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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224242/dermoscopic-observations-in-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement
#1
M Sławińska, M Hlebowicz, E Iżycka-Świeszewska, M Sikorska, M Sokołowska-Wojdyło, T Smiatacz, R Nowicki, M Sobjanek
A 26-year-old female patient with a history of intravenous drug abuse, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 6 months before. AIDS defining disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The patient presented with severely decreased CD4 cell count of 7 cells/mm3 and relatively low HIV viral load of 281 copies/mL. Shortly after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), was diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system and skin involvement. This article is protected by copyright...
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#2
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221995/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-evaluation-of-seven-commercial-mic-products-against-standard-broth-microdilution-for-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#4
Erika Matuschek, Jenny Åhman, Catherine Webster, Gunnar Kahlmeter
OBJECTIVE: Both EUCAST and CLSI recommend broth microdilution (BMD) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin, but BMD is rarely used in routine microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate five commercially available BMD products and two brands of gradient tests for colistin MIC determination using BMD according to ISO standard 20776-1 as reference. METHODS: Colistin MIC determination was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on five commercially available BMD products (Sensititre, MICRONAUT-S, MICRONAUT MIC-Strip, SensiTest and UMIC) and two gradient tests (Etest and MIC Test Strip)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221986/streptococcus-pneumoniae-two-component-regulatory-systems-the-interplay-of-the-pneumococcus-with-its-environment
#5
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathobiont possessing a diverse array of multifunctional proteins essential for bacterial fitness and virulence. Gene expression is tightly controlled by regulatory components and among the pneumococcal sensorial tools, two‑component regulatory systems (TCS) are the most widespread and conserved. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of original studies on pneumococcal TCS on a functional level. Despite a rather chaotic nomenclature, the current available information on pneumococcal regulation by these systems can be conveniently addressed, according to the regulation of pathophysiological cell processes and the responses to detectable environmental signals...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221736/differential-effects-of-operative-complications-on-survival-after-surgery-for-primary-lung-cancer
#6
Felix G Fernandez, Andrzej S Kosinski, Anthony P Furnary, Mark Onaitis, Sunghee Kim, Robert H Habib, Betty C Tong, Patricia Cowper, Daniel Boffa, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Cameron D Wright, Joe B Putnam
OBJECTIVE: Complications adversely affect survival after lung cancer surgery. We tested the hypothesis that effects of complications after lung cancer surgery on survival vary substantially across the spectrum of postoperative complications. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database was linked to Medicare data for lung cancer resections from 2002 through 2013. Linkage was achieved for 29,899 patients. A survival model was created that included operative complications as explanatory variables and adjusted for relevant baseline covariates...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218804/impact-of-diabetes-on-free-flap-surgery-of-the-head-and-neck-a-nsqip-analysis
#7
Jacob S Brady, Aparna Govindan, Meghan M Crippen, Andrey Filimonov, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Richard Chan Woo Park
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is associated with microvascular pathology and may predispose patients undergoing microvascular surgery to complications. This study assesses diabetes as a risk factor for complications following free flap surgery of the head and neck. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data on free flap surgeries of the head and neck between 2005 and 2014 was collected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database...
December 8, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212906/osteoblasts-are-rapidly-ablated-by-virus-induced-systemic-inflammation-following-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-or-pneumonia-virus-of-mice-infection-in-mice
#8
Steven Maltby, Alyssa J Lochrin, Bianca Bartlett, Hock L Tay, Jessica Weaver, Ingrid J Poulton, Maximilian W Plank, Helene F Rosenberg, Natalie A Sims, Paul S Foster
A link between inflammatory disease and bone loss is now recognized. However, limited data exist on the impact of virus infection on bone loss and regeneration. Bone loss results from an imbalance in remodeling, the physiological process whereby the skeleton undergoes continual cycles of formation and resorption. The specific molecular and cellular mechanisms linking virus-induced inflammation to bone loss remain unclear. In the current study, we provide evidence that infection of mice with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) resulted in rapid and substantial loss of osteoblasts from the bone surface...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209621/influence-of-environmental-conditions-and-pollution-on-the-incidence-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infections
#9
José M Sahuquillo-Arce, Elisa Ibáñez-Martínez, Alicia Hernández-Cabezas, Alba Ruiz-Gaitán, Patricia Falomir-Salcedo, Rosario Menéndez, José L López-Hontangas
Fossil fuel derived pollutants (SO2, NO), dry air and cold increase the incidence of S. pneumoniae infections http://ow.ly/RnLW30gogb1.
