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Immunosupressant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601102/frontline-science-specialized-proresolving-lipid-mediators-inhibit-the-priming-and-activation-of-the-macrophage-nlrp3-inflammasome
#1
Aritz Lopategi, Roger Flores-Costa, Bibiana Rius, Cristina López-Vicario, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
The prototypic proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β plays a central role in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders. The formation of mature IL-1β from an inactive pro-IL-1β precursor is produced via nonconventional multiprotein complexes called the inflammasomes, of which the most common is the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome composed by NLRP3, (ASC) apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and caspase-1...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596181/chapter-6-0-history-of-paediatric-hepatology-in-espghan
#2
Martin Burdelski
Hepatology played an important role in ESPGAN from the beginning. In 1989, the Hepatology Committee was started. In the early 1990s H for hepatology was included in ESPGHAN. Hepatology Summer schools were held from 1995 and later monothematic conferences met the needs of many young ESPGHAN members. The role of ESPGHAN members in the progress of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in hepatitis B and C will be elucidated (Chapter 6.1) as well as the role of other ESPGHAN members in the understanding of immunological hepatic disorders of childhood (Chapter 6...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595279/-systemic-sclerosis-in-2017
#3
Tomáš Soukup, Tomáš Veleta
Systemic sclerosis is classed as a diffuse (systemic) disease of connective tissue. It is a heterogeneous disease significantly shortening life expectancy. Its etiology is unknown. Pathogenetic interplay is assumed to involve a triad of pathological autoimmune inflammation, vasculopathy and fibrosis. Clinical manifestations can be classed based on the preponderant pathogenetic process. Vasculopathy is manifested by secondary Raynauds phenomenon with abnormal findings on the nailfold capillaroscopy, skin telangiectasias, gastric antral vascular ectasia, life threatening scleroderma renal crisis, digital ulcerations and prognostically severe pulmonary arterial hypertension...
2018: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535728/cell-therapy-in-organ-transplantation-our-experience-on-the-clinical-translation-of-regulatory-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Niloufar Safinia, Nathali Grageda, Cristiano Scottà, Sarah Thirkell, Laura J Fry, Trishan Vaikunthanathan, Robert I Lechler, Giovanna Lombardi
Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term outcome is suboptimal due to the increased morbidity and mortality associated with the toxicity of immunosuppressive regimens and chronic rejection (1-5). As such, the attention of the transplant community has focused on the development of novel therapeutic strategies to achieve allograft tolerance, a state whereby the immune system of the recipient can be re-educated to accept the allograft, averting the need for long-term immunosuppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504151/bone-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-model-in-swine-tibial-defect-evaluation-of-surgical-angiogenesis-and-transplant-viability
#5
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Caroline A Hundepool, Liselotte F Bulstra, Patricia F Friedrich, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop
INTRODUCTION: In prior small animal studies, we maintained vascularized bone allotransplant viability without long-term immunotherapy. Instead, an autogenous neoangiogenic circulation is created from implanted vessels, sufficient to maintain bone viability with only 2 weeks immunosupression. Blood flow is maintained despite rejection of the allogeneic vascular pedicle thereafter. We have previously described a large animal (swine) pre-clinical model, reconstructing tibial defects with vascularized tibial allotransplants...
March 5, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471090/structure-characterization-of-two-functional-polysaccharides-from-polygonum-multiflorum-and-its-immunomodulatory
#6
Qing Zhang, Yi Xu, Junjiang Lv, Mengxia Cheng, Ying Wu, Kun Cao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Xiuni Mou, Qi Fan
Two purified polysaccharides named WPMP-1 and WPMP-2 were obtained from Polygonum multiflorum with an average molecular weight of 2.04 kDa and 92.13 kDa, respectively. Structural characterization revealed that WPMP-1was supposed to be a glucan composed of 1,4-linked α-d-Glcp, 1,4,6-linked α-d-Glcp, and terminal α-d-Glcp. WPMP-2 contained a complex branched structre formed by 1,2-linked α-d-Rhap, 1,2,4-linked α-d-Rhap, 1,3,5-linked α-l-Ara, 1,5- linked α-l-Araf, terminal α-l-Araf, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked α-d-GalpA, and 4-linked α-d-GalpA...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466395/dynamics-of-monocytic-hla-dr-expression-differs-between-bacterial-etiologies-during-the-course-of-bloodstream-infection
#7
Sara Cajander, Gunlög Rasmussen, Elisabet Tina, Anders Magnuson, Bo Söderquist, Jan Källman, Kristoffer Strålin
OBJECTIVE: In the pathogenesis of sepsis, activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are key components, but knowledge is lacking on the association between bacterial etiology and development of dysregulated responses with sustained immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the immunosupression marker HLA-DR on monocytes (mHLA-DR) is associated with bacterial etiology and markers of inflammation during the clinical trajectory of bloodstream infection (BSI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239457/opioids-and-immunosupression-in-oncological-postoperative-patients
#8
José Luis Bonilla-García, Manuel Cortiñas-Sáenz, Esperanza Del Pozo-Gavilán
INTRODUCTION: Recent animal studies demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of opioid withdrawal resulting in a higher risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of remifentanil discontinuation on Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU)-acquired infection after a schedule of sedoanalgesia of at least 6 days. METHOD: All patients over 18 years of age with a unit admission of more than 4 days were consecutively selected. The study population was the one affected by surgical pathology of any origin where sedation was based on any hypnotic and the opioid remifentanil was used as analgesic for at least 96 hours in continuous perfusion...
