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Physiology of lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351745/the-associations-between-weight-related-anthropometrics-during-childhood-and-lung-function-in-late-childhood-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Kristine Kjer Byberg, Ingvild Bruun Mikalsen, Geir Egil Eide, Michele R Forman, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Knut Øymar
BACKGROUND: An association between body weight in childhood and subsequent lung function and asthma has been suggested, but few longitudinal studies exist. Our aim was to explore whether weight-related anthropometric measurements through childhood were associated with lung function in late childhood. METHODS: From an original nested case-control study, a cohort study was conducted, where lung function was measured in 463 children aged 12.8 years, and anthropometry was measured at several ages from birth through 12...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351457/important-role-of-endothelium-dependent-hyperpolarization-in-pulmonary-microcirculation-in-male-mice-implications-for-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#2
Shuhei Tanaka, Takashi Shiroto, Shigeo Godo, Hiroki Saito, Yosuke Ikumi, Akiyo Ito, Shoko Kajitani, Saori Sato, Hiroaki Shimokawa
Endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH) plays important roles in systemic circulation, whereas its role in pulmonary circulation remains largely unknown. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension (PH) also remain to be elucidated. We thus aimed to elucidate the role of EDH in pulmonary circulation in general and in PH in particular. In isolated perfused lung using male wild-type mice, endothelium-dependent relaxations to bradykinin (BK) were significantly reduced in the presence of Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) by ~50% as compared with those in the presence of indomethacin, and the combination of apamin plus charybdotoxin abolished the residual relaxations, showing the comparable contributions of nitric oxide (NO) and EDH in pulmonary microcirculation under physiological conditions...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351446/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-oxidative-stress-in-lung-disease-therapeutic-implications-for-an-aging-populace
#3
Louise Hecker
The rapid expansion of the elderly population has led to the recent epidemic of age-related diseases, including increased incidence and mortality of chronic and acute lung diseases. Numerous studies have implicated aging and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases; however, despite recent advances in these fields, the specific contributions of aging and oxidative stress remain elusive. This review will discuss the consequences of aging on lung morphology and physiology, and how redox imbalance with aging contributes to lung disease susceptibility...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347936/comparative-analysis-of-copd-associated-with-tobacco-smoking-biomass-smoke-exposure-or-both
#4
Jordi Olloquequi, Sergio Jaime, Viviana Parra, Elizabeth Cornejo-Córdova, Gonzalo Valdivia, Àlvar Agustí, Rafael Silva O
BACKGROUND: Exposure to noxious gases and particles contained in both tobacco smoking (TS) and biomass smoke (BS) are well recognized environmental risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response, both in the pulmonary and systemic compartments. The differential effects of TS, BS or their combined exposure have not been well characterized yet. This study sought to compare the lung function characteristics and systemic inflammatory response in COPD patients exposed to TS, BS or their combination...
January 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345967/reclassifying-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Giorgia Maiolo, Francesca Collino, Francesco Vasques, Francesca Rapetti, Tommaso Tonetti, Federica Romitti, Massimo Cressoni, Davide Chiumello, Onnen Mörer, Peter Herrmann, Tim Friede, Michael Quintel, Luciano Gattinoni
RATIONALE: The ratio of PaO2 to FiO2 (P/F) defines ARDS severity and suggests appropriate therapies. OBJECTIVES: We investigated 1) whether a 150 mmHg P/F threshold within the range of moderate ARDS (100-200 mmHg) would define two, more homogeneous subgroups, 2) which criteria led the clinicians to apply ECMO in severe ARDS. Methods & Measurements: At 150 mmHg P/F threshold, moderate patients were split in mild-moderate (n=50) and moderate-severe (n=55). Severe ARDS patients (FiO2 not available in 3 patients ) were split in higher (n=63) and lower-FiO2 (n=18) at 80% FiO2 threshold...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345368/therapeutic-effect-of-lipoxin-a4-%C3%A2-in-malaria-induced-acute-lung-injury
#6
Tatiana A Pádua, Natalia D Torres, André L P Candéa, Maria Fernanda Souza Costa, Johnatas D Silva, João Luiz Silva-Filho, Fabio T M Costa, Patricia R M Rocco, Mariana C Souza, Maria G Henriques
