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Physiology of lung

Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Behzad Yeganeh, Claudia Bilodeau, Martin Post
Lung development is a complex process that requires the input of various signaling pathways to coordinate the specification and differentiation of multiple cell types. Ex vivo culture of the lung is a very useful technique that represents an attractive model for investigating many different processes critical to lung development, function, and disease pathology. Ex vivo cultured lungs remain comparable to the in vivo lung both in structure and function, which makes them more suitable than cell cultures for physiological studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yourae Hong, Choa Park, Nayoung Kim, Juyeon Cho, Sung Ung Moon, Jongmin Kim, Euna Jeong, Sukjoon Yoon
BACKGROUND: Cell surface proteins have provided useful targets and biomarkers for advanced cancer therapies. The recent clinical success of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) highlights the importance of finding selective surface antigens for given cancer subtypes. We thus attempted to develop stand-alone software for the analysis of the cell surface transcriptome of patient cancer samples and to prioritize lineage- and/or mutation-specific over-expression markers in cancer cells. RESULTS: A total of 519 genes were selected as surface proteins, and their expression was profiled in 14 cancer subtypes using patient sample transcriptome data...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Anirudh Sharma, Christine Cornejo, Jana Mihalic, Alison Geyh, David E Bordelon, Preethi Korangath, Fritz Westphal, Cordula Gruettner, Robert Ivkov
Citrate-stabilized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with one of carboxymethyl dextran (CM-dextran), polyethylene glycol-polyethylene imine (PEG-PEI), methoxy-PEG-phosphate+rutin, or dextran. They were characterized for size, zeta potential, hysteresis heating in an alternating magnetic field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility, and examined for their distribution in mouse organs following intravenous delivery. Except for PEG-PEI-coated nanoparticles, all coated nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential at physiological pH...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brenda Ramos Robles, Ricardo A Valdez, Uriel Juárez Hernández, Brenda Marquina Castillo, Dulce Mata Espinosa, Jorge Barrios Payan, Rogelio Hernández Pando, Marta C Romano
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that mainly affects the lungs. Along the course of pulmonary TB there are remarkable changes in the production of cytokines that cause endocrine changes. So far, it is not known the physiological and histological changes in the male reproductive system during pulmonary TB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pulmonary TB produces histological alterations of the BALB/c mice reproductive organs, as well as abnormalities in spermatogenesis, serum testosterone concentrations and expression of testicular cytokines...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Paul P Walker, Pasquale P Pompilio, Paolo Zanaboni, Trine S Bergmo, Kaiu Prikk, Andrei Malinovschi, Josep M Montserrat, Jo Middlemass, Silvana Šonc, Giulia Munaro, Dorjan Marušič, Ruth Sepper, Roberto Rosso, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Christer Janson, Ramon Farre, Peter M A Calverley, Raffaele L Dellaca'
RATIONALE: Early detection of COPD exacerbations using tele-monitoring of physiological variables might reduce the frequency of hospitalisation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of home monitoring of lung mechanics by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) and cardiac parameters in older COPD patients with co-morbidities. METHODS: This multicentre, randomized clinical trial recruited 312 GOLD grade II-IV COPD patients (median age 71 years [IQR:66-76], 49...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Andrea Parraguez Arévalo, Francisco Rojas Navarro, Macarena Ruz Céspedes, Paul Medina González, Máximo Escobar Cabello, Rodrigo Muñoz Cofré
INTRODUCTION: Child and adolescent obesity is an epidemiological problem in developing countries. Its prevalence among preschoolers and schoolchildren is over 30%. It has been associated with a wide range of health complications, including rapid loss of lung function leading to changes in physiology and ventilatory mechanics. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between obesity and the increase in specific airway resistance (sRaw) in a sample of obese children and adolescents from the district of Talca...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Jingxing Yang, Huilan Su, Wenshe Sun, Jiali Cai, Shiyuan Liu, Yimin Chai, Chunfu Zhang
Tumor combination therapy using nano formulations with multimodal synergistic therapeutic effects shows great potential for complete ablation of tumors. However, targeting tumor metastases with nano structures is a major obstacle for therapy. Therefore, developing a combination therapy system able to target both primary tumors and their metastases at distant sites with synergistic therapy is desirable for the complete eradication of tumors. To this end, a dual chemodrug-loaded theranostic system based on single walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) is developed for targeting both primary breast tumors and their lung metastases...
