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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108677/in-vitro-susceptibility-to-19-agents-other-than-%C3%AE-lactams-among-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-recovered-on-hospital-admission
#1
A Mischnik, P Baumert, A Hamprecht, A M Rohde, S Peter, S Feihl, J Knobloch, H Gölz, A Kola, B Obermann, C Querbach, M Willmann, F Gebhardt, E Tacconelli, P Gastmeier, H Seifert, W V Kern
OBJECTIVES: As part of the multicentre Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study, MIC values of 19 non-β-lactam agents were determined for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species (3GCREB) isolates collected in German hospitals. METHODS: A total of 328 E. coli, 35 Klebsiella spp. (1 Klebsiella oxytoca and 34 Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 16 Enterobacter spp. (1 Enterobacter aerogenes and 15 Enterobacter cloacae) isolates were submitted to broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing with the MICRONAUT system...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107379/experimental-and-in-silico-investigation-of-anti-microbial-activity-of-1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane-derivatives-of-thiomorpholine-piperazine-and-morpholine
#2
Charles O Nwuche, Oguejiofo T Ujam, Akachukwu Ibezim, Ifeoma B Ujam
The Antibiogram properties of 1-chloro-2-isocyanatoethane derivatives of thiomorpholine (CTC), piperazine (CPC) and morpholine (CMC) were evaluated by the approved agar well diffusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and in silico techniques. A total of fourteen microbial cultures consisting of ten bacteria and four yeast strains were used in the biological study while affinity of the compounds for DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target, was investigated by docking method. Results indicate that both thiomorpholine and piperazine had zero activity against the Gram negative organisms tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106720/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-concentration-is-not-affected-by-severe-or-non-severe-pneumonia-or-inflammation-in-young-children
#3
Johanne Haugen, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Maria Mathisen, Sudha Basnet, Karl A Brokstad, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Prakash S Shrestha, Tor A Strand
Poor vitamin D status has been associated with increased risk and severity of respiratory tract infections. Whether or not inflammation and infection affects 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is controversial and is important in the interpretation of observational studies using plasma-25(OH)D as a biomarker for status. Our objectives were to measure whether 25(OH)D concentration was altered by an episode of acute lower respiratory tract infection and whether markers of inflammation predicted the 25(OH)D concentration...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104154/cost-analysis-of-transplantation-in-japan-performed-with-the-use-of-the-national-database
#4
T Kitazawa, K Matsumoto, S Fujita, K Seto, T Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: When assessing the cost of transplants in Japan, earlier studies have been limited to case series that investigated inpatient cost alone. Few studies have evaluated total cost, which includes inpatient, outpatient, and pharmaceutical costs, or compared costs before and after transplantation. Using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB), we investigated the total cost of major transplantation and contributing factors. METHODS: We analyzed the cost and complications of patients who underwent a cadaveric renal transplantation (CRT), living renal transplantation (LRT), living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, autologous bone marrow transplantation, allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, or autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) from April 2009 to March 2010...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103277/protection-elicited-by-nasal-immunization-with-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-rpspa-adjuvanted-with-whole-cell-pertussis-vaccine-wp-against-co-colonization-of-mice-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#5
Rafaella O Tostes, Tasson C Rodrigues, Josefa B da Silva, Alessandra S Schanoski, Maria Leonor S Oliveira, Eliane N Miyaji
A promising alternative vaccine candidate to reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases is the protein antigen PspA (Pneumococcal surface protein A). Since concomitant colonization with two or more pneumococcal strains is very common in children, we aimed to determine if immunization with PspA would be able to control co-colonization. We evaluated nasal immunization with recombinant PspA (rPspA) in a model of co-colonization with two strains expressing different PspAs. Mice were immunized intranasally with rPspAs from clades 1 to 4 (rPspA1, rPspA2, rPspA3 or rPspA4) using whole-cell pertussis vaccine (wP) as adjuvant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103015/antimicrobial-activity-ame-resistance-and-translation-inhibition-studies-of-anthraquinone-neomycin-conjugates
#6
Natalya N Degtyareva, Changjun Gong, Sandra Story, Nathanael Levinson, Adegboyega K Oyelere, Keith D Green, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Dev Priya Arya
The antibacterial effects of aminoglycosides are based on their association with the A-site of bacterial ribosomal RNA and interference with the translational process in the bacterial cell, causing cell death. The clinical use of aminoglycosides is complicated by resistance and side effects, some of which arise from their interactions with the human mitochondrial 12S rRNA and its deafness-associated mutations, C1494U and A1555G. We report a rapid assay that allows screening of aminoglycoside compounds to these classes of rRNAs...
