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Normal lung physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315975/spatial-patterns-and-frequency-distributions-of-regional-deformation-in-the-healthy-human-lung
#1
Daniel E Hurtado, Nicolás Villarroel, Carlos Andrade, Jaime Retamal, Guillermo Bugedo, Alejandro Bruhn
Understanding regional deformation in the lung has long attracted the medical community, as parenchymal deformation plays a key role in respiratory physiology. Recent advances in image registration make it possible to noninvasively study regional deformation, showing that volumetric deformation in healthy lungs follows complex spatial patterns not necessarily shared by all subjects, and that deformation can be highly anisotropic. In this work, we systematically study the regional deformation in the lungs of eleven human subjects by means of in vivo image-based biomechanical analysis...
March 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269614/detection-of-different-types-of-noise-in-lung-sounds
#2
A Leal, R Couceiro, I Chouvarda, N Maglaveras, J Henriques, R Paiva, P Carvalho, C Teixeira
Lung sound signal processing has proven to be a great improvement to the traditional acoustic interpretation of lung sounds. However, that analysis can be seriously hindered by the presence of different types of noise originated in the acquisition environment or caused by physiological processes. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary diseases can be severely affected, especially if the implementation of telemonitoring systems is considered. The present study is focused on the implementation of an algorithm able to identify noisy periods, either voluntarily (vocalizations, chest movement and background voices) or involuntarily produced during acquisitions of lung sounds...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258569/aquaporins-in-respiratory-system
#3
Yuanlin Song, Linlin Wang, Jian Wang, Chunxue Bai
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242995/candida-esophagitis-incidentally-detected-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma
#4
N Martínez-Amador, I Martínez-Rodríguez, R Quirce, J Jiménez-Bonilla, I Banzo
The diagnostic significance of esophageal 18F-FDG uptake in oncologic patient is challenging. It may represent normal physiological uptake, inflammation, infection, or neoplasia. We present a patient with a recent diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer stage IV and esophageal mild uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. Biopsy of esophageal mucosa demonstrated Candida esophagitis.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239691/wood-combustion-particles-induce-adverse-effects-to-normal-and-diseased-airway-epithelia
#5
Manuel Krapf, Lisa Künzi, Sandrine Allenbach, Emily A Bruns, Ilaria Gavarini, Imad El-Haddad, Jay G Slowik, André S H Prévôt, Luka Drinovec, Griša Močnik, Lutz Dümbgen, Matthias Salathe, Nathalie Baumlin, Constantinos Sioutas, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Marianne Geiser
Residential wood burning is a major source of poorly characterized, deleterious particulate matter, whose composition and toxicity may vary with wood type, burning condition and photochemical age. The causative link between ambient wood particle constituents and observed adverse health effects is currently lacking. Here we investigate the relationship between chemical properties of primary and atmospherically aged wood combustion particles and acute toxicity in human airway epithelial cells. Emissions from a log wood burner were diluted and injected into a smog chamber for photochemical aging...
February 27, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#6
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227872/detection-of-different-types-of-noise-in-lung-sounds
#7
A Leal, R Couceiro, I Chouvarda, N Maglaveras, J Henriques, R Paiva, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, A Leal, R Couceiro, I Chouvarda, N Maglaveras, J Henriques, R Paiva, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, R Couceiro, P Carvalho, C Teixeira, A Leal, R Paiva, J Henriques, N Maglaveras, I Chouvarda
Lung sound signal processing has proven to be a great improvement to the traditional acoustic interpretation of lung sounds. However, that analysis can be seriously hindered by the presence of different types of noise originated in the acquisition environment or caused by physiological processes. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary diseases can be severely affected, especially if the implementation of telemonitoring systems is considered. The present study is focused on the implementation of an algorithm able to identify noisy periods, either voluntarily (vocalizations, chest movement and background voices) or involuntarily produced during acquisitions of lung sounds...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202552/airway-dynamics-in-copd-patients-by-within-breath-impedance-tracking-effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#8
András Lorx, Dorottya Czövek, Zoltán Gingl, Gergely Makan, Bence Radics, Dóra Bartusek, Szabolcs Szigeti, János Gál, György Losonczy, Peter D Sly, Zoltán Hantos
Tracking of the within-breath changes of respiratory mechanics using the forced oscillation technique may provide outcomes that characterise the dynamic behaviour of the airways during normal breathing.We measured respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) at 8 Hz in 55 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 20 healthy controls, and evaluated Rrs and Xrs as functions of gas flow (V') and volume (V) during normal breathing cycles. In 12 COPD patients, additional measurements were made at continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels of 4, 8, 14 and 20 hPa...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193079/correlation-between-mmp-9-and-mmp-9-timps-complex-with-pulmonary-function-in-sulfur-mustard-exposed-civilians-sardasht-iran-cohort-study
#9
Sara Ghaffarpour, Tooba Ghazanfari, Sussan Kabudanian Ardestani, Shahryar Pourfarzam, Faramarz Fallahi, Jalaleddin Shams, Ensieh Sadat Mirsharif, Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd, Soghrat Faghihzadeh
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases and have the vigorous capacity to degrade all parts of the extracellular matrix. MMP enzymes strongly participate in physiological processes such as normal tissue remodeling and wound healing and in pathology of pulmonary diseases. They are released in response to environmental stimuli such as toxins and regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical toxic which can cause severe permanent damages to lung tissues...
