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Physiology of lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329750/optoelectronic-plethysmography-in-clinical-practice-and-research-a-review
#1
Carlo Massaroni, Elena Carraro, Andrea Vianello, Sandra Miccinilli, Michelangelo Morrone, Irisz K Levai, Emiliano Schena, Paola Saccomandi, Silvia Sterzi, John W Dickinson, Samantha Winter, Sergio Silvestri
BACKGROUND: Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a non-invasive motion capture method to measure chest wall movements and estimate lung volumes. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the clinical findings and research applications of OEP in the assessment of breathing mechanics across populations of healthy and diseased individuals. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed with the terms "opto-electronic plethysmography," "optoelectronic plethysmography," and "optoelectronic plethysmograph" in 50 digital library and bibliographic search databases resulting in the selection of 170 studies...
March 23, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326312/a-comparison-of-published-multidimensional-indices-to-predict-outcome-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#2
Charles Sharp, Huzaifa I Adamali, Ann B Millar
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has an unpredictable course and prognostic factors are incompletely understood. We aimed to identify prognostic factors, including multidimensional indices from a significant IPF cohort at the Bristol Interstitial Lung Disease Centre in the UK. Patients diagnosed with IPF between 2007 and 2014 were identified. Longitudinal pulmonary physiology and exercise testing results were collated, with all-cause mortality used as the primary outcome. Factors influencing overall, 12- and 24-month survival were identified using Cox proportional hazards modelling and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324860/direct-detection-of-two-different-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-by-sam-aunis-lspr-biosensor
#3
Abhimanyu Thakur, Guangyu Qiu, Siu-Pang Ng, Jintao Guan, Jianbo Yue, Youngjin Lee, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundant in various biological fluids including blood, saliva, urine, as well as extracellular milieu. Accumulating evidence has indicated that EVs, which contain functional proteins and small RNAs, facilitate intercellular communication between neighbouring cells, and are critical to maintain various physiological processes. In contrast, EV-derived toxic signals can spread out over the tissues adjacent to the injured area in certain diseases, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324666/gene-expression-analysis-to-assess-the-relevance-of-rodent-models-to-human-lung-injury
#4
Timothy E Sweeney, Shane Lofgren, Purvesh Khatri, Angela J Rogers
Rationale The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. Objectives Comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental ALI in rodents compared to humans. Methods We performed two separate gene expression multi-cohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323236/rationale-study-design-and-analysis-plan-of-the-lung-imaging-morphology-for-ventilator-settings-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-study-live-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Matthieu Jabaudon, Thomas Godet, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Etienne Bazin, Vincent Sapin, Laurence Roszyk, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Michel Constantin
Different acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) phenotypes may explain controversial results in clinical trials. Lung-morphology is one of the ARDS-phenotypes and physiological studies suggest different responses in terms of positive-end-expiratory-pressure (PEEP) and recruitment-manoeuvres (RM) according to loss of aeration. To evaluate whether tailored ventilator regimens may impact ARDS outcomes, our group has designed a randomised-clinical-trial of ventilator settings according to lung morphology in moderate-to-severe ARDS (LIVE study)...
