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S. pneumoniae

Igor Akushevich, Julia Kravchenko, Arseniy P Yashkin, Anatoliy I Yashin
Longer lifespan is accompanied by a larger number of chronic diseases among older adults. Because of a growing proportion of older adults in the U.S., this brings the problem of age-related morbidity to the forefront as a major contributor to rising medical expenditures. We evaluated 15-year time trends (from 1998 to 2013) in the prevalence of 48 acute and chronic non-cancer diseases and cancers in older U.S. adults aged 65+ and estimated the annual percentage changes of these prevalence trends using SEER-Medicare and HRS-Medicare data...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Alexander Kc Leung, Alex H C Wong, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity in developed countries and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "community-acquired pneumonia"...
June 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Felix Berlth, Patrick S Plum, Seung-Hun Chon, Christian A Gutschow, Elfriede Bollschweiler, Arnulf H Hölscher
BACKGROUND: The impact of total minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) on early postoperative outcome and patient's survival is a matter of recent discussion. METHODS: We performed a 1:2 propensity score-matched comparison of 20 patients who underwent 3D-MIE and high intrathoracic esophagogastrostomy with 40 patients who underwent hybrid esophagectomy (HYBRID) with laparoscopic gastric mobilization and open transthoracic esophagectomy and the same anastomosis for esophageal adenocarcinoma in 2014 and 2015...
June 21, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Isabel Silva, Marta Tacão, Rafael D S Tavares, Rita Miranda, Susana Araújo, Célia M Manaia, Isabel Henriques
Disinfection by UV radiation is one of the most promising solutions to reduce the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance in the final effluents of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTP). Our aim was to evaluate the fate of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers in a full-scale system that includes UV-C disinfection. Over treatment, the abundance of cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was reduced, with reductions of 1.9 log units after secondary treatment (STW samples) and 1...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Joonyeon Park, Myeongji Cho, Hyeon S Son
We designed and implemented simulation models of bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance to determine the appropriate antibiotics to use against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Simulation models were designed using individual-based modeling, and a simulation tool, ARSim, was developed to conduct experiments using the models. Simulations of bacterial growth were conducted by virtually growing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria in a virtual environment with predefined parameters. Other experiments included predicting the effects of antibiotics when added to two different groups, one group of nonresistant bacteria and another group of both resistant and nonresistant bacteria...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Abigail L Coughtrie, Denise E Morris, Rebecca Anderson, Nelupha Begum, David W Cleary, Saul N Faust, Johanna M Jefferies, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Michael V Moore, Mark A Mullee, Paul J Roderick, Andrew Tuck, Robert N Whittaker, Ho Ming Yuen, C Patrick Doncaster, Stuart C Clarke
PURPOSE: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide with pathobiont carriage a required precursor to infection. We sought to determine carriage epidemiology for both bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens as part of a large population-based cross-sectional carriage study. METHODOLOGY: Nose self-swab samples were collected in two separate time-points, May to August 2012 (late spring/summer) and February to April 2013 (winter/early spring)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Robbie S R Woods, Lina Geyer, Ana Ionescu, Deirdre Callanan, Patrick Sheahan
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is controversial. There is increasing evidence that, in selected cases, minimally invasive transoral surgery can offer improved functional outcomes, with equivalent oncologic outcomes, compared to chemoradiotherapy. AIMS: We report the outcomes of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for treatment of OPSCC at our institution. METHODS: Patients with OPSCC undergoing TLM at the South Infirmary Victoria University Hospital, Cork, between 2010 and 2016, were identified from an institutional database...
June 21, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
M Jack Borrok, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Nurten Beyaz, Gabriela M Marchetti, Arnita S Barnes, Kristen J Lekstrom, Sandrina S Phipps, Michael P McCarthy, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, Ping Tsui, Ruchi Gupta
IgG antibodies are abundantly present in the vasculature but to a much lesser extent in mucosal tissues. This contrasts with antibodies of the IgA and IgM isotype that are present at high concentration in mucosal secretions due to active delivery by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). IgG is the preferred isotype for therapeutic mAb development due to its long serum half-life and robust Fc-mediated effector function, and it is utilized to treat a diverse array of diseases with antigen targets located in the vasculature, serosa, and mucosa...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Philip R Harvey, Tom Thomas, Joht S Chandan, Jemma Mytton, Ben Coupland, Neeraj Bhala, Felicity Evison, Prashant Patel, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Nigel J Trudgill
BACKGROUND: Achalasia is an uncommon condition characterised by failed lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Data regarding its incidence, prevalence, disease associations and long-term outcomes are very limited. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) include demographic and diagnostic data for all English hospital attendances. The Health Improvement Network (THIN) includes the primary care records of 4.5 million UK subjects, representative of national demographics...
June 20, 2018: Gut
S Montaña, M Hernandez, J S Fernandez, M Pennini, D Centrón, A Sucari, A Iriarte, M S Ramírez
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a growing concern worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen with a high capacity for nosocomial spread. We described the occurrence of plasmid-encoded KPC-2-harbouring K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from a neurosurgical centre in Argentina. The bla KPC-2 gene was surrounded by IS kpn6 and IS kpn7 .