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209590/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-adults-in-kenya-a-case-control-study
#10
Esther Muthumbi, Brett S Lowe, Cyprian Muyodi, Esther Getambu, Fergus Gleeson, J Anthony G Scott
Background: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among adults worldwide; however, the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in Africa are not well characterized. Methods: The authors recruited 281 cases of community-acquired pneumonia and 1202 hospital controls among patients aged ≥15 years who attended Kilifi District Hospital/Coast Provincial General Hospital in Kenya between 1994 and 6. Cases were admissions with an acute illness with ≥2 respiratory signs and evidence of consolidation on a chest radiograph...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207958/bloodstream-infections-at-a-tertiary-level-paediatric-hospital-in-south-africa
#11
Harsha Lochan, Vashini Pillay, Colleen Bamford, James Nuttall, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of BSI in South African children. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) microbiology database was accessed to identify positive blood culture specimens during the period 2011-2012. Demographic and clinical details, antimicrobial management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207760/epituberculosis-revisited-case-report-and-review
#12
Lavina Vishnu Mirchandani, Sindhu S Kamath, Jayalakshami Thelapurath Kutty, Aparna Iyer
Primary pulmonary tuberculosis can involve regional lymph nodes which may resolve spontaneously or on treatment; or they may enlarge causing extrinsic bronchial compression; or cause endobronchial inflammation and ulceration; or a node may erode through the bronchial wall with extrusion of caseous materials into the bronchial tree, causing focal or lobar pneumonia. This erosion is seen radiologically as hilar lymphadenopathy, with atelectasis and consolidation and described as "epituberculosis". It is more common in infants than older children...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207709/isolation-of-the-rare-opportunistic-yeast-saprochaete-capitata-from-clinical-samples-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india-and-a-brief-review-of-the-literature
#13
Umabala Pamidimukkala, Anuradha Kancharla, Sukanya Sudhaharan, Sadashivudu Gundeti, Surendra Mandarapu, Vamsi Krishna Nagalla, Sree Bhushan Raju, Sandhya Devi Karanam
Introduction: Saprochaete capitata (Teleomorph: Magnusiomyces capitatus) is a ubiquitous yeast found in environmental sources such as soil, water, air, plants and dairy products. It is also a part of the normal microbial flora in humans. The yeast is being increasingly reported as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in patients in the haemato-oncology setting, the infection being often mistakenly diagnosed as invasive candidiasis. Aim: To review the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of six patients admitted in our hospital over a period of 10 years (from January 2007 to December 2016), from whom Saprochaete capitata was isolated...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206750/ceftazidime-avibactam-antimicrobial-activity-and-spectrum-when-tested-against-gram-negative-organisms-from-pediatric-patients-results-from-the-inform-surveillance-program-united-states-2011-2015
#14
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm
BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime-avibactam was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 to treat complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in adults, and is under clinical development for treating pediatric patients. METHODS: Among 53,381 gram-negative organisms (1 per patient) collected in 2011-2015, 8,461 (15.9%) were from pediatric (≤17 years-old [yo]) patients. The isolates were collected from 82 US medical centers and susceptibility tested against ceftazidime-avibactam (avibactam at fixed 4 µg/mL) and comparators by reference broth microdilution methods...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206677/benchmarking-complications-associated-with-esophagectomy
#15
Donald E Low, Madhan Kumar Kuppusamy, Derek Alderson, Ivan Cecconello, Andrew C Chang, Gail Darling, Andrew Davies, Xavier Benoit D'Journo, Suzanne S Gisbertz, S Michael Griffin, Richard Hardwick, Arnulf Hoelscher, Wayne Hofstetter, Blair Jobe, Yuko Kitagawa, Simon Law, Christophe Mariette, Nick Maynard, Christopher R Morse, Philippe Nafteux, Manuel Pera, C S Pramesh, Sonia Puig, John V Reynolds, Wolfgang Schroeder, Mark Smithers, B P L Wijnhoven
OBJECTIVE: Utilizing a standardized dataset with specific definitions to prospectively collect international data to provide a benchmark for complications and outcomes associated with esophagectomy. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Outcome reporting in oncologic surgery has suffered from the lack of a standardized system for reporting operative results particularly complications. This is particularly the case for esophagectomy affecting the accuracy and relevance of international outcome assessments, clinical trial results, and quality improvement projects...