January 19, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102699/tracheostomy-weaning-outcomes-in-relation-to-the-site-of-acquired-brain-injury-a-retrospective-case-series
#7
Kay Mitton, Krystyna Walton, Manoj Sivan
OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether the outcome of tracheostomy weaning is influenced by the site of injury in acquired brain injury. METHODS: A retrospective case review of all the consecutive admissions to an acute neurorehabilitation unit in a 2-year period was performed. Patients with a diagnosis of acquired brain injury and tracheostomy in situ were included in this study. RESULTS: One hundred and six patients were included in the analysis...
January 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102514/carbapenemase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality
#8
M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, F Fligou, C Bartzavali, A Zotou, A Spyropoulou, K Koutsileou, S Vamvakopoulou, N Sioulas, V Karamouzos, E D Anastassiou, I Spiliopoulou, M Christofidou, M Marangos
A significant increase in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) bacteraemias has been observed worldwide. The objective of the present work was to study the risk factors and predictors of mortality of CP-Kp bacteraemias among critically ill patients. During a 4-year period (2012-3015), a matched 1:2 case-control study was conducted. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified by Vitek 2 technology. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the agar disc diffusion method and Etest. The presence of the bla KPC, bla VIM and bla NDM genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101913/nasopharyngeal-colonization-with-streptococcus%C3%A2-pneumoniae-triggers-dendritic-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-against-invasive-disease-in-mice
#9
Anne Dommaschk, Nadine Ding, Meritxell Tort Tarres, Lara F Bittersohl, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Danny Jonigk, Peter Braubach, Torsten Lippmann, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is an important precondition for the development of pneumococcal pneumonia. At the same time, nasopharyngeal colonization with Spn has been shown to mount adaptive immune responses against Spn in mice and humans. Cellular responses of the nasopharyngeal compartment, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), to pneumococcal colonization and their importance for developing adaptive immune responses are poorly defined. We show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101885/what-is-the-true-in%C3%A2-vitro-potency-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-pig-pneumonia-pathogens-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-and-pasteurella-multocida
#10
L Dorey, S Hobson, P Lees
The pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was determined for pig respiratory tract pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Indices of potency were determined for the following: (i) two matrices, broth and pig serum; (ii) five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions; and (iii) a high strength starting culture. For A. pleuropneumoniae, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar for the two matrices, but for P. multocida, differences were marked and significantly different. MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) serum: broth ratios for A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100975/management-of-a-mycotic-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-involving-the-celiac-artery
#11
Ahmet Dolapoglu, Kim I de la Cruz, Joseph S Coselli
A mycotic aneurysm that also involves the visceral arteries is a life-threatening condition. Surgical management typically consists of débridement and in situ repair with a Dacron graft and reimplantation of the involved visceral branches. We report a rare case of a mycotic saccular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm involving the celiac artery, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the responsible organism. Successful repair of the aneurysm and concomitant revascularization of the celiac artery were achieved.
