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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678761/a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-atypical-pneumonia
#1
Sebastian Kersting, Valentina Rausch, Frank F Bier, Markus von Nickisch-Rosenegk
Pneumonia is one of the most common and potentially lethal infectious conditions worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the pathogen most frequently associated with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia, while Legionella pneumophila is the major cause for local outbreaks of legionellosis. Both pathogens can be difficult to diagnose since signs and symptoms are nonspecific and do not differ from other causes of pneumonia. Therefore, a rapid diagnosis within a clinically relevant time is essential for a fast onset of the proper treatment...
April 17, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674848/biofilm-infections-between-scylla-and-charybdis-interplay-of-host-antimicrobial-peptides-and-antibiotics
#2
Sergey Chernysh, Natalia Gordya, Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev
Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) complex of the host's immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673980/photoactivated-2-3-distyrylindoles-kill-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#3
Leslie Edwards, Danielle Turner, Cody Champion, Megha Khandelwal, Kailee Zingler, Cassidy Stone, Ruwini D Rajapaksha, Jing Yang, Mahinda I Ranasinghe, Alexander Kornienko, Liliya V Frolova, Snezna Rogelj
Compounds based on the 2,3-distyrylindole scaffold were found to exhibit bactericidal properties upon irradiation with white light. At the concentration of 1 μM, the lead compound 1 completely (ca. 109  CFU/mL) eradicated such Gram-positive organisms as S. aureus (MRSA, MSSA), E. faecalis (VRE), S. pyogenes and S. mutans when irradiated with white light for 2 min. At the concentration of 5 μM and in the presence of polymyxin E at non-bactericidal 1.25 μg/mL concentration, 1 also showed a 7-log to 9-log reductions in bacterial counts of such Gram-negative organisms as multi-drug resistant (MDR) A...
April 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673880/french-hospital-discharge-database-pmsi-and-bacterial-resistance-is-coding-adapted-to-hospital-epidemiology
#4
L de Léotoing, F Barbier, A Dinh, D Breilh, G Chaize, A Vainchtock, L Levy-Bachelot, C Bensoussan, S Dramard, J Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: A preliminary analysis of data consistency on different types of bacterial resistance by infection site and causative agents was conducted using the French hospital discharge database (French acronym PMSI) to assess the use of the database in a national cartography tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital stays in medical, surgical, and obstetrical units were extracted from the 2014 PMSI database using the ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Bacterial infections, causative agents, and resistance corresponding to these stays were also identified...
April 17, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673446/a-cross-sectional-survey-assessing-carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-a-healthy-population-in-xinjiang-uygur-autonomous-region-of-china
#5
Na Xie, Zhao Yun Chen, Tao Chen, Bing Qing Zhu, Li Xu, Yuan Gao, Ai Yu Zhang, Pan Zhao, Ji Wen Liu, Zhu Jun Shao
The carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a healthy population in China remains unclear. In this study, we collected the oropharyngeal swabs from 513 individuals in Xinjiang, China. Real-time PCR targeting the lytA gene and 12 serotypes were assessed to identify S. pneumoniae carriage. The total carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 70.4% (361/513). The most prevalent serotypes were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5, and 6A/B. The highest carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was noted in children aged 6-10 years (88...
March 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673334/full-blood-count-values-as-a-predictor-of-poor-outcome-of-pneumonia-among-hiv-infected-patients
#6
S Camon, C Quiros, N Saubi, A Moreno, M A Marcos, Y Eto, S Rofael, E Monclus, J Brown, T D McHugh, J Mallolas, R Perello
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the predictive value of analytical markers of full blood count that can be assessed in the emergency department for HIV infected patients, with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Prospective 3-year study including all HIV-infected patients that went to our emergency department with respiratory clinical infection, more than 24-h earlier they were diagnosed with CAP and required admission. We assessed the different values of the first blood count performed on the patient as follows; total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes (LYM), basophils, eosinophils (EOS), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width (PDW)...
April 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672858/neonates-colonized-with-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-airways-have-a-low-grade-systemic-inflammation
#7
Nadia Rahman Fink, Bo Lund Chawes, Jonathan Thorsen, Jakob Stokholm, Karen Krogfelt, Susanne Schjørring, Marie Kragh, Klaus Bønnelykke, Susanne Brix, Hans Bisgaard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The development of childhood asthma is associated with neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx. Furthermore, established asthma is associated with systemic low-grade inflammation. We here report on the association between neonatal colonization with pathogenic bacteria in hypopharynx and the development of systemic low-grade inflammation. METHODS: Bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx with M. catharralis, H. influenzae and/or S...