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
L E Lamb, X Zhi, F Alam, M Pyzio, C L Scudamore, S Wiles, S Sriskandan
BACKGROUND: The development of vaccines and evaluation of novel treatment strategies for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease requires suitable models of human infection that can be monitored longitudinally and are preferably non-invasive. Bio-photonic imaging provides an opportunity to reduce use of animals in infection modelling and refine the information that can be obtained, however the range of bioluminescent GAS strains available is limited. In this study we set out to develop bioluminescent iGAS strains for use in in vivo pneumonia and soft tissue disease models...
June 19, 2018: BMC Microbiology
T Furuta, S Baba, M Yamade, T Uotani, T Kagami, T Suzuki, S Tani, Y Hamaya, M Iwaizumi, S Osawa, K Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Although autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is generally considered relatively rare, we frequently encounter AIG among patients at to our hospital who have experienced at least two episodes of Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. AIMS: We investigated the incidence of AIG in consecutive patients who consulted our department for H. pylori eradication with reference to eradication history. METHODS: A total of 404 consecutive patients who visited the H...
June 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Himani Kaushik, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
The epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D causes severe enterotoxaemia associated with a general edema and neurological alterations, leading to subsequent death and is listed as one of the most lethal toxins. Currently employed vaccines against C. perfringens epsilon toxin include toxoid based vaccines. Use of peptide vaccines has become an interesting approach for vaccination after the successful licensing of peptide vaccines against Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia that have demonstrated the potential and effectiveness of these vaccines...
June 16, 2018: Anaerobe
Mohsin Hamid, Bilal Lashari, Irfan Ahsan, Ida Micaily, Usman Sarwar, Joseph Crocetti
Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic synthetic(s) phase cell cycle inhibitor, and its role has evolved as an immunological agent in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, etc. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) is one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics commonly used for urinary tract infections, exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia. Both MTX and TS can have significantly overlapping side effects involving dermatologic, renal, and hematological systems, and the combination of these can be deadly...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Melanie Roch, Maria Celeste Varela, Agustina Taglialegna, Warren E Rose, Adriana E Rosato
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- associated S...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Safa S Almarzoky Abuhussain, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
The role of inhalational combination therapy when treating carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with newer beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors has not been established. Using a 72 hour in vitro pharmacodynamic chemostat model, we simulated the human exposures achieved in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) 2.5g q8h alone and in combination with inhaled amikacin (AMK) 400mg q12h, a reformulated aminoglycoside designed for inhalational administration, against 3 P...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kun Cao, Fubin Lai, Xin-Lu Zhao, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xin-Yu Miao, Ruiguang Ge, Qing-Yu He, Xuesong Sun
Given their involvement in catalysis, infection, and biofilm formation, Fe and Mn are essential for bacterial survival and virulence. In this study, we found that Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) could grow in the Mn-deficient medium (MDCM). Furthermore, findings showed that the Fe concentration in the bacterium increased when the Mn concentration decreased. In addition, it was noted that supplementing MDCM with Fe resulted in the recovery of bacterial growth. Quantitative proteomics using stable-isotope dimethyl labeling was performed to investigate the adaptive growth mechanism of S...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria João Brito, Marcos D Pinho, Ana Friães, Sandra I Aguiar, M Ramirez, Jose Melo-Cristino
Despite use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, incidence of pleural effusion and empyema (pediatric complicated pneumococcal pneumonia [PCPP]) is reportedly increasing globally. We cultured and performed PCR on 152 pleural fluid samples recovered from pediatric patients in Portugal during 2010-2015 to identify and serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae. We identified only 17 cases by culture, but molecular methods identified S. pneumoniae in 68% (92/135) of culture-negative samples. The most frequent serotypes were 3, 1, and 19A, together accounting for 62% (68/109) of cases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Chia-Lun Hsu, Yu-Jia Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian, Scott G Harroun, Shih-Chun Wei, Rini Ravindranath, Jui-Yang Lai, Chih-Ching Huang, Huan-Tsung Chang
We have developed a simple and green solution for the synthesis of catalytic gold-doped bismuth oxyiodide (Au/BiOI) nanocomposites at room temperature from an aqueous mixture of gold ions, bismuth ions, and iodide ions. Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in situ and doped into BiOI nanosheets. The oxygen vacancies generated in BiOI give rise to its oxidase-like activity, and Au doping facilitated the reaction leading to a 4-fold higher oxidase-like activity of the Au/BiOI nanocomposite. The Au/BiOI nanocomposites showed wide spectrum antimicrobial activity not only against non-multidrug-resistant E...
June 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Fatih Demirci, Nursenem Karaca, Mehmet Tekin, Betül Demirci
Thymus sipyleus BOISS. subsp. sipyleus BOISS. var. sipyleus L. of the Lamiaceae, locally known as thyme scented lemon, which is an endemic taxon collected from Sivas in Anatolia, was investigated in this study due to its folk medicine use against rhinosinusitis. The aromatic characteristics of the plant material gave the idea for the detailed evaluation of the volatiles and essential oil thereof. Consequently, the oil was obtained by Clevenger type hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses for phytochemical characterization...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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