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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333697/lactic-acid-bacteria-may-impact-intestinal-barrier-function-by-modulating-goblet-cells
#1
Chengcheng Ren, Jelleke Dokter-Fokkens, Susana Figueroa Lozano, Qiuxiang Zhang, Bart J de Haan, Hao Zhang, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
SCOPE: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are recognized to promote gastrointestinal health by mechanisms that are not fully understood. LABs might modulate the mucus and thereby enhance intestinal barrier function. Herein, we investigated effects of different LAB strains and species on goblet cell genes involved in mucus synthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression profiles of goblet cell-associated products (mucin MUC2, trefoil factor 3, resistin-like molecule β, carbohydrate sulfotransferase 5, and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 2) induced by LAB or their derived conditioned medium in human goblet cell line LS174T were studied...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333637/increased-free-zn2-correlates-induction-of-sarco-endo-plasmic-reticulum-stress-via-altered-expression-levels-of-zn2-transporters-in-heart-failure
#2
Yusuf Olgar, Aysegul Durak, Erkan Tuncay, Ceylan Verda Bitirim, Evren Ozcinar, Mustafa Bahadir Inan, Zeynep Tokcaer-Keskin, Kamil Can Akcali, Ahmet Ruchan Akar, Belma Turan
Zn2+ -homoeostasis including free Zn2+ ([Zn2+ ]i ) is regulated through Zn2+ -transporters and their comprehensive understanding may be important due to their contributions to cardiac dysfunction. Herein, we aimed to examine a possible role of Zn2+ -transporters in the development of heart failure (HF) via induction of ER stress. We first showed localizations of ZIP8, ZIP14 and ZnT8 to both sarcolemma and S(E)R in ventricular cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) using confocal together with calculated Pearson's coefficients...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327412/partial-proteome-of-the-corynetoxin-producing-gram-positive-bacterium-rathayibacter-toxicus
#3
Christine M Fennessey, Michael B McMahon, Aaron Sechler, Jaclyn Kaiser, WesleyFixed The Affiliations M Garrett, Matthew A Tancos, Douglas G Luster, Elizabeth E Rogers, William L Schneider
Rathayibacter toxicus is a Gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of annual ryegrass toxicity (ARGT), a disease that causes devastating losses in the Australian livestock industry. R. toxicus exhibits a complex life cycle, using the nematode Anguina funesta as a physical vector to carry it up to the seed head of the host plant. ARGT is caused by a tunicamycin-like corynetoxin that is produced in R. toxicus-infected seed galls. We analyzed protein expression in R. toxicus under stationary growth phase conditions to obtain a more complete understanding of the biology of this organism and identify potential targets for immunoassay development...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323465/multiplexed-digital-mrna-expression-analysis-profiles-system-wide-changes-in-mrna-abundance-and-responsiveness-of-upr-specific-gene-expression-changes-during-batch-culture-of-recombinant-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#4
Rodrigo Maldonado-Agurto, Alan J Dickson
The unfolded protein response (UPR) signalling pathway is viewed as critical for setting the effectiveness of recombinant protein expression in CHO cells. In this study, we used Nanostring nCounter technology to study expression of a group of genes associated with cellular processes linked to UPR activation under ER stress and the changing environment of a batch culture. Time course induction of ER stress, using tunicamycin (TM), showed a group of genes such as Chop, Trb3, Sqstm1, Grp78 and Herpud1 responded rapidly to TM inhibition of N-glycosylation, whilst others such as Atf5, Odz4 and Birc5 exhibited a delayed response...
January 11, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317503/er-stress-mobilization-of-death-associated-protein-kinase-1-dependent-xenophagy-counteracts-mitochondria-stress-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#5
Fernando Lopes, Åsa V Keita, Alpana Saxena, Jose Luis Reyes, Nicole Mancini, Ala Al Rajabi, Arthur Wang, Cristiane Baggio, Michael Dicay, Rob van Dalen, Younghee Ahn, Matheus Carneiro, Nathan Peters, Jong M Rho, Wallace MacNaughton, Stephan E Girardin, Humberto Jijon, Dana J Philpott, Johan D Söderholm, Derek M McKay
The gut microbiome contributes to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in which bacteria can be present within the epithelium. Epithelial barrier function is decreased in IBD, and dysfunctional epithelial mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been individually associated with IBD. We therefore hypothesized that the combination of ER and mitochondrial stresses significantly disrupt epithelial barrier function. Here, we treated human colonic biopsies, epithelial colonoids, and epithelial cells with an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP), with or without the ER stressor tunicamycin, and assessed epithelial barrier function by monitoring internalization and translocation of commensal bacteria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313416/dicot-specific-atg8-interacting-ati3-proteins-interact-with-conserved-ubac2-proteins-and-play-critical-roles-in-plant-stress-responses
#6
Jie Zhou, Zhe Wang, Xiaoting Wang, Xifeng Li, Zhenchao Zhang, Baofang Fan, Cheng Zhu, Zhixiang Chen
Selective macroautophagy/autophagy targets specific cargo by autophagy receptors through interaction with ATG8 (autophagy-related protein 8)/MAP1LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) for degradation in the vacuole. Here, we report the identification and characterization of 3 related ATG8-interacting proteins (AT1G17780/ATI3A, AT2G16575/ATI3B and AT1G73130/ATI3C) from Arabidopsis. ATI3 proteins contain a WxxL LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif at the C terminus required for interaction with ATG8...