2018: Theranostics
Sang Hoon Lee, Jong Sun Park, Song Yee Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Young Whan Kim, Man Pyo Chung, Soo Taek Uh, Choon Sik Park, Sung Woo Park, Sung Hwan Jeong, Yong Bum Park, Hong Lyeol Lee, Jong Wook Shin, Eun Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Yangin Jegal, Hyun Kyung Lee, Yong Hyun Kim, Jin Woo Song, Moo Suk Park
The clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is difficult to predict, partly owing to its heterogeneity. Composite physiologic index (CPI) and gender-age-physiology (GAP) models are easy-to-use predictors of IPF progression. This study aimed to compare the predictive values of these two models. From 2003 to 2007, the Korean Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Study Group surveyed ILD patients using the 2002 ATS/ERS criteria. A total of 832 patients with IPF were enrolled in this study. CPI was calculated as follows: 91...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kai Hu, Yongqiang Yang, Ling Lin, Qing Ai, Jie Dai, Kerui Fan, Pu Ge, Rong Jiang, Jingyuan Wan, Li Zhang
Inflammation is an energy-intensive process, and caloric restriction (CR) could provide anti-inflammatory benefits. CR mimetics (CRM), such as the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), mimic the beneficial effects of CR without inducing CR-related physiologic disturbance. This study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory benefits of 2-DG and the underlying mechanisms in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal endotoxemia. The results indicated that pretreatment with 2-DG suppressed LPS-induced elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Z Guleken, D Ozbeyli, M Acikel-Elmas, S Oktay, B Alev, S Sirvanci, A Velioglu Ogunc, O Kasimay Cakir
The 17β-estradiol plays a role in physiology of pancreas and may protect it from inflammation. To examine the possible anti-inflammatory effects of 17β-estadiol in pancreaticobiliary duct ligated (PBDL) acute pancreatitis (AP) model, and the underlying mechanism that 17β-estradiol acts on, via evaluating the direct and the receptor related effects by using 17β-estradiol, ER-α and -β agonists. In the study both sexes of rats (n = 88) were used. Animals were divided into two groups as PBDL and PBDL + ovariectomized...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Sa Xiao, He Deng, Caohui Duan, Junshuai Xie, Huiting Zhang, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
Dynamic hyperpolarized (HP)129 Xe MRI is able to visualize the process of lung ventilation, which potentially provides unique information about lung physiology and pathophysiology. However, the longitudinal magnetization of HP129 Xe is nonrenewable, making it difficult to achieve high image quality while maintaining high temporal-spatial resolution in the pulmonary dynamic MRI. In this paper, we propose a new accelerated dynamic HP129 Xe MRI scheme incorporating the low-rank, sparse and gas-inflow effects (L + S + G) constraints...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Yu Onodera, Ryo Akimoto, Hiroto Suzuki, Masayuki Okada, Masaki Nakane, Kaneyuki Kawamae
BACKGROUND: Although clinical studies of the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its effect on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) have been done, the washout effect has not been well evaluated. Therefore, we made an experimental respiratory model to evaluate the respiratory physiological effect of HFNC. METHODS: An airway model was made by a 3D printer using the craniocervical 3D-CT data of a healthy 32-year-old male. CO2 was infused into four respiratory lung models (normal-lung, open- and closed-mouth models; restrictive- and obstructive-lung, open-mouth models) to maintain the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) at 40 mmHg...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Muhammad Khairi Ahmad, Nur Ainina Abdollah, Nurul Husna Shafie, Narazah Mohd Yusof, Siti Razila Abdul Razak
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the main regulators of cellular proliferation, growth, and survival in physiological or pathological conditions. Aberrant MAPK signaling plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis, which leads to development and progression of human cancer. Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a member of the MAPK phosphatase family, interacts with specifically targeted extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 via negative feedback regulation in the MAPK pathway of mammalian cells...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol (a long acting beta2-agonist) is a chiral molecule. (RR)-salmeterol is responsible for pharmacological effect, but basic knowledge of enantioselective pulmonary pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol remains unknown. There are safety concerns with (S)-enantiomers of beta2-agonists, with suggestions that these enantiomers may increase bronchial hyperresponsivneness in asthma patients. METHODOLOGY: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salmeterol 250 μg via inhalation...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Penny S Reynolds, Bernard J Fisher, Jacquelyn McCarter, Christopher Sweeney, Erika J Martin, Paul Middleton, Matthew Ellenberg, Evan Fowler, Donald F Brophy, Alpha A Fowler, Bruce D Spiess, Ramesh Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy and inflammation induced by hemorrhagic shock and traumatic injury are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Vitamin C (VitC) is an antioxidant with potential protective effects on the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant pathways. We hypothesized that high-dose VitC administered as a supplement to fluid resuscitation would attenuate inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and end-organ tissue damage in a swine model of polytrauma and hemorrhage. METHODS: Male Sinclair swine (n = 24; mean body weight 27 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for physiological monitoring...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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