Acute lung injury (ALI) models are characterized by neutrophil accumulation, tissue damage, alteration of the alveolar capillary membrane, and physiological dysfunction. Lipoxin A4  (LXA4 ) is an anti-inflammatory eicosanoid that was demonstrated to attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI. Experimental models of severe malaria can be associated with lung injury. However, to date, a putative effect of LXA4  on malaria (M)-induced ALI has not been addressed. In this study, we evaluated whether LXA4 exerts an effect on M-ALI...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345200/distinct-niches-within-the-extracellular-matrix-dictate-fibroblast-function-in-cell-free-3d-lung-tissue-cultures
#7
Gerald Burgstaller, Arunima Sengupta, Sarah Vierkotten, Gerhard Preissler, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Melanie Königshoff, Oliver Eickelberg
Instructive cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their functional interplay with cells play pivotal roles for development, tissue repair, and disease. However, the precise nature of this interplay remains elusive. We used an innovative 3D cell culture ECM model by decellularizing ex vivo lung tissue scaffolds (d3D-LTCs) derived from diseased and healthy mouse lungs, which widely mimics the native (patho)physiological in vivo microenvironment. We successfully repopulated all d3D-LTCs with primary human and murine fibroblasts...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339539/the-hippo-pathway-component-taz-promotes-immune-evasion-in-human-cancer-through-pd-l1
#8
Helena J Janse van Rensburg, Taha Azad, Min Ling, Yawei Hao, Brooke Snetsinger, Prem Khanal, Lori M Minassian, Charles H Graham, Michael J Rauh, Xiaolong Yang
The Hippo pathway component WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (TAZ) is a transcriptional co-activator and an oncogene in breast and lung cancer. Transcriptional targets of TAZ that modulate immune cell function in the tumour microenvironment are poorly understood. Here, we perform a comprehensive screen for immune-related genes regulated by TAZ and its paralog YAP using NanoString gene expression profiling. We identify the immune checkpoint molecule PD-L1 as a target of Hippo signaling. The upstream kinases of the Hippo pathway, mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 and 2 (MST1/2) and large tumour suppressor 1 and 2 (LATS1/2), suppress PD-L1 expression while TAZ and YAP enhance PD-L1 levels in breast and lung cancer cell lines...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339033/helminth-modulation-of-lung-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Christian Schwartz, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon
Parasitic helminths must establish chronic infections to complete their life cycle and therefore are potent modulators of multiple facets of host physiology. Parasitic helminths have coevolved with humans to become arguably master selectors of our immune system, whereby they have impacted on the selection of genes with beneficial mutations for both host and parasite. While helminth infections of humans are a significant health burden, studies have shown that helminths or helminth products can alter susceptibility to unrelated infectious or inflammatory diseases...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335764/pulmonary-18f-fdg-uptake-helps-refine-current-risk-stratification-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#10
Thida Win, Nicholas J Screaton, Joanna C Porter, Balaji Ganeshan, Toby M Maher, Francesco Fraioli, Raymondo Endozo, Robert I Shortman, Lynn Hurrell, Beverley F Holman, Kris Thielemans, Alaleh Rashidnasab, Brian F Hutton, Pauline T Lukey, Aiden Flynn, Peter J Ell, Ashley M Groves
PURPOSE: There is a lack of prognostic biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of 18F-FDG-PET/ CT to predict mortality in IPF. METHODS: A total of 113 IPF patients (93 males, 20 females, mean age ± SD: 70 ± 9 years) were prospectively recruited for 18F-FDG-PET/CT. The overall maximum pulmonary uptake of 18F-FDG (SUVmax), the minimum pulmonary uptake or background lung activity (SUVmin), and target-to-background (SUVmax/ SUVmin) ratio (TBR) were quantified using routine region-of-interest analysis...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#11
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332330/therapeutic-effect-of-gefitinib-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-effect-on-the-egfr-level-in-peripheral-blood
#12
Jing Wang, Pengchao Hu, Ying Wang, Youhong Dong
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effect of gefitinib in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its effect on the level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in peripheral blood. METHODS: A total of 58 patients with NSCLC were treated with gefinitib (iressa) (250 mg per day). EGFR levels in the peripheral blood were measured with ELISA assay before and after treatment. Statistical analyses of patient quality of life, survival and other clinical data were conducted including logistic regression analysis, x2 test and t-test...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328866/proteoglycans-as-immunomodulators-of-the-innate-immune-response-to-lung-infection
#14
Inkyung Kang, Mary Y Chang, Thomas N Wight, Charles W Frevert
Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex, multifaceted molecules that participate in diverse interactions vital for physiological and pathological processes. As structural components, they provide a scaffold for cells and structural organization that helps define tissue architecture. Through interactions with water, PGs enable molecular and cellular movement through tissues. Through selective ionic interactions with growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and proteases, PGs facilitate the ability of these soluble ligands to regulate intracellular signaling events and to influence the inflammatory response...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327014/design-of-biomimetic-substrates-for-long-term-maintenance-of-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#15
James C H Poon, Zhongfa Liao, Takaya Suzuki, Miranda M Carleton, John P Soleas, J Stewart Aitchison, Golnaz Karoubi, Alison P McGuigan, Thomas K Waddell
There is a need to establish in vitro lung alveolar epithelial culture models to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms that drive lung diseases. While primary alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) are a useful option to study mature lung biology, they have limited utility in vitro. Cells that survive demonstrate limited proliferative capacity and loss of phenotype over the first 3-5 days in traditional culture conditions. To address this limitation, we generated a novel physiologically relevant cell culture system for enhanced viability and maintenance of phenotype...
January 12, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325683/physical-activity-in-daily-life-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Osamu Nishiyama, Ryo Yamazaki, Hiroyuki Sano, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Higashimoto, Hiroaki Kume, Yuji Tohda
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive impairment of lung function and degradation of daily activity; however, this degradation has not been adequately elucidated. The objective of this study was to measure the physical activity of patients with IPF to determine its relationships with physiological parameters and survival rate. METHODS: In total, 31 patients with IPF and 20 age-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this study...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325586/high-frequency-percussive-ventilation-increases-alveolar-recruitment-in-early-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-experimental-physiological-and-ct-scan-study
#17
Thomas Godet, Matthieu Jabaudon, Raïko Blondonnet, Aymeric Tremblay, Jules Audard, Benjamin Rieu, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Marc Garcier, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Michel Constantin
BACKGROUND: High frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) combines diffusive (high frequency mini-bursts) and convective ventilation patterns. Benefits include enhanced oxygenation and hemodynamics, and alveolar recruitment, while providing hypothetic lung-protective ventilation. No study has investigated HFPV-induced changes in lung aeration in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Eight patients with early non-focal ARDS were enrolled and five swine with early non-focal ARDS were studied in prospective computed tomography (CT) scan and animal studies, in a university-hospital tertiary ICU and an animal laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325098/high-level-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-correlates-with-poor-prognosis-of-severe-influenza-a-infection
#18
Liuluan Zhu, Lu Liu, Yue Zhang, Lin Pu, Jingyuan Liu, Xingwang Li, Zhihai Chen, Yu Hao, Beibei Wang, Junyan Han, Guoli Li, Shuntao Liang, Haofeng Xiong, Hong Zheng, Ang Li, Jianqing Xu, Hui Zeng
Background: Most patients with severe infection with influenza A virus (IAV) progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) can be induced by pathogens and are responsible for immune tissue damage. We conducted a prospective study on the production and effects of NETs in H7N9 and H1N1 patients. Methods: We investigated NET production in plasma and supernatant of cultured neutrophils by measuring cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-DNA complexes with PicoGreen dye and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321247/aberrant-regulation-of-autophagy-in-mammalian-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Jun Zhou
Autophagy is a major cellular metabolic pathway that facilitates degradation of a subset of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles in eukaryotic cells. This pathway plays a vital role in preserving the cellular homeostasis of the cells themselves, in addition to maintaining the normal physiological state of cell renewal. Many stressors, such as starvation, ischaemia and oxidative stress can induce autophagy. In addition to its physiological roles, autophagy also occurs in a wide variety of pathological processes, including tumour progression, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative and lung diseases...
January 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321036/maternal-engineered-nanomaterial-inhalation-during-gestation-alters-the-fetal-transcriptome
#20
P A Stapleton, Q A Hathaway, C E Nichols, A B Abukabda, M V Pinti, D L Shepherd, C R McBride, J Yi, V C Castranova, J M Hollander, T R Nurkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation...
January 10, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
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