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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231295/the-pathogens-profile-in-children-with-otitis-media-with-effusion-and-adenoid-hypertrophy
#1
G P Buzatto, E Tamashiro, J L Proenca-Modena, T H Saturno, M C Prates, T B Gagliardi, L R Carenzi, E T Massuda, M A Hyppolito, F C P Valera, E Arruda, W T Anselmo-Lima
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of viruses and bacteria in middle ear and adenoids of patients with and without otitis media with effusion (OME). METHODS: Adenoid samples and middle ear washes (MEW) were obtained from children with OME associated with adenoid hypertrophy undergoing adenoidectomy and tympanostomy, and compared to those obtained from patients undergoing cochlear implant surgery, as a control group. Specific DNA or RNA of 9 respiratory viruses (rhinovirus, influenza virus, picornavirus, syncytial respiratory virus, metapneumovirus, coronavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus and bocavirus) and 5 bacteria (S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231036/aqueous-humor-penetration-and-biological-activity-of-moxifloxacin-0-5-ophthalmic-solution-alone-or-with-dexamethasone-0-1
#2
Rachel L R Gomes, Rodrigo Galvão Viana, Luiz Alberto S Melo, Alessandro Carvalho Cruz, Eunice Mayumi Suenaga, Kenneth R Kenyon, Mauro Campos
PURPOSE: To compare aqueous humor concentrations of topically applied moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution alone or in combination with dexamethasone 0.1% and to correlate these concentrations with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for common endophthalmitis-causing organisms. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients undergoing routine phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation received either moxifloxacin 0.5% alone or moxifloxacin 0.5% combined with dexamethasone...
March 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229893/safety-and-efficacy-of-natalizumab-in-patients-with-acute-ischaemic-stroke-action-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-phase-2-trial
#3
Jacob Elkins, Roland Veltkamp, Joan Montaner, S Claiborne Johnston, Aneesh B Singhal, Kyra Becker, Maarten G Lansberg, Weihua Tang, Ih Chang, Kumar Muralidharan, Sarah Gheuens, Lahar Mehta, Mitchell S V Elkind
BACKGROUND: In animal models of acute ischaemic stroke, blocking of the leukocyte-endothelium adhesion by antagonism of α4 integrin reduces infarct volumes and improves outcomes. We assessed the effect of one dose of natalizumab, an antibody against the leukocyte adhesion molecule α4 integrin, in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 2 study, patients with acute ischaemic stroke (aged 18-85 years) from 30 US and European clinical sites were randomly assigned (1:1) to 300 mg intravenous natalizumab or placebo with stratification by treatment window and baseline infarct size...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229100/diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-following-world-health-organization-recommended-criteria-in-severely-malnourished-children-presenting-with-pneumonia
#4
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Abu S M S B Shahid, K M Shahunja, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Tahmeed Ahmed
Evidences on diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) following the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are lacking. We sought to evaluate the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of TB in such children. In this prospective study, we enrolled SAM children aged <5 with radiological pneumonia. We collected induced sputum and gastric lavage for smear microscopy, mycobacterial culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Using the last 2 methods as the gold standard, we determined sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of WHO criteria (n = 388)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228857/total-synthesis-of-a-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-12f-cps-repeating-unit-hexasaccharide
#5
Peter H Seeberger, Claney L Pereira, Subramanian Govindan
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS). A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4)-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3)]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227787/support-and-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-pulmonary-expansion-deficit-by-using-game-therapy
#6
P F S Chacon, C F Schon, V H L A Furtado, G L A M Signoretti, J P P Oliveira, A G Ribeiro, C D V Wanderley, A A R Diniz, H B Soares, P F S Chacon, C F Schon, V H L A Furtado, G L A M Signoretti, J P P Oliveira, A G Ribeiro, C D V Wanderley, A A R Diniz, H B Soares, H B Soares, P F S Chacon, C F Schon, V H L A Furtado, G L A M Signoretti, A G Ribeiro, C D V Wanderley, J P P Oliveira, A A R Diniz
Patients suffering from hypoventilation and pulmonary expansion deficit are at increased risk of developing pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia or pleural effusion. These complications can increase the length of stay and spending on health, and generate long-term functional impairment. This study aims to produce a therapeutic alternative to the traditional method of lung re-expansion through incentive spirometry (IS) using the game therapy to build an innovative system. This system makes use of infrared and Bluetooth communication technology to associate the game therapy to EI...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226493/towards-an-unsupervised-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-childhood-pneumonia-in-low-resource-settings-automatic-segmentation-of-respiratory-sounds
