer-cell-radioresistance-by-enhanced-ros-formation-and-induced-dna-damage
#15
Katja Storch, Ellen Dickreuter, Anna Artati, Jerzy Adamski, Nils Cordes
Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941755/fibroblastic-foci-covered-with-alveolar-epithelia-exhibiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-destroy-alveolar-septa-by-disrupting-blood-flow-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Miki Yamaguchi, Sachie Hirai, Yusuke Tanaka, Toshiyuki Sumi, Masahiro Miyajima, Taijiro Mishina, Gen Yamada, Mitsuo Otsuka, Tadashi Hasegawa, Takashi Kojima, Toshiro Niki, Atsushi Watanabe, Hiroki Takahashi, Yuji Sakuma
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. IPF has a distinct histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in which fibroblastic foci (FF) represent the leading edge of fibrotic destruction of the lung. Currently there are three major hypotheses for how FF are generated: (1) from resident fibroblasts, (2) from bone marrow-derived progenitors of fibroblasts, and (3) from alveolar epithelial cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 12, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941715/peak-expiratory-flow-rate-pefr-in-first-and-third-trimester-of-pregnancy
#17
M R Zannat, A Nessa
In this cross sectional study peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and in third trimester of pregnancy, to observe the alteration in airflow rate during pregnancy. This cross sectional study carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years without any recent history of respiratory diseases were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group...
October 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939638/proteome-scale-investigation-of-protein-allosteric-regulation-perturbed-by-somatic-mutations-in-7-000-cancer-genomes
#18
Qiancheng Shen, Feixiong Cheng, Huili Song, Weiqiang Lu, Junfei Zhao, Xiaoli An, Mingyao Liu, Guoqiang Chen, Zhongming Zhao, Jian Zhang
The allosteric regulation triggering the protein's functional activity via conformational changes is an intrinsic function of protein under many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer. Identification of the biological effects of specific somatic variants on allosteric proteins and the phenotypes that they alter during tumor initiation and progression is a central challenge for cancer genomes in the post-genomic era. Here, we mapped more than 47,000 somatic missense mutations observed in approximately 7,000 tumor-normal matched samples across 33 cancer types into protein allosteric sites to prioritize the mutated allosteric proteins and we tested our prediction in cancer cell lines...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936061/in-vivo-measurements-of-t2-relaxation-time-of-mouse-lungs-during-inspiration-and-expiration
#19
Lars E Olsson, Paul D Hockings
PURPOSE: The interest in measurements of magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times, T1, T2, T2*, with intention to characterize healthy and diseased lungs has increased recently. Animal studies play an important role in this context providing models for understanding and linking the measured relaxation time changes to the underlying physiology or disease. The aim of this work was to study how the measured transversal relaxation time (T2) in healthy lungs is affected by normal respiration in mouse...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919118/preeclampsia-and-the-risk-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-less-than-32-weeks-gestation
#20
Nancy Soliman, Kathleen Chaput, Belal Alshaikh, Kamran Yusuf
Objective Angiogenesis is essential for normal lung development. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that preeclampsia, an antiangiogenic state, is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Design Prospective cohort study of infants less than 32 weeks' gestation born to mothers with preeclampsia between January 2007 and June 2010 at a single tertiary care center. Their BPD outcome was compared with infants born to the next two normotensive mothers with a ± 1 week gestational age difference...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
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