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Physiology of lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915367/breathlessness-and-the-body-neuroimaging-clues-for-the-inferential-leap
#1
Olivia K Faull, Anja Hayen, Kyle T S Pattinson
Breathlessness debilitates millions of people with chronic illness. Mismatch between breathlessness severity and objective disease markers is common and poorly understood. Traditionally, sensory perception was conceptualised as a stimulus-response relationship, although this cannot explain how conditioned symptoms may occur in the absence of physiological signals from the lungs or airways. A Bayesian model is now proposed, in which the brain generates sensations based on expectations learnt from past experiences (priors), which are then checked against incoming afferent signals...
August 9, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913354/towards-a-biohybrid-lung-endothelial-cells-promote-oxygen-transfer-through-gas-permeable-membranes
#2
Sarah Menzel, Nicole Finocchiaro, Christine Donay, Anja Lena Thiebes, Felix Hesselmann, Jutta Arens, Suzana Djeljadini, Matthias Wessling, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Christian Gabriel Cornelissen
In patients with respiratory failure, extracorporeal lung support can ensure the vital gas exchange via gas permeable membranes but its application is restricted by limited long-term stability and hemocompatibility of the gas permeable membranes, which are in contact with the blood. Endothelial cells lining these membranes promise physiological hemocompatibility and should enable prolonged application. However, the endothelial cells increase the diffusion barrier of the blood-gas interface and thus affect gas transfer...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912824/prevalence-and-correlates-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-use-among-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-cross-sectional-study-in-beirut-lebanon
#3
Farah Naja, Bilal Anouti, Hibeh Shatila, Reem Akel, Yolla Haibe, Arafat Tfayli
Patients with lung cancer are increasingly seeking complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to improve their physiological and psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess CAM use among lung cancer patients in Lebanon. Using a cross-sectional design, 150 lung cancer patients attending the Basile Cancer Institute at the American University of Beirut Medical Center were interviewed. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, lung cancer condition, and use of CAM...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912590/the-importance-of-simulated-lung-fluid-slf-extractions-for-a-more-relevant-evaluation-of-the-oxidative-potential-of-particulate-matter
#4
Aude Calas, Gaëlle Uzu, Jean M F Martins, Didier Voisin, Lorenzo Spadini, Thomas Lacroix, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Particulate matter (PM) induces oxidative stress in vivo, leading to adverse health effects. Oxidative potential (OP) of PM is increasingly studied as a relevant metric for health impact (instead of PM mass concentration) as much of the ambient particle mass do not contribute to PM toxicity. Several assays have been developed to quantify PM oxidative potential and a widely used one is the acellular dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. However in such assays, particles are usually extracted with methanol or Milli-Q water which is unrepresentative of physiological conditions...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911165/cellular-retinoic-acid-binding-protein-1-modulates-stem-cell-proliferation-to-affect-learning-and-memory-in-male-mice
#5
Yu-Lung Lin, Shawna D Persaud, Jennifer Nhieu, Li-Na Wei
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905718/physiologic-behavioral-and-histologic-responses-to-various-euthanasia-methods-in-c57bl-6ntac-male-mice
#6
Gregory P Boivin, Michael A Bottomley, Patricia A Schiml, Lori Goss, Nadja Grobe
Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital-phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital-phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905701/outcomes-of-patients-with-severe-influenza-infection-admitted-to-intensive-care-units-a-retrospective-study-in-a-medical-centre
#7
Chien-Ming Chao, Chih-Cheng Lai, Khee-Siang Chan, Kuo-Chen Cheng, Willy Chou, Kuo-Shu Yuan, Chin-Ming Chen
PURPOSE: This study assessed clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of critically ill patients with severe influenza admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Taiwan's recent outbreak. METHODOLOGY: Patients admitted to ICU for severe influenza between January 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were identified and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. The primary endpoints were outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: There were 125 patients with an average Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 20...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904480/association-of-massive-transfusion-for-resuscitation-in-gastrointestinal-bleeding-with-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury
#8
James J Case, Nasreen Khan, Michael Delrahim, Jasmina Dizdarevic, Dane J Nichols, Martin A Schreiber, Thomas G Deloughery, Akram Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to understand the use of massive transfusion (MT) for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with GIB for the type of bleeding, quantity of blood products transfused, and risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and death. MT was defined as transfusion of 10 or more units of red blood cell (RBC) within a 24-h period in a 1-unit RBC: 1-unit fresh frozen plasma: and 1-unit platelet ratio...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904478/how-useful-is-extravascular-lung-water-measurement-in-managing-lung-injury-in-intensive-care-unit
#9
Anirban Bhattacharjee, Debasis Pradhan, Prithwis Bhattacharyya, Samarjit Dey, Daniala Chhunthang, Akash Handique, Angkita Barman, Mohd Yunus
CONTEXT: The primary goal of septic shock management is optimization of organ perfusion, often at the risk of overloading the interstitium and causing pulmonary edema. The conventionally used end points of resuscitation do not generally include volumetric parameters such as extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). AIMS: This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of EVLWI and PVPI by calculating their correlation with the severity of lung injury...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901819/dna-methylation-changes-in-human-lung-epithelia-cells-exposed-to-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#10
Marta I Sierra, Laura Rubio, Gustavo F Bayón, Isabel Cobo, Pablo Menendez, Paula Morales, Cristina Mangas, Rocio G Urdinguio, Virginia Lopez, Adolfo Valdes, Gerard Vales, Ricard Marcos, Ramon Torrecillas, Agustin F Fernández, Mario F Fraga
Humans are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles and, although many of their physiological effects have been described, the molecular mechanisms underlying them are still largely unknown. The present study aimed to determine the possible role of certain epigenetic mechanisms in the cellular response of human lung epithelial cells that are triggered by long-term exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The results showed that exposure to TiO2NPs had only minor effects on genome-wide DNA methylation...
September 13, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901280/neuronal-and-extraneuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#11
Michele Zoli, Susanna Pucci, Antonietta Vilella, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a super-family of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels that respond to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or other cholinergic ligands. These receptors are also the targets of drugs such as nicotine (the main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke) and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression and/or function of nAChRs is compromised in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894173/lipidomes-of-lung-cancer-and-tumour-free-lung-tissues-reveal-distinct-molecular-signatures-for-cancer-differentiation-age-inflammation-and-pulmonary-emphysema
#12
Lars F Eggers, Julia Müller, Chakravarthy Marella, Verena Scholz, Henrik Watz, Christian Kugler, Klaus F Rabe, Torsten Goldmann, Dominik Schwudke
Little is known about the human lung lipidome, its variability in different physiological states, its alterations during carcinogenesis and the development of pulmonary emphysema. We investigated how health status might be mirrored in the lung lipidome. Tissues were sampled for both lipidomic and histological analysis. Using a screening approach, we characterised lipidomes of lung cancer tissues and corresponding tumour-free alveolar tissues. We quantified 311 lipids from 11 classes in 43 tissue samples from 26 patients...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894083/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-atm-protein-signaling-participates-in-development-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#13
Fan Hu, Caijun Liu, Hanmin Liu, Liang Xie, Li Yu
BACKGROUND Previous studies revealed physiological and pathogenetic similarity between vascular smooth muscles cells with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and tumors. The DNA damage response was found in both pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) cells and tumors. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated proteins (ATM) pathway is considered an important factor in the DNA damage response of tumor formation, but its function in the development of PAH remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS The Sprague-Dawley rat PAH model was established...