March 17, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320962/genetic-disruption-of-oncogenic-kras-sensitizes-lung-cancer-cells-to-fas-receptor-mediated-apoptosis
#6
Haiwei Mou, Jill Moore, Sunil K Malonia, Yingxiang Li, Deniz M Ozata, Soren Hough, Chun-Qing Song, Jordan L Smith, Andrew Fischer, Zhiping Weng, Michael R Green, Wen Xue
Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320890/a-biophysical-vascular-bubble-model-for-devising-decompression-procedures
#7
Ran Arieli, Abraham Marmur
Vascular bubble models, which present a realistic biophysical approach, hold great promise for devising suitable diver decompression procedures. Nanobubbles were found to nucleate on a flat hydrophobic surface, expanding to form bubbles after decompression. Such active hydrophobic spots (AHS) were formed from lung surfactants on the luminal aspect of ovine blood vessels. Many of the phenomena observed in these bubbling vessels correlated with those known to occur in diving. On the basis of our previous studies, which proposed a new model for the formation of arterial bubbles, we now suggest the biophysical model presented herein...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317134/use-of-rna-seq-to-determine-variation-in-canine-cytochrome-p450-mrna-expression-between-blood-liver-lung-kidney-and-duodenum-in-healthy-beagles
#8
M Visser, K Weber, G Rincon, D Merritt
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful tool for the evaluation and quantification of transcriptomes and expression patterns in animals, tissues, or pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mRNA transcripts in whole blood, kidney, duodenum, liver, and lung in healthy, adult male (n = 4) and female (n = 4) beagles via RNA-seq. mRNA expression was above background (transcripts per million) for 45 canine CYPs, with liver, duodenum, and lung expressing a high number of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs, while prominent endogenous metabolizing CYP expression was present in blood and kidney...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316929/cytomegalovirus-pneumonitis-complicated-by-a-central-peribronchial-pattern-of-organising-pneumonia
#9
Maria M Cuadrado, Asia Ahmed, Ben Carpenter, Jeremy S Brown
We present five cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis occurring in patients after recent T cell deplete allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). These cases were complicated by an organising pneumonia (during the recovery period) with a predominantly central peribronchial pattern. All patients presented with evidence of active CMV pneumonitis which was treated successfully with anti-viral therapy but was followed by persistent severe dyspnoea, cough and hypoxia. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging showed widespread central peribronchial consolidation with traction bronchiectasis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316330/the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-gatekeeper-to-respiratory-health
#10
REVIEW
Wing Ho Man, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Debby Bogaert
The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts as a gatekeeper that provides resistance to colonization by respiratory pathogens. The respiratory microbiota might also be involved in the maturation and maintenance of homeostasis of respiratory physiology and immunity...
March 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316092/elevation-of-gprc5a-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-promotes-tumor-progression-through-vnn-1-induced-oxidative-stress
#11
Long Zhang, Liang Li, Ganglong Gao, Gaigai Wei, Yansen Zheng, Chunmei Wang, Na Gao, Yongliang Zhao, Jiong Deng, Huaqing Chen, Jialiang Sun, Dali Li, Xueli Zhang, Mingyao Liu
The clearance of oxidative stress compounds is critical for the protection of the organism from malignancy, but how this key physiological process is regulated is not fully understood. Here we found that the expression of GPRC5A, a well-characterized tumor suppressor in lung cancer, was elevated in colorectal cancer tissues in patients. In both cancer cell lines and a colitis-associated cancer model in mice, we found that GPRC5A deficiency reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis as well as inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315975/spatial-patterns-and-frequency-distributions-of-regional-deformation-in-the-healthy-human-lung
#12
Daniel E Hurtado, Nicolás Villarroel, Carlos Andrade, Jaime Retamal, Guillermo Bugedo, Alejandro Bruhn
Understanding regional deformation in the lung has long attracted the medical community, as parenchymal deformation plays a key role in respiratory physiology. Recent advances in image registration make it possible to noninvasively study regional deformation, showing that volumetric deformation in healthy lungs follows complex spatial patterns not necessarily shared by all subjects, and that deformation can be highly anisotropic. In this work, we systematically study the regional deformation in the lungs of eleven human subjects by means of in vivo image-based biomechanical analysis...