February 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192119/leflunomide-induces-nad-p-h-quinone-dehydrogenase-1-enzyme-via-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-neonatal-mice
#10
Amrit Kumar Shrestha, Ananddeep Patel, Renuka T Menon, Weiwu Jiang, Lihua Wang, Bhagavatula Moorthy, Binoy Shivanna
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in normal physiological homeostasis. Additionally, disrupted AhR signaling leads to several pathological states in the lung and liver. AhR activation transcriptionally induces detoxifying enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1). The toxicity profiles of the classical AhR ligands such as 3-methylcholanthrene and dioxins limit their use as a therapeutic agent in humans. Hence, there is a need to identify nontoxic AhR ligands to develop AhR as a clinically relevant druggable target...
March 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179999/cancer-stem-like-cells-can-be-induced-through-dedifferentiation-under-hypoxic-conditions-in-glioma-hepatoma-and-lung-cancer
#11
Pan Wang, Wen-Wu Wan, Shuang-Long Xiong, Hua Feng, Nan Wu
Traditional studies have shown that transcription factors, including SOX-2, OCT-4, KLF-4, Nanog and Lin-28A, contribute to the dedifferentiation and reprogramming process in normal tissues. Hypoxia is a physiological phenomenon that exists in tumors and promotes the expression of SOX-2, OCT-4, KLF-4, Nanog and Lin-28A. Therefore, an interesting question is whether hypoxia as a stimulating factor promotes the process of dedifferentiation and induces the formation of cancer stem-like cells. Studies have shown that OCT-4 and Nanog overexpression induced the formation of cancer stem cell-like cells through dedifferentiation and enhanced malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma, and reprogramming SOX-2 in pancreatic cancer cells also promoted the dedifferentiation process...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155908/understanding-cancer-complexome-using-networks-spectral-graph-theory-and-multilayer-framework
#12
Aparna Rai, Priodyuti Pradhan, Jyothi Nagraj, K Lohitesh, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Sarika Jalan
Cancer complexome comprises a heterogeneous and multifactorial milieu that varies in cytology, physiology, signaling mechanisms and response to therapy. The combined framework of network theory and spectral graph theory along with the multilayer analysis provides a comprehensive approach to analyze the proteomic data of seven different cancers, namely, breast, oral, ovarian, cervical, lung, colon and prostate. Our analysis demonstrates that the protein-protein interaction networks of the normal and the cancerous tissues associated with the seven cancers have overall similar structural and spectral properties...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153862/the-cargo-protein-map17-pdzk1ip1-regulates-the-cancer-stem-cell-pool-activating-the-notch-pathway-by-abducting-numb
#13
Jose M Garcia-Heredia, Antonio Lucena-Cacace, Eva M Verdugo-Sivianes, Marco Perez, Amancio Carnero
Purpose Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are self-renewing tumor cells, with ability to generate the diverse differentiated tumor cell subpopulations. They differ from normal stem cells in the deregulation of the mechanisms that normally controls stem cell physiology. CSCs are the origin of metastasis and highly resistant to therapy. Therefore the understanding of the CSC origin and deregulated pathways is important for tumor control. Experimental design We have included experiments in vitro, in cell lines and tumors of different origins...