January 9, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311082/deletion-of-ada2-increases-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-and-virulence-in-candida-glabrata
#7
Shang-Jie Yu, Ya-Lin Chang, Ying-Lien Chen
Candida glabrata, the second most frequent cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans, is an emerging human fungal pathogen that is intrinsically drug tolerant. Currently, studies of C. glabrata genes involved in drug tolerance are limited. Ada2, a component serving as a transcription adaptor of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex, is required for antifungal drug tolerance and virulence in C. albicans However, its roles in C. glabrata remain elusive. In this study, we found that ada2 mutants demonstrated severe growth defects at 40°C but only mild defects at 37°C or 25°C...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305424/regulation-of-gammaherpesvirus-lytic-replication-by-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-transcription-factors-atf4-and-chop
#8
Xing-Chen Zhou, Si-Han Dong, Zhong-Shun Liu, Shuai Liu, Chao-Can Zhang, Xiao-Zhen Liang
The stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) involves various signaling crosstalks and controls cell fate. B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, which can trigger UPR, induces gammaherpesvirus lytic replication and serves as a physiological mechanism for gammaherpesvirus reactivation in vivo. However, how the UPR regulates BCR-mediated gammaherpesvirus infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the ER stressors tunicamycin and thapsigargin inhibit BCR-mediated murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) lytic replication by inducing expression of the UPR mediator Bip and blocking activation of Akt, ERK, and JNK...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303997/high-mannose-but-not-complex-type-glycosylation-of-tetherin-is-required-for-restriction-of-hiv-1-release
#9
Abdul A Waheed, Ariana Gitzen, Maya Swiderski, Eric O Freed
Tetherin is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that inhibits the release of a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses by retaining virions at the surface of infected cells. While the role of specific tetherin domains in antiviral activity is clearly established, the role of glycosylation in tetherin function is not clear. In this study, we carried out a detailed investigation of this question by using tetherin variants in which one or both sites of N-linked glycosylation were mutated (N65A, N92A, and N65,92A), and chemical inhibitors that prevent glycosylation at specific stages of oligosaccharide were added or modified...
January 5, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291402/chop-induces-apoptosis-by-affecting-brain-iron-metabolism-in-rats-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#10
Jun Zhao, Xiang Xiang, Hongxia Zhang, Dengzhi Jiang, Yidan Liang, Wang Qing, Liu Liu, Qing Zhao, Zhaohui He
The endoplasmic reticulum stress-related factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) aggravates early brain injury (EBI) in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Our research aims to investigate the role of CHOP-mediated iron metabolism in EBI after SAH and the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish SAH models. Tunicamycin (Tm) was employed to excite CHOP expression, and two CHOP small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were used to inhibit CHOP expression...
December 29, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285262/nuclear-membrane-localised-nox4d-generates-pro-survival-ros-in-flt3-itd-expressing-aml
#11
Jennifer N Moloney, Ashok Kumar Jayavelu, Joanna Stanicka, Sarah L Roche, Rebecca L O'Brien, Sebastian Scholl, Frank-D Böhmer, Thomas G Cotter
Internal tandem duplication of the juxtamembrane domain of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) is the most prevalent genetic aberration present in 20-30% of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cases and is associated with a poor prognosis. FLT3-ITD expressing cells express elevated levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-generated pro-survival hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contributing to increased levels of DNA oxidation and double strand breaks. NOX4 is constitutively active and has been found to have various isoforms expressed at multiple locations within a cell...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275936/downregulation-of-akt2-attenuates-er-stress-induced-cytotoxicity-through-jnk-wnt-pathway-in-cardiomyocytes
#12
Yan-Xia Gao, Wen-Ting He, Long-Fei Pan, Hui Feng, Jiang-Li Sun, Bin Zhang, Lei Yu, Li-Jun Li
Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine kinase that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. Akt1 has been demonstrated to play vital roles in cardiovascular diseases, but the role of Akt2 in cardiomyocytes is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of Akt2 knockdown on tunicamycin (TM)-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and the underlying mechanisms with a focus on the JNK-Wnt pathway. TM treatment significantly increased the expression of Akt2 at both mRNA and protein levels, which was shown to be mediated by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273683/functional-implications-of-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-n-glycosylation
#13
Marc Simard, Caroline Underhill, Geoffrey L Hammond
Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma carrier of glucocorticoids. Human and rat CBGs have six N-glycosylation sites. Glycosylation of human CBG influences its steroid-binding activity and there are N-glycosylation sites in the reactive center loops (RCLs) of human and rat CBGs. Proteolysis of the RCL of human CBG causes a structural change that disrupts steroid binding. We now show that mutations of conserved N-glycosylation sites at N238 in human CBG and N230 in rat CBG disrupt steroid binding...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250056/reduced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-autophagy-is-required-for-leptin-alleviating-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Lu Gan, Zhenjiang Liu, Dan Luo, Qian Ren, Hua Wu, Changxing Li, Chao Sun