December 4, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206477/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-causes-diagnosis-and-management
#16
Federica De Giacomi, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an uncommon acute respiratory illness of varying severity that includes presentation as acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcome. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia may be idiopathic but identifiable causes include smoking and other inhalational exposures, medications and infections. The pathogenesis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is poorly understood but likely varies depending on the underlying cause. Airway epithelial injury, endothelial injury and release of interleukin-33 are early events that subsequently promote eosinophil recruitment to the lung; eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation appear to mediate subsequent lung inflammation and associated clinical manifestations...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205138/virulence-genes-in-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-the-uk-during-2016-including-among-carbapenemase-gene-positive-hypervirulent-k1-st23-and-non-hypervirulent-types-st147-st15-and-st383
#17
Jane F Turton, Zoë Payne, Amy Coward, Katie L Hopkins, Jack A Turton, Michel Doumith, Neil Woodford
PURPOSE: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a concern because of its multidrug resistance and the ability of hypervirulent types, especially capsular type K1-clonal complex 23 (K1-CC23), to cause community-acquired, life-threatening infections. Hypervirulent types carry an array of virulence genes including rmpA/rmpA2, coding for capsule up-regulation. We sought to identify isolates carrying these elements among submissions to the UK national reference laboratory during 2016. METHODOLOGY: Virulence elements and carbapenemase genes were sought by PCR or from whole genome sequences...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204285/molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-iraqi-hospital-environment
#18
I M S Al-Kadmy, A N M Ali, I M A Salman, S S Khazaal
Healthcare-associated items are a common source of acquired infections, and hospital-acquired infections cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent infection-causing organism in the hospital environment. Hospital articles and objects are the main sources of infection with the ability to transmit some of the pathogenic microorganisms such as A. baumannii, which is considered a serious problem in therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we isolated A...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203494/polymyxin-b-and-zti-01-fosfomycin-for-injection-against-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-evaluation-of-activity-and-emergence-of-resistance
#19
John K Diep, Rajnikant Sharma, Evelyn J Ellis-Grosse, Cely S Abboud, Gauri G Rao
ZTI-01 (fosfomycin for injection) is a broad spectrum antibiotic with a novel mechanism of action and is currently under development in the USA for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Globally, fosfomycin and polymyxin B are increasingly being used to treat multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections. The objectives were to evaluate the pharmacodynamic activity of polymyxin B and fosfomycin alone and in combination against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and to assess the rate and extent of emergence of resistance to different antibiotic regimens...
December 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203400/decreased-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression-in-aged-lung-may-contribute-to-increased-susceptibility-to-secondary-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#20
Soo Jung Cho, Maria Plataki, Dana Mitzel, Gena Lowry, Kristen Rooney, Heather Stout-Delgado
Post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading morbidity and mortality in older patients (≥65years of age). The goal of our current study is to understand the impact of chronological aging on innate immune responses to a secondary, post viral infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, a causative agent of bacterial pneumonia. Using aged murine models of infection, our findings demonstrate increased morbidity and mortality in aged mice within 48h post-secondary S. pneumoniae infection. Increased susceptibility of aged mice was associated with decreased TLR1, TLR6, and TLR9 mRNA expression and diminished IL1β mRNA expression...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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