#7
J Sola, F Braun, E Muntane, C Verjus, M Bertschi, F Hugon, S Manzano, M Benissa, A Gervaix, J Sola, F Braun, E Muntane, C Verjus, M Bertschi, F Hugon, S Manzano, M Benissa, A Gervaix, F Hugon, C Verjus, A Gervaix, S Manzano, M Bertschi, E Muntane, M Benissa, J Sola, F Braun
Pneumonia remains the worldwide leading cause of children mortality under the age of five, with every year 1.4 million deaths. Unfortunately, in low resource settings, very limited diagnostic support aids are provided to point-of-care practitioners. Current UNICEF/WHO case management algorithm relies on the use of a chronometer to manually count breath rates on pediatric patients: there is thus a major need for more sophisticated tools to diagnose pneumonia that increase sensitivity and specificity of breath-rate-based algorithms...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223386/surveillance-of-omadacycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-a-global-north-america-europe-latin-america-and-asia-western-pacific-collection-2010-2011
#8
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Paul R Rhomberg, Robert K Flamm
Omadacycline is a broad spectrum aminomethylcycline in late-stage clinical development for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired pneumonia as both an oral and intravenous, once-daily formulation. In this report omadacycline and comparators were tested against 69,246 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively during 2010 and 2011 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (11,397 isolates), Europe (23,490 isolates), Latin America (8,038 isolates) and North America (26,321 isolates)...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223347/intact-pneumococci-trigger-transcription-of-interferon-related-genes-in-human-monocytes-while-fragmented-autolyzed-bacteria-subvert-this-response
#9
Susann Skovbjerg, Rickard Nordén, Anna Martner, Ebba Samuelsson, Lars Hynsjö, Agnes E Wold
A peculiar trait of pneumococci (Streptococcus pneumoniae) is their propensity to undergo spontaneous lysis during stationary growth due to activation of the enzyme autolysin (LytA) that fragments the peptidoglycan cell wall. The fragments that are generated upon autolysis impair phagocytosis and reduce production of IL-12 and IFN-γ by human leukocytes in response to intact pneumococci, thereby impeding crucial host defenses. The objective was to identify additional monocyte genes whose transcription is induced by intact pneumococci, and subverted by autolyzed bacteria...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221753/structure-activity-relationships-of-the-competence-stimulating-peptides-csps-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-reveal-motifs-critical-for-intra-group-and-cross-group-comd-receptor-activation
#10
Yifang Yang, Bimal Koirala, Lucia A Sanchez, Naiya R Phillips, Sally R Hamry, Yftah Tal-Gan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a highly recombinogenic human pathogen that utilizes the competence stimulating peptide (CSP)-based quorum sensing (QS) circuitry to acquire antibiotic resistance genes from the environment and initiate its attack on the human host. Modulation of QS in this bacterium, either inhibition or activation, can therefore be used to attenuate S. pneumoniae infectivity and slow down pneumococcal resistance development. In this study we set to determine the molecular mechanism that drives CSP:receptor binding and identify CSP-based QS modulators with distinct activity profiles...
February 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220445/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antibacterial-effect-of-nz2114-against-streptococcus-suis-type-2-infection-in-mice-peritonitis-models
#11
Jian Jiao, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Xiumin Wang, Ya Hao, Na Yang, Xiao Wang, Xingjun Feng, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 is a promising candidate for therapeutic application owing to potent activity to gram-positive bacterium such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. This work is the first report to describe the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial characteristics of NZ2114 against Streptococcus suis. It exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against S. suis type 2 strains CVCC 606, CVCC 3309, and CVCC 3928 at a low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.03-0.06 μM. The NZ2114 killed over 99.9% of tested S...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217919/serious-infection-rates-among-children-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-enrolled-in-medicaid
#12
Linda T Hiraki, Candace H Feldman, Francisco M Marty, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Hongshu Guan, Karen H Costenbader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nationwide prevalence and incidence of serious infections among children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) enrolled in Medicaid, the U.S. health insurance program for low-income patients. METHODS: From Medicaid claims (2000-2006) we identified children 5 to <18 years old with SLE (≥3 ICD-9 codes of 710.0, each >30 days apart) and lupus nephritis (LN; ≥2 ICD-9 codes for kidney disease on/after SLE codes). From hospital discharge diagnoses, we identified infection subtypes (bacterial, fungal, viral)...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216366/implications-of-concomitant-hypogastric-artery-embolization-with-endovascular-repair-of-infrarenal-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#13