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100202/a-novel-reflex-cough-testing-device
#12
Kazunori Fujiwara, Katsuyuki Kawamoto, Yoko Shimizu, Takahiro Fukuhara, Satoshi Koyama, Hideyuki Kataoka, Hiroya Kitano, Hiromi Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: The reflex cough test is useful for detecting silent aspiration, a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. However, assessing the risk of aspiration pneumonia requires measuring not only the cough reflex but also cough strength. Currently, no reflex cough testing device is available that can directly measure reflex cough strength. We therefore developed a new testing device that can easily and simultaneously measure cough strength and the time until the cough reflex, and verified whether screening with this new instrument is feasible for evaluating the risk of aspiration pneumonia...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099038/an-exome-sequencing-study-to-assess-the-role-of-rare-genetic-variation-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Slavé Petrovski, Jamie L Todd, Michael T Durheim, Quanli Wang, Jason W Chien, Fran L Kelly, Courtney Frankel, Caroline M Mebane, Zhong Ren, Joshua Bridgers, Thomas J Urban, Colin D Malone, Ashley Finlen Copeland, Christie Brinkley, Andrew S Allen, Thomas O'Riordan, John G McHutchison, Scott M Palmer, David B Goldstein
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an increasingly recognized, often fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We performed a case-control exome-wide collapsing analysis including 262 unrelated individuals with pulmonary fibrosis; clinically classified as IPF according to ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines (81...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097898/two-approaches-to-the-use-of-benzo-c-1-2-oxaboroles-as-active-fragments-for-synthetic-transformation-of-clarithromycin
#14
Gennady B Lapa, Elena P Mirchink, Elena B Isakova, Maria N Preobrazhenskaya
Clarithromycin (active against Gram positive infections) and 1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydrobenzo[c][1,2]oxaborole derivatives (effective for Gram negative microbes) are the ligands of bacterial RNA. The antimicrobial activities of these benzoxaboroles linked with clarithromycin at 9 or 4″ position were compared. Two synthetic pathways for these conjugates were elaborated. First pathway explored the substitution of the C-9 carbonyl group of macrolactone's cycle via oxime linker, the second direction used the modification of the 4″-O-group of cladinose via the formation of carbamates of benzoxaboroles...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096486/phage-derived-protein-induces-increased-platelet-activation-and-is-associated-with-mortality-in-patients-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#15
Rahajeng N Tunjungputri, Fredrick M Mobegi, Amelieke J Cremers, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Gerben Ferwerda, Jacques F Meis, Nel Roeleveld, Stephen D Bentley, Alexander S Pastura, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Andre J van der Ven, Quirijn de Mast, Aldert Zomer, Marien I de Jonge
: To improve our understanding about the severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), we investigated the association between the genotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae and disease outcomes for 349 bacteremic patients. A pneumococcal genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated a strong correlation between 30-day mortality and the presence of the phage-derived gene pblB, encoding a platelet-binding protein whose effects on platelet activation were previously unknown. Platelets are increasingly recognized as key players of the innate immune system, and in sepsis, excessive platelet activation contributes to microvascular obstruction, tissue hypoperfusion, and finally multiorgan failure, leading to mortality...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096418/multi-institute-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistance-reveals-remarkable-diversity-unexplained-mechanisms-and-limited-clonal-outbreaks
#16
Gustavo C Cerqueira, Ashlee M Earl, Christoph M Ernst, Yonatan H Grad, John P Dekker, Michael Feldgarden, Sinéad B Chapman, João L Reis-Cunha, Terrance P Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Mary L Delaney, Diane Kim, Ellena M Peterson, Thomas F O'Brien, Mary Jane Ferraro, David C Hooper, Susan S Huang, James E Kirby, Andrew B Onderdonk, Bruce W Birren, Deborah T Hung, Lisa A Cosimi, Jennifer R Wortman, Cheryl I Murphy, William P Hanage
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096340/evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-is-linked-to-any-genetic-mechanism-affecting-bacterial-duration-of-carriage
#17
Sonja Lehtinen, François Blanquart, Nicholas J Croucher, Paul Turner, Marc Lipsitch, Christophe Fraser
Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096183/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-a-nana-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-synergizes-with-influenza-a-virus-in-nasal-colonization-and-middle-ear-infection
#18
John T Wren, Lance K Blevins, Bing Pang, Ankita Basu Roy, Melissa B Oliver, Jennifer L Reimche, Jessie E Wozniak, Martha A Alexander-Miller, W Edward Swords
Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S...
January 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#19
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093834/seasonality-of-pathogens-causing-community-acquired-pneumonia
#20
Catia Cilloniz, Santiago Ewig, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Josep Mensa, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may add important information both for epidemiologists and clinicians. We investigate the seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in CAP. METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain (January 2003-December 2014). RESULTS: We studied 4431 patients with CAP, of whom 2689 (61%) were males...
January 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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