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Physiology of lung

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534947/research-and-progress-on-clc%C3%A2-2-review
#1
Hongwei Wang, Minghui Xu, Qingjie Kong, Peng Sun, Fengyun Yan, Wenying Tian, Xin Wang
Chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is one of the nine mammalian members of the ClC family. The present review discusses the molecular properties of ClC‑2, including CLCN2, ClC‑2 promoter and the structural properties of ClC‑2 protein; physiological properties; functional properties, including the regulation of cell volume. The effects of ClC‑2 on the digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous and optical systems are also discussed, in addition to the mechanisms involved in the regulation of ClC‑2. The review then discusses the diseases associated with ClC‑2, including degeneration of the retina, Sjögren's syndrome, age‑related cataracts, degeneration of the testes, azoospermia, lung cancer, constipation, repair of impaired intestinal mucosa barrier, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, leukoencephalopathy, epilepsy and diabetes mellitus...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532223/preliminary-study-on-fabrication-characterization-and-synergistic-anti-lung-cancer-effects-of-self-assembled-micelles-of-covalently-conjugated-celastrol-polyethylene-glycol-ginsenoside-rh2
#2
Peng Li, XiaoYue Zhou, Ding Qu, Mengfei Guo, Chenyi Fan, Tong Zhou, Yang Ling
The aim of this study was to develop an amphipathic polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative that was bi-terminally modified with celastrol and ginsenoside Rh2 (Celastrol-PEG-G Rh2). Such derivative was capable of forming novel, celastrol-loaded polymeric micelles (CG-M) for endo/lysosomal delivery and thereby synergistic treatment of lung cancer. Celastrol-PEG-G Rh2 with a yield of 55.6% was first synthesized and characterized. Its critical micellar concentration was 1 × 10(-5 )M, determined by pyrene entrapment method...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529485/hydrostatin-sn1-a-sea-snake-derived-bioactive-peptide-reduces-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#3
Guosheng Wu, Junjie Wang, Pengfei Luo, An Li, Song Tian, Hailong Jiang, Yongjun Zheng, Feng Zhu, Yiming Lu, Zhaofan Xia
Snake venom has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine. Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), a bioactive peptide extracted from the Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was reported to have the ability to reduce inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis model. In this study, we sought to investigate the inhibitory potential of H-SN1 on inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528061/real-time-computed-tomography-highlights-pulmonary-parenchymal-evolution-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-reconditioning
#4
Edouard Sage, Julien De Wolf, Philippe Puyo, Pierre Bonnette, Matthieu Glorion, Nicolas Salley, Antoine Roux, Ngai Liu, Alain Chapelier
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has been developed as a method to reassess and recondition marginal lungs. However, evaluation during procedures is limited to a combination of physiologic variables such as gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of real-time computed tomographic (CT) imaging to improve the evaluation of the lung during EVLP procedures.
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528008/-role-of-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-pulmonary-infections
#5
REVIEW
C Padoin
Pulmonary infections are common and caused by a wide range of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. They consist of lower respiratory tract infections with community and hospital acquired acute pneumonia, bronchitis, lung abscess, fungal infections and tuberculosis. The management of these infections should be based on guidelines that take into account the microorganisms most frequently involved as a basis for empirical treatment, with identification of causative microorganisms allowing targeted treatments...