Behzad S Farivar, Richa Kalsi, Charles B Drucker, Carly B Goldstein, Rajabrata Sarkar, Shahab Toursavadkohi
OBJECTIVE: Hypogastric artery embolization (HAE) is associated with significant risk of ischemic complications. We assessed the impact of HAE on 30-day outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS: We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2011 to 2014 to identify and to compare clinical features, operative details, and 30-day outcomes of EVAR with those of concomitant HAE with EVAR (HAE + EVAR)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216181/changing-trends-in-serotypes-of-s-pneumoniae-isolates-causing-invasive-and-non-invasive-diseases-in-unvaccinated-population-in-mexico-2000-2014
#14
María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Miguel Angel Sánchez-Alemán, Fortino Solórzano-Santos, María Elena Velazquez-Meza, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles
OBJECTIVE: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeted against a limited number of serotypes substantially decreased invasive (IPD) and non-invasive pneumococcal diseases (NIPD) but it was accompanied by non-vaccine type replacement disease. After 9 years of introduction of PCV in Mexico, we analyze the evidence of the indirect effects on IPD and NIPD serotype distribution among groups not targeted to receive the vaccine. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2014, pneumococcal strains isolated from IPD and NIPD cases from patients ≥5 years of age from participant hospitals of the SIREVA II (Sistema Regional de Vacunas) network, were serotyped...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216018/prospective-randomised-controlled-study-evaluating-early-modification-of-oral-microbiota-following-admission-to-the-intensive-care-unit-and-oral-hygiene-with-chlorhexidine
#15
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Oleg Gavrilko, Saulo de Almeida, Eigi Ricardo Sumi, Thiago Alberto, Jaime Luis Rocha, Edvaldo Antonio Rosa
OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215918/molecular-detection-of-genes-responsible-for-macrolide-resistance-among-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-in-north-lebanon
#16
Salam El Ashkar, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Hassan Mallat, Marcel Achkar, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
In recent years, the increased use of macrolides was linked with the emergence of resistance Streptococcus pneumoniae worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistant to macrolides and to identify the macrolide resistance genotypes among clinical isolates collected in North Lebanon. Disk diffusion susceptibility method was performed for 132 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated over a period of 5 years in North Lebanon. Polymerase Chain Reaction followed by pyrosequencing was carried out for confirmation of phenotypic diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215915/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-adult-patients-in-jakarta-indonesia
#17
Wahyu Finasari Said, Edy Sukoto, Miftahuddin Majid Khoeri, July Kumalawati, Dodi Safari
Currently, the data on pneumococcal invasive disease in the Indonesian population are limited. In this study, we investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae. These samples were isolated from the sputum of adult patients with non-specific clinical symptoms aged 18-87 years in Jakarta, Indonesia, from August to October 2014. Of the 349 sputum specimens, thirteen isolates were identified as S. pneumoniae strains (4%), with two strains each for serotype 19F, 3, and 15A, and one strain each for serotype/serogroup 13, 23A, 6, 34, 17F, 16F, and untypeable...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#18
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211009/pneumococcal-predictive-proteins-selected-by-microbial-genomic-approach-are-serotype-cross-reactive-and-bind-to-host-extracellular-matrix-proteins
#19
Ana Paula Corrêa Argondizzo, Cláudio Marcos Rocha-de-Souza, Marta de Almeida Santiago, Ricardo Galler, Joice Neves Reis, Marco Alberto Medeiros
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx, which accounts for most of the community-acquired pneumonia cases and can cause non-invasive and invasive diseases. Current available vaccines are serotype-specific and the use of recombinant proteins associated with virulence is an alternative to compose vaccines and to overcome these problems. In a previous work, we describe the identification of proteins in S. pneumoniae by reverse vaccinology and the genetic diversity of these proteins in clinical isolates...
February 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210926/a-fatal-suppurative-pneumonia-in-piglets-caused-by-a-pathogenic-coagulase-positive-strain-of-staphylococcus-hyicus
#20
Mingyue Wang, Junying Hu, Lisai Zhu, Chunguang Guo, Haibing Lu, Changming Guo, Xin Li, Xinping Wang
Staphylococcus hyicus is one of the opportunistic pathogens that cause infections to animals. Early studies have demonstrated that S. hyicus is the causative agents of exudative epidermitis in pigs, arthritis in horses and chicken, mastitis in cow, and bacteremia, sepsis and multiple organ failure in humans. Here, we report the isolation and identification of a representative S. hyicus isolate, named JLHN15, from a pig farm with a disease characterized by bacteremia, suppurative pneumonia and fibrinous pericarditis...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
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