September 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893974/field-study-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-intradermal-versus-intramuscular-vaccination-against-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae
#14
Lisa Beffort, Christine Weiß, Kerstin Fiebig, Rika Jolie, Mathias Ritzmann, Matthias Eddicks
The present study compares the safety and efficacy of a needle-free, intradermal Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine to an intramuscular one. 420 piglets (21+3 days of age) were randomly assigned to two vaccination groups (intradermal vaccination V1 (n=138), intramuscular vaccination V2 (n=144)) and one unvaccinated control group (CG, n=138). As safety parameters clinical observations, local injection site reactions (ISR) and rectal temperatures were assessed. Average daily weight gain (ADWG) and pneumonic lung lesions (LL) were measured as efficacy parameters...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891072/stable-control-of-physiological-parameters-but-not-infection-in-preterm-lambs-maintained-on-ex-vivo-uterine-environment-therapy
#15
Yuichiro Miura, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Eleanor Woodward, Masatoshi Saito, Gabrielle C Musk, Suhas G Kallapur, Shinichi Sato, Ryuta Kitanishi, Tadashi Matsuda, John P Newnham, Sarah J Stock, Matthew W Kemp
Ex vivo uterine environment (EVE) therapy is an experimental neonatal intensive care strategy wherein gas exchange is performed by membranous oxygenators attached to the umbilical vessels. Our aim was to assess the ability of a newly refined EVE system to maintain key physiological parameters in preterm lambs within optimal ranges for 48 h. EVE group; n = 6: Preterm lambs were delivered under general anesthesia at 115 ± 2 days of gestational age. Animals were submerged in a bath of artificial amniotic fluid on EVE therapy for 48 h...
September 11, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891012/visualization-of-multiple-organ-amyloid-involvement-in-systemic-amyloidosis-using-11-c-pib-pet-imaging
#16
Naoki Ezawa, Nagaaki Katoh, Kazuhiro Oguchi, Tsuneaki Yoshinaga, Masahide Yazaki, Yoshiki Sekijima
PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for evaluating whole-body amyloid involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis. METHODS: Whole-body (11)C-PiB PET was performed in seven patients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, seven patients with hereditary transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis, one asymptomatic TTR mutation carrier and three healthy controls. The correlations between clinical organ involvement, radiological (11)C-PiB uptake and histopathological findings were analysed for each organ...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884116/the-role-of-pontin-and-reptin-in-cellular-physiology-and-cancer-etiology
#17
REVIEW
Yu-Qian Mao, Walid A Houry
Pontin (RUVBL1, TIP49, TIP49a, Rvb1) and Reptin (RUVBL2, TIP48, TIP49b, Rvb2) are highly conserved ATPases of the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) superfamily and are involved in various cellular processes that are important for oncogenesis. First identified as being upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer, their overexpression has since been shown in multiple cancer types such as breast, lung, gastric, esophageal, pancreatic, kidney, bladder as well as lymphatic, and leukemic cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883929/frailty-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-subjects-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-are-they-independent-entities
#18
Masaaki Kusunose, Toru Oga, Saya Nakamura, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Koichi Nishimura
INTRODUCTION: There is a hypothesis that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an accelerated ageing disease. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterised by physical, psychological and social vulnerability, thought to be a feature of ageing. The authors aimed to explore the relationship between frailty and physiological and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in subjects with stable COPD. METHODS: We administered the Kihon Checklist that has been validated for frailty screening...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883532/patterns-of-oxygen-pulse-curve-in-response-to-incremental-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-observational-study
#19
Ming-Lung Chuang, I-Feng Lin, Shih-Feng Huang, Meng-Jer Hsieh
In COPD, pulmonary hyperinflation causes decreased stroke volume thereby decreased oxygen pulse (O2P). While O2P flattening is related to myocardial ischemia in cardiac patients, O2P patterns have seldom been explored in COPD. The aims of the study were to investigate O2P-curve patterns and associated factors in COPD. Seventy-five patients with stable COPD were enrolled. The demographics, cardiac size, physiological measurements and stress EKG were compared among O2P-curve pattern groups. An algorithm to identify O2P-curve patterns was developed in 28 patients...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883073/sterilizing-immunity-in-the-lung-relies-on-targeting-fungal-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death
#20
Neta Shlezinger, Henriette Irmer, Sourabh Dhingra, Sarah R Beattie, Robert A Cramer, Gerhard H Braus, Amir Sharon, Tobias M Hohl
Humans inhale mold conidia daily and typically experience lifelong asymptomatic clearance. Conidial germination into tissue-invasive hyphae can occur in individuals with defects in myeloid function, although the mechanism of myeloid cell-mediated immune surveillance remains unclear. By monitoring fungal physiology in vivo, we demonstrate that lung neutrophils trigger programmed cell death with apoptosis-like features in Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, the most prevalent human mold pathogen. An antiapoptotic protein, AfBIR1, opposes this process by inhibiting fungal caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in the murine lung...
September 8, 2017: Science
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