April 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672169/functional-bla-kpc-2-sequences-are-present-in-u-s-beef-cattle-feces-regardless-of-antibiotic-use
#8
Amit Vikram, John W Schmidt
Carbapenems are classified as critically important antibiotics since they are employed when resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections fail to respond to other antibiotic therapies. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were traditionally understood to be rare in the U.S. food-producing animals. Recently, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), our group detected blaKPC-2 in all 72 metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) samples prepared from the feces of 36 lots of beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV)...
April 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671903/a-review-of-mycoplasma-diagnostics-in-cattle
#9
REVIEW
Alysia M Parker, Paul A Sheehy, Mark S Hazelton, Katrina L Bosward, John K House
Mycoplasma species have a global distribution causing serious diseases in cattle worldwide including mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia, otitis media and reproductive disorders. Mycoplasma species are typically highly contagious, are capable of causing severe disease, and are difficult infections to resolve requiring rapid and accurate diagnosis to prevent and control disease outbreaks. This review discusses the development and use of different diagnostic methods to identify Mycoplasma species relevant to cattle, with a particular focus on Mycoplasma bovis...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671574/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-ionic-liquids-show-high-antimicrobial-efficacy-to-skin-specific-bacteria
#10
Anusha Aditya, Sabyasachi Chattopadhyay, Diksha Jha, Hemant K Gautam, Souvik Maiti, Munia Ganguli
Zinc oxide nanoparticles of 60 nm were dispersed in PBS and 2 different ionic liquids- choline acetate, 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. These formulations were tested in 4 different strains- Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Out of these combinations, maximum efficiency was obtained for ZnO nanoparticle dispersed in imidazolium based ionic liquid against skin specific S. epidermidis. Through a series of experiments, it has been established that the mechanism of killing this skin-specific bacteria is through ROS production leading to bacterial cell lysis...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671104/long-term-follow-up-in-patients-treated-by-stent-implantation-for-post-ablation-pulmonary-vein-stenosis
#11
Elisabeth Iversen, Erik J S Packer, Synne M Sandberg, Øyvind Bleie, Per Ivar Hoff, Peter Schuster
PURPOSE: Symptomatic severe pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare but well-recognized complication. Treatment options include pulmonary vein angioplasty with or without drug eluting balloons or angioplasty with stent implantation. The treatment of choice is unclear. In our center, pulmonary vein stenting is the treatment of choice for significantly stenotic veins. We present the long-term clinical outcome of 9 patients treated with stent implantation...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670859/differences-in-virulence-between-legionella-pneumophila-isolates-from-human-and-non-human-sources-determined-in-galleria-mellonella-infection-model
#12
Patrícia S Sousa, Inês N Silva, Leonilde M Moreira, António Veríssimo, Joana Costa
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous bacterium in freshwater environments and in many man-made water systems capable of inducing pneumonia in humans. Despite its ubiquitous character most studies on L. pneumophila virulence focused on clinical strains and isolates from man-made environments, so little is known about the nature and extent of virulence variation in strains isolated from natural environments. It has been established that clinical isolates are less diverse than man-made and natural environmental strains, suggesting that only a subset of environmental isolates is specially adapted to infect humans...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669884/iron-acquisition-and-siderophore-release-by-carbapenem-resistant-sequence-type-258-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#13
Victoria I Holden, Meredith S Wright, Sébastien Houle, Abigail Collingwood, Charles M Dozois, Mark D Adams, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is rapidly acquiring resistance to all known antibiotics, including carbapenems. Multilocus sequence type ST258 (sequence type 258), carrying a gene encoding the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase ( bla KPC ) on a transmissible plasmid, is the most prevalent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the United States and has disseminated worldwide. Previously, whole-genome sequencing identified core genome single nucleotide variants that divide ST258 into two distinct clades, ST258a and ST258b...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669826/structural-and-functional-studies-of-spr1654-an-essential-aminotransferase-in-teichoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#14
Xiao Han, Renhua Sun, Tatyana Sandalova, Adnane Achour
Spr1654 from Streptococcus pneumoniae plays a key role in the production of unusual sugars, presumably functioning as a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferase. Spr1654 was predicted to catalyse the transferring of amino group to form the amino sugar 2-acetamido-4-amino-2, 4, 6-trideoxygalactose moiety (AATGal), representing a crucial step in biosynthesis of teichoic acids in S. pneumoniae We have determined the crystal structures of the apo-, PLP- and PMP-bound forms of Spr1654. Spr1654 forms a homodimer, in which each monomer contains one active site...
