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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227872/detection-of-different-types-of-noise-in-lung-sounds
#1
A Leal, R Couceiro, I Chouvarda, N Maglaveras, J Henriques, R Paiva, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, A Leal, R Couceiro, I Chouvarda, N Maglaveras, J Henriques, R Paiva, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, R Couceiro, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, A Leal, R Paiva, J Henriques, N Maglaveras, I Chouvarda
Lung sound signal processing has proven to be a great improvement to the traditional acoustic interpretation of lung sounds. However, that analysis can be seriously hindered by the presence of different types of noise originated in the acquisition environment or caused by physiological processes. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary diseases can be severely affected, especially if the implementation of telemonitoring systems is considered. The present study is focused on the implementation of an algorithm able to identify noisy periods, either voluntarily (vocalizations, chest movement and background voices) or involuntarily produced during acquisitions of lung sounds...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202552/airway-dynamics-in-copd-patients-by-within-breath-impedance-tracking-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#2
András Lorx, Dorottya Czövek, Zoltán Gingl, Gergely Makan, Bence Radics, Dóra Bartusek, Szabolcs Szigeti, János Gál, György Losonczy, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos
Tracking of the within-breath changes of respiratory mechanics using the forced oscillation technique may provide outcomes that characterise the dynamic behaviour of the airways during normal breathing.We measured respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at 8 Hz in 55 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 20 healthy controls, and evaluated Rrs and Xrs as functions of gas flow (V') and volume (V) during normal breathing cycles. In 12 COPD patients, additional measurements were made at continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels of 4, 8, 14 and 20 hPa...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193079/correlation-between-mmp-9-and-mmp-9-timps-complex-with-pulmonary-function-in-sulfur-mustard-exposed-civilians-sardasht-iran-cohort-study
#3
Sara Ghaffarpour, Tooba Ghazanfari, Sussan Kabudanian Ardestani, Shahryar Pourfarzam, Faramarz Fallahi, Jalaleddin Shams, Ensieh Sadat Mirsharif, Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd, Soghrat Faghihzadeh
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases and have the vigorous capacity to degrade all parts of the extracellular matrix. MMP enzymes strongly participate in physiological processes such as normal tissue remodeling and wound healing and in pathology of pulmonary diseases. They are released in response to environmental stimuli such as toxins and regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical toxic which can cause severe permanent damages to lung tissues...
February 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192119/leflunomide-induces-nad-p-h-quinone-dehydrogenase-1-enzyme-via-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-neonatal-mice
#4
Amrit Kumar Shrestha, Ananddeep Patel, Renuka T Menon, Weiwu Jiang, Lihua Wang, Bhagavatula Moorthy, Binoy Shivanna
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in normal physiological homeostasis. Additionally, disrupted AhR signaling leads to several pathological states in the lung and liver. AhR activation transcriptionally induces detoxifying enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). The toxicity profiles of the classical AhR ligands such as 3-methylcholanthrene and dioxins limit their use as a therapeutic agent in humans. Hence, there is a need to identify nontoxic AhR ligands to develop AhR as a clinically relevant druggable target...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179999/cancer-stem-like-cells-can-be-induced-through-dedifferentiation-under-hypoxic-conditions-in-glioma-hepatoma-and-lung-cancer
#5
Pan Wang, Wen-Wu Wan, Shuang-Long Xiong, Hua Feng, Nan Wu
Traditional studies have shown that transcription factors, including SOX-2, OCT-4, KLF-4, Nanog and Lin-28A, contribute to the dedifferentiation and reprogramming process in normal tissues. Hypoxia is a physiological phenomenon that exists in tumors and promotes the expression of SOX-2, OCT-4, KLF-4, Nanog and Lin-28A. Therefore, an interesting question is whether hypoxia as a stimulating factor promotes the process of dedifferentiation and induces the formation of cancer stem-like cells. Studies have shown that OCT-4 and Nanog overexpression induced the formation of cancer stem cell-like cells through dedifferentiation and enhanced malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma, and reprogramming SOX-2 in pancreatic cancer cells also promoted the dedifferentiation process...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155908/understanding-cancer-complexome-using-networks-spectral-graph-theory-and-multilayer-framework
#6
Aparna Rai, Priodyuti Pradhan, Jyothi Nagraj, K Lohitesh, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Sarika Jalan
Cancer complexome comprises a heterogeneous and multifactorial milieu that varies in cytology, physiology, signaling mechanisms and response to therapy. The combined framework of network theory and spectral graph theory along with the multilayer analysis provides a comprehensive approach to analyze the proteomic data of seven different cancers, namely, breast, oral, ovarian, cervical, lung, colon and prostate. Our analysis demonstrates that the protein-protein interaction networks of the normal and the cancerous tissues associated with the seven cancers have overall similar structural and spectral properties...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153862/the-cargo-protein-map17-pdzk1ip1-regulates-the-cancer-stem-cell-pool-activating-the-notch-pathway-by-abducting-numb
#7
Jose M Garcia-Heredia, Antonio Lucena-Cacace, Eva M Verdugo-Sivianes, Marco Perez, Amancio Carnero
Purpose Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing tumor cells, with ability to generate the diverse differentiated tumor cell subpopulations. They differ from normal stem cells in the deregulation of the mechanisms that normally controls stem cell physiology. CSCs are the origin of metastasis and highly resistant to therapy. Therefore the understanding of the CSC origin and deregulated pathways is important for tumor control. Experimental design We have included experiments in vitro, in cell lines and tumors of different origins...