May 17, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527578/tr2-and-tr4-orphan-nuclear-receptors-an-overview
#6
Shin-Jen Lin, Dong-Rong Yang, Guosheng Yang, Chang-Yi Lin, Hong-Chiang Chang, Gonghui Li, Chawnshang Chang
Testicular nuclear receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4), also known as NR2C1 and NR2C2, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and were first cloned in 1989 and 1994, respectively. Although classified as orphan receptors, several natural molecules, their metabolites, and synthetic compounds including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), PUFA metabolites 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and the antidiabetic drug thiazolidinediones can transactivate TR4. Importantly, many of these ligands/activators can also transactivate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), also known as NR1C3 nuclear receptor...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526615/lung-inflammation-after-bleomycin-treatment-in-mice-selection-of-an-accurate-normalization-strategy-for-gene-expression-analysis-in-an-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro-model
#7
Veronica Della Latta, Manuela Cabiati, Silvia Burchielli, Giada Frenzilli, Margherita Bernardeschi, Antonella Cecchettini, Federica Viglione, Maria-Aurora Morales, Silvia Del Ry
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the most common and aggressive interstitial lung disease, characterized by a patchy development of fibrosis leading to progressive destruction of the normal lung architecture which is preceded by an inflammatory process. Gene expression studies are important to understand the development of PF but the accuracy and reproducibility of Real-Time PCR depend on appropriate normalization strategies. This study aimed to analyze the expression variability of eight commonly used reference genes during the initial inflammatory phase of bleomycin-induced PF in a mouse model and to verify whether the selected reference genes could be applied to an in-vitro model of BLM-treated primary murine lung fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526483/effects-of-air-stacking-maneuver-on-cough-peak-flow-and-chest-wall-compartmental-volumes-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subjects
#8
Antonio Sarmento, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Mario Emílio Teixeira Dourado-Júnior, Lailane Saturnino, Andrea Aliverti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, Armele de Fátima Dornelas de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy controls positioned at 45° body inclination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve persons with ALS and twelve age-matched healthy. MAIN OUTCOMES: CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (ICCW), vital capacity (VCCW), tidal volume (VTCW) and operational volumes, breathing pattern and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography...
May 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526233/keratinocyte-growth-factor-for-the-treatment-of-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-kare-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#9
Daniel F McAuley, Lj Mark Cross, Umar Hamid, Evie Gardner, J Stuart Elborn, Kathy M Cullen, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael A Matthay, Cecilia M O'Kane
BACKGROUND: Data from in-vitro, animal, and human lung injury models suggest that keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) might be beneficial in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of KGF in patients with ARDS. METHODS: We did a double-blind, allocation concealed, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in two intensive care units in the UK, involving patients fulfilling the American-European Consensus Conference Definition of ARDS...
May 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525342/effects-of-long-term-construction-noise-on-health-of-adult-female-wistar-rats
#10
J Zymantiene, R Zelvyte, I Pampariene, A Aniuliene, N Juodziukyniene, J Kantautaite, V Oberauskas
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term building construction noise from refurbishment, which including vibration, on some physiological parameters and histopathological changes of organs of Wistar rats. Twenty 12 month old female rats were divided into two groups: rats group I (n = 10) were exposed to long-term construction noise and rats group II (n = 10) were kept under normal noise level. Study results revealed that long-term construction noise from building refurbishment has an influence on body weight, haematological and some serum biochemical parameters affects caecal microbiota, and causes histopathological changes in the organs of adult female Wistar rats...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524027/-effect-of-chest-physiotherapy-in-patients-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Hui Zeng, Zhen Zhang, Yuan Gong, Miao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of chest physiotherapy (CPT) on patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Sixty-eight adult patients undergoing invasive MV over 48 hours admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from December 2014 to October 2016 were enrolled, and they were divided into CPT group (n = 37) and control group (n = 31) by random number table...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522760/on-the-existence-of-a-central-respiratory-oxygen-sensor
#12
Alexander V Gourine, Gregory D Funk
A commonly held view that dominates both the scientific and educational literature is that in terrestrial mammals the central nervous system lacks a physiological hypoxia sensor capable of triggering increases in lung ventilation in response to decreases in PO2 of the brain parenchyma. Indeed, a normocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response has never been observed in humans following bilateral resection of the carotid bodies. In contrast, almost complete or partial recovery of the hypoxic ventilatory response after denervation/removal of the peripheral respiratory oxygen chemoreceptors has been demonstrated in many experimental animals when assessed in an awake state...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522566/nedd8-modification-of-cullin-5-regulates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury
#13
Ziyan Zhu, Lei Sun, Rui Hao, Hongchao Jiang, Feng Qian, Richard D Ye
Lung infections are major causes of acute lung injury (ALI), with limited effective treatment available. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential adaptor regulating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We recently identified Cullin-5 (Cul-5) as a prominent component in the regulation of TRAF6 polyubiquitination, but its physiological significance in acute lung injury has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Cul-5 in regulating ALI using mice receiving intratracheal instillation of LPS...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522333/development-of-qsars-for-parameterizing-physiology-based-toxicokinetic-models
#14
Dimosthenis Α Sarigiannis, Krystalia Papadaki, Periklis Kontoroupis, Spyros P Karakitsios
A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was developed in order to predict physicochemical and biochemical properties of industrial chemicals of various groups. This model was based on the solvation equation, originally proposed by Abraham. In this work Abraham's solvation model got parameterized using artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the prediction of partitioning into kidney, heart, adipose, liver, muscle, brain and lung for the estimation of the bodyweight-normalized maximal metabolic velocity (Vmax) and the Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)...
