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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#1
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546116/heteroleptic-metal-ii-complexes-of-hydrotris-methimazolyl-borate-and-diimines-synthesis-theoretical-calculations-antimicrobial-antioxidant-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-and-molecular-docking-studies
#2
S Jayakumar, D Mahendiran, Dilaveez Rehana, A Kalilur Rahiman
A series of heteroleptic metal(II) complexes of formulation [M(Tm)(diimine)](ClO4) (1-8), [Tm = hydrotris(methimazolyl)borate, diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl or 1,10-phenanthroline and M = Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II)] have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The geometric parameters of the complexes were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The analyses of HOMO and LUMO have been used to explain the charge transfer within the molecule. Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized heteroleptic complexes were evaluated against two Gram (-ve) (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Gram (+ve) (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial, and three fungal (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei) strains with respect to the standard drugs erythromycin and amphotericin-B...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545917/comparison-of-oral-antibiotic-failure-rates-in-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-patients-versus-controls
#3
David J Roy, Diana R Langworthy, Kristina M Thurber, Paul A Lorentz, Ross A Dierkhising, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Due to the malabsorptive nature of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is a potential for impaired absorption of oral medications. Clinical outcomes of patients who receive oral antibiotics after RYGB have not been adequately described in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was composite therapeutic failure. Secondary objectives included comparing failure rates between antibiotic classes and at various time points since RYGB. SETTING: University hospital, United States...
March 29, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545827/validation-of-the-korean-national-healthcare-associated-infections-surveillance-system-konis-an-intensive-care-unit-module-report
#4
Y G Kwak, J Y Choi, H M Yoo, S-O Lee, H B Kim, S H Han, H J Choi, S R Kim, T H Kim, H K Chun, H-S Koo
BACKGROUND: National surveillance data should be validated to identify methodological problems within the surveillance programme and data quality issues. AIM: To test the validity of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rate data from the Korean National Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance System (KONIS). METHODS: Records from intensive care units of 12 (14.8%) of 81 participating hospitals for January-March 2014 were examined. The validation team reviewed 406 medical records of 110 patients with 114 reported HAIs - including 34 urinary tract infections (UTIs), 57 bloodstream infections (BSIs) and 23 cases of pneumonia (PNEU) - and 296 patients with no reported HAIs during one-day visits conducted in August and September 2014...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545570/the-feasibility-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography-ceus-in-the-diagnosis-of-non-cardiac-thoracic-disorders-of-dogs-and-cats
#5
N Linta, M Baron Toaldo, G Bettini, A Cordella, M Quinci, P Pey, V Galli, M Cipone, A Diana
BACKGROUND: This study describes the feasibility of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnostic work-up of non-cardiac thoracic disorders of small animals. The second aim is to assess the usefulness of CEUS as a direct guide for sample procedures. RESULTS: Forty animals, 28 dogs and 12 cats, were included in the study. Thoracic disorders included 23 pulmonary lesions [primary carcinoma (14), lymphoma (1), sarcoma (1), histiocytic sarcoma (1), abscess (1) and pneumonia (5)] and 17 mediastinal lesions [lymphoma (8), thymoma (3), mesothelioma (1), melanoma (1), carcinomatous lymphadenopathy (1), mixsosarcoma (1), lipoma (1), and abscess (1)]...
May 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545548/circulating-microparticle-levels-are-reduced-in-patients-with-ards
#6
Ciara M Shaver, Justin Woods, Jennifer K Clune, Brandon S Grove, Nancy E Wickersham, J Brennan McNeil, Gregory Shemancik, Lorraine B Ware, Julie A Bastarache
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how to identify which patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) will develop this condition during critical illness. Elevated microparticle (MP) concentrations in the airspace during ARDS are associated with activation of coagulation and in vitro studies have demonstrated that MPs contribute to acute lung injury, but the significance of MPs in the circulation during ARDS has not been well studied. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating MPs could prospectively identify critically ill patients who will develop ARDS and that elevated circulating MPs are associated with poor clinical outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544570/relative-susceptibility-of-airway-organisms-to-antimicrobial-effects-of-nitric-oxide
#7
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is released in the airway as a critical component of innate immune defense against invading pathogenic organisms. It is well documented that bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of NO are concentration-dependent. However, few data exist comparing relative susceptibility of common pathogens to NO at physiologic concentrations. In this study we evaluated the effects of NO on 4 common airway bacteria and 1 fungus, and examined the potential implications of discrepancies in sensitivity...
May 25, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543859/pustular-erythema-multiforme-major-associated-with-atypical-pneumonia
#8
R Wolf, S Ständer, O Well, L Frey, I Klier, S Brunner, M Flaig, A Wollenberg, T Ruzicka
A 52-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with severe difficulties swallowing, sore eyes and an asymptomatic skin rash. The patient was fully oriented, vital signs were normal. Two days before admission to the hospital, the referring physician had suspected an upper respiratory tract infection and had started treatment with oral cefuroxime while also prescribing ibuprofen for sore throat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 23, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542661/-benign-acute-childhood-myositis-clinical-series-and-literature-review
#9
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Alejandra Aird G, Ingrid Harwardt R, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542347/effectiveness-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-in-preventing-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#10
Myint Tin Tin Htar, Anke L Stuurman, Germano Ferreira, Cristiano Alicino, Kaatje Bollaerts, Chiara Paganino, Ralf René Reinert, Heinz-Josef Schmitt, Cecilia Trucchi, Thomas Vestraeten, Filippo Ansaldi
INTRODUCTION: S. pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia. Two types of pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for use in adults: 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PPV23) and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature assessing pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness (VE) against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults among the general population, the immunocompromised and subjects with underlying risk factors in real-world settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536739/histological-diagnoses-of-military-personnel-undergoing-lung-biopsy-after-deployment-to-southwest-asia
#12
Cristian S Madar, Michael R Lewin-Smith, Teri J Franks, Russell A Harley, John S Klaric, Michael J Morris
INTRODUCTION: The current understanding of associations between lung disease and military deployment to Southwest Asia, including Iraq and Afghanistan, is both controversial and limited. We sought to clarify the relation between military deployment and biopsy-proven lung disease. METHODS: Retrospective data were analyzed for military personnel with non-neoplastic lung biopsies evaluated at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology or Joint Pathology Center (January 2005 to December 2012)...