February 2, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150936/ph-responsive-zno-nanocluster-for-lung-cancer-chemotherapy
#8
Xiaoli Cai, Yanan Luo, Hongye Yan, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin
Here, we demonstrated a pH-responsive nanocluster based on ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and investigated its potential in drug delivery with tumor-specific accumulation. The nanoclusters were composed of small single ZnO QDs by cross-linking dicarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), showing high stability and biocompatibility in physiological fluid. The clustered ZnO QDs were capable of loading a large quantity of doxorubicin (DOX) via complexation and covalent interactions. After cellular uptake, the drug was efficiently released because the carrier was completely dissolved; the metal-drug complex was disassembled in response to decreasing pH in the endosomes within tumor cells...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123541/differential-effects-of-recombinant-human-endostatin-treatment-on-differentiated-and-undifferentiated-blood-vessels-in-lewis-lung-cancer
#9
Weijiang Fu, Jing Zhuo, Likuan Hu
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human (rh-)endostatin treatment on differentiated and undifferentiated tumor vasculature in Lewis lung cancer for the first time. Lewis lung carcinoma models were established. The animals were treated daily with varying doses of rh-endostatin or physiological saline for 14 days. Intravital microscopy was performed following treatment. The expression of CD31 and CD34 was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101903/development-and-characterization-of-anti-glycopeptide-monoclonal-antibodies-against-human-podoplanin-using-glycan-deficient-cell-lines-generated-by-crispr-cas9-and-talen
#10
Mika K Kaneko, Takuro Nakamura, Ryusuke Honma, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yuki Fujii, Shinji Abe, Michiaki Takagi, Hiroyuki Harada, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Yasuhiko Nishioka, Yukinari Kato
Human podoplanin (hPDPN), which binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2), is involved in platelet aggregation and cancer metastasis. The expression of hPDPN in cancer cells or cancer-associated fibroblasts indicates poor prognosis. Human lymphatic endothelial cells, lung-type I alveolar cells, and renal glomerular epithelial cells express hPDPN. Although numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hPDPN are available, they recognize peptide epitopes of hPDPN. Here, we generated a novel anti-hPDPN mAb, LpMab-21...
January 19, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072848/physiologic-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-in-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-multidimensional-analysis
#11
Camille Rolland-Debord, Stephanie Fry, Jonathan Giovannelli, Carole Langlois, Nicolas Bricout, Bernard Aguilaniu, Agnes Bellocq, Olivier Le Rouzic, Stephane Dominique, Alain Delobbe, Geraldine François, Abdellatif Tazi, Benoit Wallaert, Cecile Chenivesse
BACKGROUND: Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. METHODS: Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V'O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069192/acoustic-cavitation-induced-generation-of-stabilizer-free-extremely-stable-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanodispersion-for-efficient-delivery-of-paclitaxel-in-cancer-cells
#12
Renu Geetha Bai, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Fiona Natalia Shipton, Sivakumar Manickam
Graphene is one of the highly explored nanomaterials due to its unique and extraordinary properties. In this study, by utilizing a hydrothermal reduction method, graphene oxide (GO) was successfully converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without using any toxic reducing agents. Following this, with the use of ultrasonic cavitation, profoundly stable few layer thick RGO nanodispersion was generated without employing any stabilizers or surfactants. During ultrasonication, shockwaves from the collapse of bubbles cause a higher dispersing energy to the graphene nanosheets which surpass the forces of Van der Waal's and π-π stacking and thus pave the way to form a stable aqueous nanodispersion of graphene...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051153/the-metastasis-suppressor-rarres3-as-an-endogenous-inhibitor-of-the-immunoproteasome-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Alison M Anderson, Murugan Kalimutho, Sarah Harten, Devathri M Nanayakkara, Kum Kum Khanna, Mark A Ragan
In breast cancer metastasis, the dynamic continuum involving pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators can become compromised. Over 600 genes have been implicated in metastasis to bone, lung or brain but how these genes might contribute to perturbation of immune function is poorly understood. To gain insight, we adopted a gene co-expression network approach that draws on the functional parallels between naturally occurring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our network analyses indicate a key role for metastasis suppressor RARRES3, including potential to regulate the immunoproteasome (IP), a specialized proteasome induced under inflammatory conditions...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041954/lung-lavage-and-surfactant-replacement-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-for-treatment-of-gastric-acid-aspiration-induced-donor-lung-injury