April 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669197/complications-of-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#15
Michael M Ward
BACKGROUND: To compare the risks of complications of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) between patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and those without AS. METHODS: In this population-based study, we examined U.S. Medicare beneficiaries (< 75 years old) with AS and a comparison group without AS who had primary THA in 1999 - 2013. Complications were based on the 2013 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services THA Complication Measure, which included myocardial infarction, pneumonia, and sepsis within 7 days; surgical site bleeding, pulmonary embolus, or venous thrombosis within 30 days; and mechanical complications or local infection within 90 days...
April 18, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668950/secondary-bacterial-pneumonia-by-staphylococcus-aureus-following-influenza-a-infection-is-saer-s-dependent
#16
Timothy R Borgogna, Bennett Hisey, Emily Heitmann, Joshua J Obar, Nicole Meissner, Jovanka M Voyich
S. aureus is a predominant cause of fatal pneumonia following influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Herein we investigate the influence of antecedent IAV infection on S. aureus virulence gene expression. Using a murine model, comparing USA300 and USA300ΔsaeR/S strains, we demonstrate S. aureus pathogenesis following IAV infection is SaeR/S dependent. Furthermore, we show that IAV modulates the lung environment to rapidly up-regulate S. aureus virulence factors containing the SaeR-binding domain. Data demonstrate the pathogen response to IAV infection impacts host outcome and provides evidence that the ability of S...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668913/defining-pneumonia-after-esophagectomy-for-cancer-validation-of-the-uniform-pneumonia-score-in-a-high-volume-center-in-north-america
#17
M F J Seesing, A Wirsching, P S N van Rossum, T J Weijs, J P Ruurda, R van Hillegersberg, D E Low
Surgery is a central component of multimodality therapy for esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer. Pneumonia is a common sequela of esophagectomy, leading to an increase in intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, readmission rates, and postoperative mortality. Developing strategies to reduce pneumonia after esophagectomy is hampered by the absence of a standardized methodology for defining pneumonia. This study aims to validate the Uniform Pneumonia Score (UPS) in a high volume center in the USA...
April 14, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667100/severe-infections-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-disease-pattern-and-predictors-of-infection-related-mortality
#18
C L Teh, S A Wan, G R Ling
Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To describe the pattern of serious infections in patients with SLE and to identify the predictors of infection-related mortality among SLE patients with serious infections, we prospectively studied all SLE patients who were hospitalized with infections in Sarawak General Hospital during 2011-2015. Demographic data, clinical features, and outcomes were collected. Cox regression analysis was carried out to determine the independent predictors of infection-related mortality...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664951/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-cluster-randomized-community-based-non-inferiority-trial
#19
Luke C Mullany, Elburg W van Boetzelaer, Julie R Gutman, Laura C Steinhardt, Pascal Ngoy, Yolanda Barbera Lainez, Alison Wittcoff, Steven A Harvey, Lara S Ho
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's integrated community case management (iCCM) guidelines recommend that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs return for follow-up on day 3 following the initial consultation on day 1. Such fevers often resolve rapidly, however, and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aimed to determine if a conditional follow-up visit was non-inferior to a universal follow-up visit for these children...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664857/restrictive-versus-liberal-strategy-for-red-blood-cell-transfusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-in-orthopaedic-patients
#20
Wan-Jie Gu, Xiao-Ping Gu, Xiang-Dong Wu, Hao Chen, Joey S W Kwong, Lu-Yang Zhou, Shuo Chen, Zheng-Liang Ma
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend restrictive criteria for red blood-cell transfusion in most clinical settings. However, patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery may require distinct transfusion criteria since benefits and potential harm often vary considerably based on patient characteristics and surgical procedures. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, especially in important subgroups. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating restrictive (mostly a hemoglobin level of 8...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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