February 2, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150936/ph-responsive-zno-nanocluster-for-lung-cancer-chemotherapy
#14
Xiaoli Cai, Yanan Luo, Hongye Yan, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin
Here, we demonstrated a pH-responsive nanocluster based on ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and investigated its potential in drug delivery with tumor-specific accumulation. The nanoclusters were composed of small single ZnO QDs by cross-linking dicarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), showing high stability and biocompatibility in physiological fluids. The clustered ZnO QDs were capable of loading a large quantity of doxorubicin (DOX) via complexation and covalent interactions. After cellular uptake, the drug was efficiently released because the carrier was completely dissolved; the metal-drug complex was disassembled in response to decreasing pH in the endosomes within tumor cells...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123541/differential-effects-of-recombinant-human-endostatin-treatment-on-differentiated-and-undifferentiated-blood-vessels-in-lewis-lung-cancer
#15
Weijiang Fu, Jing Zhuo, Likuan Hu
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of recombinant human (rh-)endostatin treatment on differentiated and undifferentiated tumor vasculature in Lewis lung cancer for the first time. Lewis lung carcinoma models were established. The animals were treated daily with varying doses of rh-endostatin or physiological saline for 14 days. Intravital microscopy was performed following treatment. The expression of CD31 and CD34 was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and microvessel density (MVD) was determined...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101903/development-and-characterization-of-anti-glycopeptide-monoclonal-antibodies-against-human-podoplanin-using-glycan-deficient-cell-lines-generated-by-crispr-cas9-and-talen
#16
Mika K Kaneko, Takuro Nakamura, Ryusuke Honma, Satoshi Ogasawara, Yuki Fujii, Shinji Abe, Michiaki Takagi, Hiroyuki Harada, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Yasuhiko Nishioka, Yukinari Kato
Human podoplanin (hPDPN), which binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2), is involved in platelet aggregation and cancer metastasis. The expression of hPDPN in cancer cells or cancer-associated fibroblasts indicates poor prognosis. Human lymphatic endothelial cells, lung-type I alveolar cells, and renal glomerular epithelial cells express hPDPN. Although numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hPDPN are available, they recognize peptide epitopes of hPDPN. Here, we generated a novel anti-hPDPN mAb, LpMab-21...
February 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072848/physiologic-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-in-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-multidimensional-analysis
#17
Camille Rolland-Debord, Stephanie Fry, Jonathan Giovannelli, Carole Langlois, Nicolas Bricout, Bernard Aguilaniu, Agnes Bellocq, Olivier Le Rouzic, Stephane Dominique, Alain Delobbe, Geraldine François, Abdellatif Tazi, Benoit Wallaert, Cecile Chenivesse
BACKGROUND: Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. METHODS: Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V'O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069192/acoustic-cavitation-induced-generation-of-stabilizer-free-extremely-stable-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanodispersion-for-efficient-delivery-of-paclitaxel-in-cancer-cells
#18
Renu Geetha Bai, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Fiona Natalia Shipton, Sivakumar Manickam
Graphene is one of the highly explored nanomaterials due to its unique and extraordinary properties. In this study, by utilizing a hydrothermal reduction method, graphene oxide (GO) was successfully converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without using any toxic reducing agents. Following this, with the use of ultrasonic cavitation, profoundly stable few layer thick RGO nanodispersion was generated without employing any stabilizers or surfactants. During ultrasonication, shockwaves from the collapse of bubbles cause a higher dispersing energy to the graphene nanosheets which surpass the forces of Van der Waal's and π-π stacking and thus pave the way to form a stable aqueous nanodispersion of graphene...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051153/the-metastasis-suppressor-rarres3-as-an-endogenous-inhibitor-of-the-immunoproteasome-expression-in-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Alison M Anderson, Murugan Kalimutho, Sarah Harten, Devathri M Nanayakkara, Kum Kum Khanna, Mark A Ragan
In breast cancer metastasis, the dynamic continuum involving pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators can become compromised. Over 600 genes have been implicated in metastasis to bone, lung or brain but how these genes might contribute to perturbation of immune function is poorly understood. To gain insight, we adopted a gene co-expression network approach that draws on the functional parallels between naturally occurring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our network analyses indicate a key role for metastasis suppressor RARRES3, including potential to regulate the immunoproteasome (IP), a specialized proteasome induced under inflammatory conditions...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041954/lung-lavage-and-surfactant-replacement-during-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-for-treatment-of-gastric-acid-aspiration-induced-donor-lung-injury
#20
Daisuke Nakajima, Mingyao Liu, Akihiro Ohsumi, Ricardo Kalaf, Ilker Iskender, Michael Hsin, Takashi Kanou, Manyin Chen, Brandon Baer, Rafael Coutinho, Lucas Maahs, Paula Behrens, Sassan Azad, Tereza Martinu, Thomas K Waddell, James F Lewis, Martin Post, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Marcelo Cypel, Shaf Keshavjee
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) provides opportunities to treat injured donor lungs before transplantation. We investigated whether lung lavage, to eliminate inflammatory inhibitory components, followed by exogenous surfactant replacement, could aid lung recovery and improve post-transplant lung function after gastric aspiration injury. METHODS: Gastric acid aspiration was induced in donor pigs, which were ventilated for 6 hours to develop lung injury...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
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