September 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210610/effects-of-feeding-bentonite-clay-upon-ochratoxin-a-induced-immunosuppression-in-broiler-chicks
#9
Aisha Khatoon, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zain Ul Abidin, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti
A presence of mycotoxins in feed is one of the most alarming issues in the poultry feed industry. Ochratoxins, produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium species, are important mycotoxin regarding the health status of poultry birds. Ochratoxins are further classified into to several subtypes (A, B, C, etc) depending on their chemical structures, but ochratoxin A (OTA) is considered the most important and toxic. Bentonite clay, belonging to phyllosilicates and formed from weathering of volcanic ashes, has adsorbent ability for several mycotoxins...
March 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176769/decreased-prevalence-of-cancer-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study
#10
Xavier Moisset, Maud Perié, Bruno Pereira, Emilie Dumont, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, François-Xavier Lesage, Frederic Dutheil, Frederic Taithe, Pierre Clavelou
BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer prevalence have produced conflicting results concerning the relative risk of overall and specific sub-types of cancer in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Contemporary controls and information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption are generally missing from previous studies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate lifetime cancer prevalence in a large cohort of MS patients relative to appropriate controls. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, using a postal survey of a cohort of MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159710/prediction-of-free-from-total-mycophenolic-acid-concentrations-in-stable-renal-transplant-patients-a-population-based-approach
#11
Helena Colom, Franc Andreu, Teun van Gelder, Dennis A Hesselink, Brenda C M de Winter, Oriol Bestard, Joan Torras, Josep M Cruzado, Josep M Grinyó, Núria Lloberas
BACKGROUND: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) protein-binding model was developed to (1) predict free mycophenolic acid (fMPA) based on total MPA (tMPA) concentrations in renal transplant patients, to establish the therapeutic range of fMPA through pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies; and (2) provide a guideline for dosing mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). METHODS: Full PK profiles of 56 patients (from five different occasions) during the first year after transplantation who were treated with oral MMF and cyclosporine, or macrolides (either tacrolimus or sirolimus), were analysed...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153071/-mycoviruses-and-importance-in-mycology
#12
Sema Aşkın Keçeli
Opportunistic fungal infections like invasive candidiasis and aspergillozis have high mortality rate particularly in immunosupressive patients. The rate of therapy success with antifungal agents is usually low. Although immunotherapy methods have been developed to increase the host response against antifungals, there has been a need for new antifungal therapeutic agents in the treatment of invasive aspergillozis and other opportunistic fungal infections. Mycoviruses are the viruses that specifically infect fungi...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145348/magnusiomyces-capitatus-peritonitis-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia-as-a-breakthrough-infection-during-caspofungin-therapy
#13
Ayşe Bariş, Haşim Gencer, Nazan Dalgiç, Güntülü Şik, Fatma Özakkaş, Elif Aktaş
Magnusiomyces capitatus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen particularly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a M. capitatus peritonitis in child with acute lymphocytic leukemia as a breakthrough infection during caspofungin therapy. The possibility of breakthrough infections caused by M. capitatus must be taken into consideration, particularly in immunosupressed patients being treated for systemic fungal infections by caspofungin. Although there are no defined breakpoints for susceptibility testing of M...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090586/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-myh9-rd-in-an-australasian-cohort-with-thrombocytopenia
#14
David J Rabbolini, Yenna Chun, Maya Latimer, Shinji Kunishima, Kathleen Fixter, Bhavia Valecha, Peter Tan, Lee Ping Chew, Benjamin T Kile, Rachel Burt, Kottayam Radhakrishnan, Robert Bird, Paul Ockelford, Sara Gabrielli, Qiang Chen, William S Stevenson, Christopher M Ward, Marie-Christine Morel-Kopp
MYH9-related disorders (MYH9-RDs) caused by mutation of the MYH9 gene which encodes non-muscle myosin heavy-chain-IIA (NMMHC-IIA), an important motor protein in hemopoietic cells, are the most commonly encountered cause of inherited macrothrombocytopenia. Despite distinguishing features including an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, giant platelets on the peripheral blood film accompanied by leucocytes with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (döhle-like bodies), these disorders remain generally under-recognized and often misdiagnosed as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