May 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#15
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518049/red-blood-cell-storage-time-and-transfusion-current-practice-concerns-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
María García-Roa, María Del Carmen Vicente-Ayuso, Alejandro M Bobes, Alexandra C Pedraza, Ataúlfo González-Fernández, María Paz Martín, Isabel Sáez, Jerard Seghatchian, Laura Gutiérrez
Red blood cells (RBCs) units are the most requested transfusion product worldwide. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anaemia, acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30% of the blood volume, with the aim of restoring tissue oxygen delivery. However, stored RBCs from donors are not a qualitative equal product, and, in many ways, this is a matter of concern in the transfusion practice. Besides donor-to-donor variation, the storage time influences the RBC unit at the qualitative level, as RBCs age in the storage bag and are exposed to the so-called storage lesion...
May 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515170/respiratory-function-and-mechanics-in-pinnipeds-and-cetaceans
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Fahlman, Michael J Moore, Daniel Garcia-Parraga
In this Review, we focus on the functional properties of the respiratory system of pinnipeds and cetaceans, and briefly summarize the underlying anatomy; in doing so, we provide an overview of what is currently known about their respiratory physiology and mechanics. While exposure to high pressure is a common challenge among breath-hold divers, there is a large variation in respiratory anatomy, function and capacity between species - how are these traits adapted to allow the animals to withstand the physiological challenges faced during dives? The ultra-deep diving feats of some marine mammals defy our current understanding of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514950/lung-function-imaging-methods-in-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-disease
#18
REVIEW
Magdalena Kołodziej, Michael J de Veer, Marian Cholewa, Gary F Egan, Bruce R Thompson
Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis...
May 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510483/improvement-in-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-after-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-quantitative-image-analysis
#19
Sei Won Lee, Sang Min Lee, So Youn Shin, Tai Sun Park, Sang Young Oh, Namkug Kim, Yoonki Hong, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Joon Beom Seo
Purpose To evaluate whether bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) increases ventilation and therefore improves ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. Materials and Methods All patients provided written informed consent to be included in this study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board (2013-0368) of Asan Medical Center. The physiologic changes that occurred after BLVR were measured by using xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Patients with severe emphysema plus hyperinflation who did not respond to usual treatments were eligible...
May 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508450/simultaneous-assessment-of-both-lung-morphometry-and-gas-exchange-function-within-a-single-breath-hold-by-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri
#20
Jianping Zhong, Huiting Zhang, Weiwei Ruan, Junshuai Xie, Haidong Li, He Deng, Yeqing Han, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
During the measurement of hyperpolarized (129) Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) technique provides valuable information for the assessment of lung morphometry at the alveolar level, whereas the chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) technique can evaluate the gas exchange function of the lungs. To date, the two techniques have only been performed during separate breaths. However, the request for multiple breaths increases the cost and scanning time, limiting clinical application...
May 16, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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