May 23, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536677/ccpa-affects-infectivity-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-hyperglycemic-environment
#13
Markus Bischoff, Bodo Wonnenberg, Nadine Nippe, Naja J Nyffenegger-Jann, Meike Voss, Christoph Beisswenger, Cord Sunderkötter, Virginie Molle, Quoc Thai Dinh, Frank Lammert, Robert Bals, Mathias Herrmann, Greg A Somerville, Thomas Tschernig, Rosmarie Gaupp
Many bacteria regulate the expression of virulence factors via carbon catabolite responsive elements. In Gram-positive bacteria, the predominant mediator of carbon catabolite repression is the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). Hyperglycemia is a widespread disorder that predisposes individuals to an array of symptoms and an increased risk of infections. In hyperglycemic individuals, the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus causes serious, life-threatening infections. The importance of CcpA in regulating carbon catabolite repression in S...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533473/u-s-food-and-drug-administration-approval-summary-pembrolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-or-metastatic-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-with-disease-progression-on-or-after-platinum-containing-chemotherapy
#14
Erin Larkins, Gideon M Blumenthal, Weishi Yuan, Kun He, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Sriram Subramaniam, Hong Zhao, Chao Liu, Jingyu Yu, Kirsten B Goldberg, Amy E McKee, Patricia Keegan, Richard Pazdur
On August 5, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to pembrolizumab (KEYTRUDA injection, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Kenilworth, NJ) for treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy. Approval was based on the objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DoR) in a cohort of patients in a nonrandomized multi-cohort trial (KEYNOTE-012) that included 174 patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC who had disease progression on or after platinum-containing chemotherapy...
May 22, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531802/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effect-of-cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-immobilized-on-the-surface-of-silica-nanoparticles-in-rat-experimental-pneumonia
#15
Z Serebrovska, R J Swanson, V Portnichenko, A Shysh, S Pavlovich, L Tumanovska, A Dorovskych, V Lysenko, V Tertykh, Y Bolbukh, V Dosenko
A massage with the potent counter-inflammatory material, cerium dioxide nanoparticles, is promising and the antioxidant properties of CeO2 are considered the main, if not the only, mechanism of this action. Nevertheless, the elimination of ceria nano-particles from the organism is very slow and there is a strong concern for toxic effect of ceria due to its accumulation. To overcome this problem, we engineered a combined material in which cerium nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of silica nanoparticles (CeO2 NP), which is shown to be easily removed from an organism and could be used as carriers for nano-ceria...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531208/phylogenetic-analysis-of-emergent-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-22f-causing-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#16
Walter H B Demczuk, Irene Martin, Linda Hoang, Paul Van Caeseele, Brigitte Lefebvre, Greg Horsman, David Haldane, Jonathan Gubbay, Sam Ratnam, Gregory German, Jennifer Daley Bernier, Lori Strudwick, Allison McGeer, George G Zhanel, Gary Van Domselaar, Morag Graham, Michael R Mulvey
Since implementation of the 13-valent polyvalent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Canada during 2010, the proportion of PCV13 serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has declined from 55% (n = 1492) in 2010 to 31% (n = 764) in 2014. A concurrent increase of non-PCV13 serotypes has occurred and 22F has become the most prevalent serotype in Canada increasing from 7% (n = 183) to 11% (n = 283). Core single nucleotide variant phylogenetic analysis was performed on 137 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 22F isolates collected across Canada from 2005-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530140/associations-of-nasopharyngeal-metabolome-and-microbiome-with-severity-among-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-multi-omic-analysis
#17
Christopher J Stewart, Jonathan M Mansbach, Matthew C Wong, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
RATIONALE: Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory infection in infants; however, it remains unclear which infants with bronchiolitis will develop severe illness. In addition, while emerging evidence indicates associations of the upper-airway microbiome with bronchiolitis severity, little is known about the mechanisms linking airway microbes and host response to disease severity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relations among the nasopharyngeal airway metabolome profiles, microbiome profiles, and severity in infants with bronchiolitis...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528647/transition-metal-homeostasis-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#18
Andrew G Turner, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Mark J Walker, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526500/pulmonary-function-tests-do-not-predict-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#19
Edo K S Bedzra, Todd F Dardas, Richard K Cheng, Jay D Pal, Claudius Mahr, Jason W Smith, Kent Shively, S Carolina Masri, Wayne C Levy, Nahush A Mokadam
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of pulmonary function testing on outcomes after continuous flow left ventricular assist device implantation. METHODS: A total of 263 and 239 patients, respectively, had tests of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide preoperatively for left ventricular assist device implantations between July 2005 and September 2015. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regressions were performed to evaluate mortality...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523002/humanized-mouse-models-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Dane Parker
Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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