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone and maintains adipose function under challenged conditions. Autophagy is also essential to maintain cellular homeostasis and regulate characteristics of adipose tissue. However, the effects of leptin on autophagy of adipocyte remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin were correlated with autophagy and inflammation by transcriptome sequencing of adipose tissue. Leptin-mediated inhibition of autophagy was involved in upstream reduction of ER stress proteins such as Chop, GRP78, and Atf4, since blockage of autophagy using pharmacological approach had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248112/cooperation-between-er-stress-and-calcineurin-signaling-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity-in-candida-glabrata
#15
Yutaka Tanaka, Masato Sasaki, Fumie Ito, Toshio Aoyama, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Nobuyuki Shibata
Candida glabrata is the second most common source of Candida infections in humans. In this pathogen, the maintenance of cell wall integrity (CWI) frequently precludes effective pharmacological treatment by antifungal agents. In numerous fungi, cell wall modulation is reported to be controlled by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but how the latter affects CWI maintenance in C. glabrata is not clearly understood. Here, we characterized a C. glabrata strain harboring a mutation in the CNE1 gene, which encodes a molecular chaperone associated with nascent glycoprotein maturation in the ER...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234100/a-bi-fluorescence-complementation-system-to-detect-associations-between-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria
#16
Mark Harmon, Philip Larkman, Giles Hardingham, Mandy Jackson, Paul Skehel
Close contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the mitochondrial outer membrane facilitate efficient transfer of lipids between the organelles and coordinate Ca2+ signalling and stress responses. Changes to this coupling is associated with a number of metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and motor neuron disease. The distance between the two membranes at regions of close apposition is below the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which makes analysis of these interactions challenging...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226084/n-glycosylation-and-expression-in-human-tissues-of-the-orphan-gpr61-receptor
#17
Paweł Kozielewicz, Hatun Alomar, Syaratul Yusof, Gillian Grafton, Alison J Cooper, S John Curnow, James W Ironside, Hardev Pall, Nicholas M Barnes
A number of members of the G protein-coupled receptor class of cell surface receptors are 'orphans' with no known endogenous ligand. One of these orphan receptors is GPR61; there are little data about its expression in human cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the post-translational modification of GPR61 by N-glycosylation at an identified consensus N-glycosylation site (N12) and the impact of this modification upon the subcellular expression of the protein. The N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin reduced the apparent molecular weight of immunoreactivity associated with myc-tagged GPR61 by 1-2 kDa, which was comparable to the evident molecular weight of the myc-tagged N12S GPR61 mutant with disrupted consensus N-glycosylation site...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212948/elevated-urinary-creld2-is-associated-with-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-kidney-disease
#18
Yeawon Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Scott R Manson, Carlos Af Molina, Kendrah Kidd, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Rebecca J Perry, Helen Liapis, Stanislav Kmoch, Chirag R Parikh, Anthony J Bleyer, Ying Maggie Chen
ER stress has emerged as a signaling platform underlying the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop ER stress biomarkers in the incipient stages of ER stress-mediated kidney disease, when a kidney biopsy is not yet clinically indicated, for early therapeutic intervention. Cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (CRELD2) is a newly identified protein that is induced and secreted under ER stress. For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that CRELD2 can serve as a sensitive urinary biomarker for detecting ER stress in podocytes or renal tubular cells in murine models of podocyte ER stress-induced nephrotic syndrome and tunicamycin- or ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), respectively...
December 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212664/genetic-bypass-of-essential-rna-repair-enzymes-in-budding-yeast
#19
Patrick D Cherry, Laura K White, Kerri York, Jay R Hesselberth
RNA repair enzymes catalyze rejoining of an RNA molecule after cleavage of phosphodiester linkages. RNA repair in budding yeast is catalyzed by two separate enzymes that process tRNA exons during their splicing and HAC1 mRNA exons during activation of the unfolded protein response. The RNA ligase Trl1 joins 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-hydroxyl RNA fragments, creating a new phosphodiester linkage with a 2'-phosphate at the junction. The 2'-phosphate is subsequently removed by the 2'-phosphotransferase Tpt1, which catalyzes phosphate transfer to NAD+, producing nicotinamide and a unique ADP ribose metabolite...
December 6, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208463/stellate-ganglion-block-ameliorates-vascular-calcification-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#20
Wei Hao, Rui Yang, Yang Yang, Sheng Jin, Yanqing Li, Fang Yuan, Qi Guo, Lin Xiao, Xin Wang, Fuwei Wang, Yuming Wu, Xu Teng
AIMS: Vascular calcification (VC) underlies substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. No clinically therapies have emerged presently. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is one of the most often used sympathetic blockade procedure, and regulates vascular dilation. However, the effect of SGB on VC is still unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the ameliorative effect of SGB on VC. KEY FINDING: In vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN), and in vitro calcification of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was induced by β-glycerophosphate...
December 2, 2017: Life Sciences
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