#14
Daisuke Nakajima, Mingyao Liu, Akihiro Ohsumi, Ricardo Kalaf, Ilker Iskender, Michael Hsin, Takashi Kanou, Manyin Chen, Brandon Baer, Rafael Coutinho, Lucas Maahs, Paula Behrens, Sassan Azad, Tereza Martinu, Thomas K Waddell, James F Lewis, Martin Post, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) provides opportunities to treat injured donor lungs before transplantation. We investigated whether lung lavage, to eliminate inflammatory inhibitory components, followed by exogenous surfactant replacement, could aid lung recovery and improve post-transplant lung function after gastric aspiration injury. METHODS: Gastric acid aspiration was induced in donor pigs, which were ventilated for 6 hours to develop lung injury...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035616/effects-of-renal-function-on-crizotinib-pharmacokinetics-dose-recommendations-for-patients-with-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Weiwei Tan, Shinji Yamazaki, Theodore R Johnson, Rong Wang, Melissa T O'Gorman, Leonid Kirkovsky, Tanya Boutros, Nicoletta M Brega, Akintunde Bello
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crizotinib (250 mg twice daily) is the first anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor approved for treatment of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effects of mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment on crizotinib pharmacokinetics and to make crizotinib dosing recommendations for ALK-positive NSCLC patients with renal impairment on the basis of the findings. METHODS: The effects of varying degrees of renal impairment on crizotinib pharmacokinetics were evaluated by: (1) analysis of mild and moderate renal impairment on multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC patients from the PROFILE 1001 and PROFILE 1005 trials; (2) analysis of severe renal impairment on single-dose pharmacokinetics of crizotinib in volunteers (Study 1020); and (3) prediction of the effect of severe renal impairment on multiple-dose crizotinib pharmacokinetics using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of crizotinib...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028053/mrtf-potentiates-tead-yap-transcriptional-activity-causing-metastasis
#16
Tackhoon Kim, Daehee Hwang, Dahye Lee, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Dae-Sik Lim
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) play similar roles and exhibit significant crosstalk in directing transcriptional responses to chemical and physical extracellular cues. The mechanism underlying this crosstalk, however, remains unclear. Here, we show MRTF family proteins bind YAP via a conserved PPXY motif that interacts with the YAP WW domain. This interaction allows MRTF to recruit NcoA3 to the TEAD-YAP transcriptional complex and potentiate its transcriptional activity...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012785/compensation-for-acid-base-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Chiara De Caro Carella, Helio Autran de Morais
Hydrogen concentration is a critical determinant of many physiologic functions and is tightly regulated. Any alteration in acid-base equilibrium sets into motion a compensatory response by either the lungs or the kidneys. The compensatory response attempts to return the ratio between Pco2 and [HCO3(-)] to normal and thereby minimize the pH change. A primary increase or decrease in one component is associated with a predictable compensatory change in the same direction in the other component, and the expected compensation can be estimated clinically in dogs and cats...
December 21, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008608/increasing-pulmonary-blood-flow-at-birth-the-nerve-of-the-baby
#18
Noah H Hillman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006093/catalase-modulated-heterogeneous-fenton-reaction-for-selective-cancer-cell-eradication-snfe2o4-nanocrystals-as-an-effective-reagent-for-treating-lung-cancer-cells
#19
Kuan-Ting Lee, Yu-Jen Lu, Fwu-Long Mi, Thierry Burnouf, Yi-Ting Wei, Shao-Chieh Chiu, Er-Yuan Chuang, Shih-Yuan Lu
Heterogeneous Fenton reactions have been proven to be an effective and promising selective cancer cell treatment method. The key working mechanism for this method to achieve the critical therapeutic selectivity however remains unclear. In this study, we proposed and demonstrated for the first time the critical role played by catalase in realizing the therapeutic selectivity for the heterogeneous Fenton reaction-driven cancer cell treatment. The heterogeneous Fenton reaction, with the lattice ferric ions of the solid catalyst capable of converting H2O2 to highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, can effectively eradicate cancer cells...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#20
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
January 12, 2017: Nature
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