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Cochrane Collaboration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073600/e-cigarettes-and-urologic-health-a-collaborative-review-of-toxicology-epidemiology-and-potential-risks
#1
REVIEW
Liam Bourke, Linda Bauld, Christopher Bullen, Marcus Cumberbatch, Edward Giovannucci, Farhad Islami, Hayden McRobbie, Debra T Silverman, James W F Catto
CONTEXT: Use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is on the rise in most high-income countries. Smoking conventional cigarettes is a known risk factor for urologic malignancy incidence, progression, and mortality, as well as for other urologic health indicators. The potential impact of EC use on urologic health is therefore of clinical interest to the urology community. OBJECTIVE: To review the available data on current EC use, including potential benefits in urologic patients, potential issues linked to toxicology of EC constituents, and how this might translate into urologic health risks...
January 7, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071857/risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-following-assisted-reproductive-technology-overview-and-meta-analysis
#2
Costas Thomopoulos, George Salamalekis, Konstantinos Kintis, Iliana Andrianopoulou, Helena Michalopoulou, George Skalis, Stefanos Archontakis, Ourania Argyri, Costas Tsioufis, Thomas K Makris, Emmanuel Salamalekis
The extent of the increased risk of pregnancy hypertensive disorders following assisted reproductive technology (ART) was investigated. PubMed and the Cochrane Collaboration Library were used as data sources to identify and select longitudinal cohorts comparing pregnancies following ART with spontaneously conceived pregnancies, between 1978 and June 2016. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of three outcomes, ie, gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE), and their sum (PHD), were calculated...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069561/cancer-survivors-experience-with-telehealth-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis
#3
REVIEW
Anna Cox, Grace Lucas, Afrodita Marcu, Marianne Piano, Wendy Grosvenor, Freda Mold, Roma Maguire, Emma Ream
BACKGROUND: Net survival rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, placing a strain on health service provision. There is a drive to transfer the care of cancer survivors-individuals living with and beyond cancer-to the community and encourage them to play an active role in their own care. Telehealth, the use of technology in remote exchange of data and communication between patients and health care professionals (HCPs), is an important contributor to this evolving model of care. Telehealth interventions are "complex," and understanding patient experiences of them is important in evaluating their impact...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068463/long-term-acute-phase-treatment-with-antidepressants-8-weeks-and-beyond-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#4
Jonathan Henssler, Mona Kurschus, Jeremy Franklin, Tom Bschor, Christopher Baethge
OBJECTIVE: In clinical practice, acute antidepressant treatment is often applied for several months until remission is achieved. However, data on treatment outcomes beyond 8 weeks are sparse and no systematic review exists to date. This study aims at assessing efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants compared to placebo in acute treatment at and beyond 8 weeks. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched through March 2014 using generic terms for depressive and affective disorders combined with generic terms for individual drugs and placebo...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065480/influence-of-different-intravenous-lipid-emulsions-on-fatty-acid-status-and-laboratory-and-clinical-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-systematic-review
#5
Charis J Jones, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) are a key component in long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN), providing energy and essential fatty acids (EFAs). Modification of the fatty acid (FA) composition of IVLEs may lead to changes in metabolic responses and cell and tissue function, providing opportunity for clinical improvements. Studies have suggested that, in place of conventional pure soybean oil (SO)-based IVLEs, which have a high omega-6 FA content, alternative IVLEs with different FA profiles may have beneficial effects...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065233/optimal-treatment-strategies-of-clozapine-for-refractory-schizophrenia
#6
Yuan-Yuan Li, Yun-Shu Zhang, Jian Wang, Ke-Qing Li, Hong-Ying Wang
Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of clozapine combined with other antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and China Biology Medicine databases in both English and Chinese for randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomization controlled trials, and clinical controlled trials concerning the combinations of clozapine with other antipsychotic drugs for refractory schizophrenia. Quality assessment and data extraction were conducted with the Cochrane collaboration's RevMan 5...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064110/clinical-use-of-hypericum-perforatum-st-john-s-wort-in-depression-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Nandini Venkatanarayanan, Collin Yih Xian Ho
INTRODUCTION: St John's wort is a popular herbal remedy recommended by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners and licensed and widely prescribed for depression in many European countries. However, conflicting data regarding its benefits and risks exist, and the last large meta-analysis on St John's wort use for depression was done in 2008, with no updated meta-analysis available. METHODS: Using the keywords [St John's Wort OR Hypericum perforatum OR hypericin OR hyperforin OR johanniskraut OR] AND [depression OR antidepressant OR SSRI], a preliminary search (without language restriction) on the PubMed, Ovid, Clinical Trials Register of the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group, Cochrane Field for Complementary Medicine, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang database yielded 5428 papers between 1-Jan-1960 and 1-May-2016...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063195/first-line-non-cytotoxic-therapy-in-chemotherapy-naive-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-ten-randomised-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Michiel H F Poorthuis, Robin W M Vernooij, R Jeroen A van Moorselaar, Theo M de Reijke
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate all available treatment options in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane libraries up to March 1, 2016 for peer-reviewed publications on randomised clinical trials (RCTs). RCTs were included if progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), quality of life (QoL), or adverse events (AEs) were quantitatively evaluated...
January 6, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060096/safety-of-extracranial-intracranial-arterial-bypass-in-the-treatment-of-moyamoya-disease
#9
Lian Liu, Song Wei Su, Hong Yan Sun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to uncover the controversial problems and review the safety of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass (EC-IC arterial bypass) in the treatment of moyamoya disease. METHODS: Published randomized controlled clinical trials were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of science without date or language limitations until September 2016. Meta-analysis was performed as recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration of trials...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058854/effect-of-metformin-on-clinical-metabolic-and-endocrine-outcomes-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Roshni Patel, Gaurang Shah
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has been used as a treatment option for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) since 1994; however, more than a hundred randomized clinical trials have reported controversial results regarding the efficacy of metformin in PCOS. This could be due to the small sample size and high variability in methodology between studies. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to determine the effect of metformin on clinical, metabolic, endocrine outcomes as compared to placebo in PCOS women...
January 6, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057024/behavior-change-interventions-and-policies-influencing-primary-healthcare-professionals-practice-an-overview-of-reviews
#11
REVIEW
Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Maya Jeyaraman, Amrinder Singh Mann, Justin Lys, Becky Skidmore, Kathryn M Sibley, Ahmed Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanksi
BACKGROUND: There is a plethora of interventions and policies aimed at changing practice habits of primary healthcare professionals, but it is unclear which are the most appropriate, sustainable, and effective. We aimed to evaluate the evidence on behavior change interventions and policies directed at healthcare professionals working in primary healthcare centers. METHODS: Study design: overview of reviews. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), CINAHL (EbscoHost), and grey literature (January 2005 to July 2015)...