March 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315681/differential-sex-specific-effects-of-oxygen-toxicity-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#13
Yuhao Zhang, Krithika Lingappan
Despite the well-established sex-specific differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the molecular mechanism(s) behind these are not completely understood. Pulmonary angiogenesis is critical for alveolarization and arrest in vascular development adversely affects lung development. Human neonatal umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) provide a robust in vitro model for the study of endothelial cell physiology and function. Male and Female HUVECs were exposed to room air (21% O2, 5% CO2) or hyperoxia (95% O2, 5% CO2) for up to 72 h...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315643/benefits-of-21-oxygen-compared-with-100-oxygen-for-delivery-of-isoflurane-to-mice-mus-musculus-and-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#14
Laura A Wilding, Joe A Hampel, Basma M Khoury, Stacey Kang, David Machado-Aranda, Krishnan Raghavendran, Jean A Nemzek
At research institutions, isoflurane delivered by precision vaporizer to a face mask is the standard for rodent surgery and for procedures with durations that exceed a few minutes. Pure oxygen is often used as the carrier gas for isoflurane anesthesia, despite documented complications from long-term 100% oxygen use in humans and known occupational safety risks. We therefore examined the effect of anesthetic delivery gas on physiologic variables in mice and rats. Rodents were anesthetized for 60 min with isoflurane delivered in either 21% or 100% oxygen by means of a nose cone...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314540/technological-advances-shed-light-on-left-ventricular-cardiac-disturbances-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Zahra N Sayyid, Zachary M Sellers
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common autosomal recessive lethal disease in Caucasians, causes chronic pulmonary disease and can lead to cor pulmonale with right ventricular dysfunction. The presence of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cardiac myocardia has prompted debate regarding possible defective ion channel-induced cardiomyopathy. Clinical heart disease in CF is considered rare and is restricted to case reports. It has been unclear if this is due to the lack of physiological importance of CFTR in the heart, the relatively short lifespan of those with CF, or a technical inability to detect subclinical disease...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304347/plausible-roles-for-rage-in-conditions-exacerbated-by-direct-and-indirect-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#16
REVIEW
Joshua B Lewis, Kelsey M Hirschi, Juan A Arroyo, Benjamin T Bikman, David L Kooyman, Paul R Reynolds
Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300603/a-comprehensive-guide-to-the-mage-family-of-ubiquitin-ligases
#17
REVIEW
Anna K Lee, Patrick Ryan Potts
Melanoma antigen (MAGE) genes are conserved in all eukaryotes and encode for proteins sharing a common MAGE homology domain. Although only a single MAGE gene exists in lower eukaryotes, the MAGE family rapidly expanded in eutherians and consists of more than 50 highly conserved genes in humans. A subset of MAGEs initially garnered interest as cancer biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets due to their antigenic properties and unique expression pattern that is primary restricted to germ cells and aberrantly re-activated in various cancers...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300524/predicting-pulmonary-function-from-phone-sensors
#18
Qian Cheng, Joshua Juen, Shashi Bellam, Nicholas Fulara, Deanna Close, Jonathan C Silverstein, Bruce Schatz
INTRODUCTION: Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is unknown what physiological functions can be monitored at clinical quality. Pulmonary function is a standard measure of health status for cardiopulmonary patients. We have shown phone sensors can accurately measure walking patterns. Here we show that improved classification models can accurately predict pulmonary function, with sole inputs being motion sensors from carried phones. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five cardiopulmonary patients performed 6-minute walk tests in pulmonary rehabilitation at a regional hospital...
March 16, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298960/lung-volume-reduction-coils-as-a-novel-bronchoscopic-treatment-for-emphysema
#19
Timothy A Connolly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite regular advances in pharmacology, there remains great potential for addressing structural deficiencies, especially in emphysema. The loss of alveolar attachments to small bronchial tubes results in diffuse loss of elastic recoil and airway collapse during exhalation. This appears physiologically as hyperinflation of lung volumes with flattened diaphragms and significantly elevated residual volumes (RV) on pulmonary function testing (predicted RV > 175%)...
October 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297158/unclassifiable-interstitial-lung-diseases-clinical-characteristics-and-survival
#20
Charlotte Hyldgaard, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Athol U Wells, Ole Hilberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Unclassifiable disease in chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common and challenging problem but has been insufficiently studied. The 2013 update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias presented a classification based on observed disease behaviour with the purpose of providing guidance to clinicians in the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to apply the new disease behaviour classification (DBC) and the previously validated ILD-gender age physiology (GAP) score to a cohort of unclassifiable ILD patients and to assess the prognostic value of these two composite approaches...
April 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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