November 1, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052290/pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-de-novo-after-lung-transplantation
#15
Javier Gómez-Román, María Teresa Zarrabeitia, Ana Santurtún, José Antonio Parra, Ainara Azueta Etxebarría, Jose M Cifrian, Javier Freire Salinas
A pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is presented in a 40 year-old woman two years after bilateral lung transplantation for emphysema without any signs of Langerhans cells proliferation in the explanted lungs. A microsatellite molecular analysis showed the proliferating cells were generated in a recipient cellular clone. The patient did not quit smoking after transplantation. No signs of disease were detected in the implanted lungs before surgery. Strict control of immunosupressive drug levels stabilized the disease...
December 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937975/umbilical-cord-blood-cells-for-treatment-of-cerebral-palsy-timing-and-treatment-options
#16
REVIEW
Courtney A McDonald, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children, and there is no cure. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy is currently being assessed in clinical trials. While there is much interest in the use of UCB stem cells for neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Further, UCB contains many stem and progenitor cells of interest, and we will point out that individual cell types within UCB may elicit specific effects...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910239/social-epidemiology-in-hiv-aids-what-else-should-we-consider-to-prevent-the-hiv-aids-progression
#17
Silvia Giménez Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Morillo Velázquez
More than 35 years after the description of the first cases of a new immunodeficiency syndrome that was named AIDS, health care providers hardly have a global perspective of those factors that coexist with this syndrome and also contribute to immunosupression and progression of disease. This report presents some of these factors (drug use, nutrition, psychological conditions, socioeconomic factors) to propose some areas of research and intervention strategies that could prevent the progression of HIV/AIDS.
2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893628/a-combination-of-nanosystems-for-the-delivery-of-cancer-chemoimmunotherapeutic-combinations-1-methyltryptophan-nanocrystals-and-paclitaxel-nanoparticles
#18
P Calleja, J M Irache, C Zandueta, C Martínez-Oharriz, S Espuelas
IDO is an enzyme that tumors use to create a state of immunosupression. 1-d-methyltryptophan (1-MT) is an IDO pathway inhibitor. After being successfully evaluated in preclinical studies, current clinical trials are actually analyzing its efficacy as monotherapy or in combination with multiple chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel. 1-MT very poor solubility in water and many other solvents precludes its ease parenteral administration. It is currently administered by oral route because high daily doses were well-tolerated and effectively inhibited the IDO activity although only 25% of dose was recovered in plasma...
September 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884426/thyroid-autoimmune-antibodies-in-patients-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-double-edged-sword
#19
Chen-Tian Shen, Xin-Yun Zhang, Zhong-Ling Qiu, Zhen-Kui Sun, Wei-Jun Wei, Hong-Jun Song, Quan-Yong Luo
PURPOSE: The relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study is to comprehensively analyze the association between thyroid autoimmune antibodies and disease statuses of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: Patients were divided into different groups according to their final diagnoses after radioiodine therapy as well as their serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and anti-thyroidperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) titers...
October 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724597/multifocal-septic-arthritis-gluteal-abscess-and-spondylodiscitis-by-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-after-an-intramuscular-injection
#20
Rita Marques Pocinho, Liliana Antunes, Pedro Pires, Isabel Baptista
We present the case of a 63-year-old man, admitted for hand cellulitis and acute kidney injury. A Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE) was isolated in blood cultures and despite directed intravenous antibiotherapy, the patient evolved unfavourably, with dorsolumbar spondylodiscitis, multifocal septic arthritis and abscesses. CT also showed densification of the gluteal muscles, multiple air bubbles in the psoas, paraspinal muscles and spinal canal that were associated with an intramuscular injection administered 1 week earlier for a backache...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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