January 5, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056018/the-effectiveness-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-improving-glycaemic-control-in-adults-with-severe-mental-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Johanna Taylor, Brendon Stubbs, Catherine Hewitt, Ramzi A Ajjan, Sarah L Alderson, Simon Gilbody, Richard I G Holt, Prakash Hosali, Tom Hughes, Tarron Kayalackakom, Ian Kellar, Helen Lewis, Neda Mahmoodi, Kirstine McDermid, Robert D Smith, Judy M Wright, Najma Siddiqi
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have reduced life expectancy compared with the general population, which can be explained partly by their increased risk of diabetes. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the clinical effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for improving glycaemic control in people with SMI (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015015558). A systematic literature search was performed on 30/10/2015 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with SMI, with or without a diagnosis of diabetes that measured fasting blood glucose or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051842/the-use-of-auricular-acupuncture-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Tanya E Baker, Grace Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disease with significant personal, societal, and public health consequences. Even for the minority who receive the most effective evidence-based treatments, morbidity, and mortality remain significant. These facts, along with the recovery movement calling for individualized, holistic, culturally sensitive care, have led to the exploration of adjunctive interventions including acupuncture. Despite hundreds of international trials, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding its efficacy in OUD due in large part to methodological issues of trials to date...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051764/the-use-of-fibrin-sealant-during-non-emergency-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-of-benefits-and-harms
#14
Steven J Edwards, Fay Crawford, Michelle Helena van Velthoven, Andrea Berardi, George Osei-Assibey, Mariana Bacelar, Fatima Salih, Victoria Wakefield
BACKGROUND: Fibrin sealants are used in different types of surgery to prevent the accumulation of post-operative fluid (seroma) or blood (haematoma) or to arrest haemorrhage (bleeding). However, there is uncertainty around the benefits and harms of fibrin sealant use. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of fibrin sealants in non-emergency surgery in adults. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases [MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials)] were searched from inception to May 2015...
December 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043841/non-opioid-pain-management-in-benign-minimally-invasive-hysterectomy-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Emily Blanton, Georgine Lamvu, Insiyyah Patanwala, Kenneth I Barron, Kathryn Witzeman, Frank F Tu, Sawsan As-Sanie
BACKGROUND: Less postoperative pain is typically associated with a minimally invasive hysterectomy compared to a laparotomy approach but poor pain control can still be an issues. Multiple guidelines exist for managing postoperative pain yet most are not specialty-specific and are based on procedures bearing little relevance to a minimally invasive hysterectomy. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is enough quality evidence within the benign gynecology literature to make non-opioid pain control recommendations for women undergoing a benign minimally invasive hysterectomy...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042068/empowering-bereaved-parents-through-the-development-of-a-comprehensive-bereavement-program
#16
Jennifer M Snaman, Erica C Kaye, Deena R Levine, Brittany Cochran, Robin Wilcox, Charlene K Sparrow, Nancy Noyes, Lisa Clark, Wendy Avery, Justin N Baker
Parents who experience the loss of a child have unique and valuable insights into the grief journey and can help healthcare providers identify key components intrinsic to the development, implementation, and maintenance of a comprehensive bereavement program. The bereavement program at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital was developed by pediatric palliative care experts in collaboration with bereaved parents to standardize and improve the institutional support provided to families around and after the death of a child...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025611/evidence-and-evidence-gaps-an-introduction
#17
REVIEW
Gabriele Dreier, Jan Löhler
Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias...
2016: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024779/early-orthodontic-treatment-for-class-iii-malocclusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
See Choong Woon, Badri Thiruvenkatachari
INTRODUCTION: Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024756/tools-to-assess-risk-of-bias-in-systematic-reviews-of-nursing-intervention-in-china-global-implications-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-findings
#19
Juxia Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Lin Han, Xin Cao, Linda Shields
BACKGROUND: The number of systematic reviews (SRs) of nursing interventions is increasing in China. Authors of such studies are encouraged to use a risk of bias tool for assessing individual studies. Therefore, it is important to know how these tools have been applied in SRs in Chinese nursing. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to examine risk of bias tools used by Chinese nursing researchers to assess the quality of individual studies included in SRs of nursing interventions...
November 24, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017173/femoral-nerve-block-versus-intravenous-fentanyl-in-adult-patients-with-hip-fractures-a-systematic-review
#20
Flávia Vieira Guimarães Hartmann, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Marta Rodrigues de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures configure an important public health issue and are associated with high mortality taxes and lose of functionality. Hip fractures refer to a fracture occurring between the edge of the femoral head and 5cm below the lesser trochanter. They are common in orthopedic emergencies. The number of proximal femoral fractures is likely to increase as the population ages. The average cost of care during the initial hospitalization for hip fracture can be estimated about US$ 7,000 per patient...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
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