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Cochrane Collaboration

Julia Ae Walters, Daniel J Tan, Clinton J White, Richard Wood-Baker
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be treated with systemic corticosteroid for seven to 14 days. Intermittent systemic corticosteroid use is cumulatively associated with adverse effects such as osteoporosis, hyperglycaemia and muscle weakness. Shorter treatment could reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of short-duration (seven or fewer days) and conventional longer-duration (longer than seven days) systemic corticosteroid treatment of adults with acute exacerbations of COPD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mingyi Zhou, Lingyu Fu, Jingdong Zhang
Whether there is a difference in the efficacy of maintenance treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) between patients who achieve complete response (CR)/partial response (PR) and those with stable disease (SD) after induction treatment is controversial. PubMed, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials,, and databases of conferences were queried to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of maintenance treatment for mCRC patients...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Jenna L McCauley, Renata S Leite, Valeria V Gordan, Roger B Fillingim, Gregg H Gilbert, Cyril Meyerowitz, David Cochran, D Brad Rindal, Kathleen T Brady
BACKGROUND: Minimal information exists regarding the consistency and correlates of dentists' implementation of risk mitigation strategies when prescribing opioids, including risk screening, prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) use, and patient education. METHODS: The authors conducted a Web-based, cross-sectional survey among practicing dentist members of The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. The authors used the survey to assess pain management prescribing practices and risk mitigation implementation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Annet Wijnen, Sjoukje E Bouma, Gesine H Seeber, Lucas H V van der Woude, Sjoerd K Bulstra, Djordje Lazovic, Martin Stevens, Inge van den Akker-Scheek
OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic validity and effectiveness of physiotherapeutic exercise interventions following total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis. DATA SOURCES: The databases Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and AMED were searched from inception up to February 2017. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles reporting results of randomized controlled trials in which physiotherapeutic exercise was compared with usual care or with a different type of physiotherapeutic exercise were included, with the applied interventions starting within six months after THA...
2018: PloS One
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Tim Michael Feenstra, Chris Dickhoff, Jaap Deunk
PURPOSE: Tube thoracostomy is frequently used in thoracic trauma patients. However, there is no consensus on whether low pressure suction or water seal is the optimal method of tube management. Against this background, we performed a systematic review of studies comparing suction and water seal management of chest tubes placed for traumatic chest injuries in adults. Evaluated outcomes are duration of chest tube treatment, length of stay in hospital, incidence of persistent air leak, clotted hemothorax, and the need for (re-)interventions...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Christopher J L Stone, Haris M Vaid, Rajajee Selvam, Allison Ashworth, Andrew Robinson, Geneviève C Digby
Multidisciplinary cancer clinics (MDCCs) are recognized in cancer care as an alternate model of care for lung cancer patients. However, the precise MDCC characteristics that could potentially improve the quality of care in lung cancer care have not been clearly defined. We performed a systematic review of the data regarding MDCCs in the treatment of patients with lung cancer to summarize and evaluate the available evidence and to determine valuable clinic characteristics and projected outcomes. We searched Embase, Cochrane, Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science through April 2017 for studies that included ≥ 2 physician specialties in a MDCC for lung cancer...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Cherian K Kandathil, Emily A Spataro, Katri Laimi, Sami P Moubayed, Sam P Most, Mikhail Saltychev
Importance: While functional rhinoplasty has been broadly studied, to our knowledge no systematic review and meta-analysis of lateral wall repair has been done previously. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of repair of the lateral nasal wall in adult patients with nasal airway obstruction. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Central, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and reference lists were searched for clinical and observational studies...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Richard Powell, Gordon McGregor, Stuart Ennis, Peter K Kimani, Martin Underwood
OBJECTIVES: To determine the contemporary effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in terms of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospital admissions. DATA SOURCES: Studies included in or meeting the entry criteria for the 2016 Cochrane review of exercise-based CR in patients with coronary artery disease. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise-based CR versus a no-exercise control whose participants were recruited after the year 2000...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Kathrine Vauvert R Hviid, Sara Sofia Malchau, Anja Pinborg, Henriette Svarre Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after IVF and ICSI and how it is influenced by the day of embryo transfer, maternal age, zona pellucida manipulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, stimulation protocol, culture media and embryo quality...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Jonny K Andersson, Martina Åhlén, Daniel Andernord
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the outcome of open versus arthroscopic repair of injuries of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). METHODS: An electronic literature search of articles published between January 1, 1985, and May 26, 2016, in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was carried out in May 2016 and updated in March and December 2017. Studies comparing open and arthroscopic repair of TFCC injury with a mean follow up of more than 1 year were eligible for inclusion...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Rabia Latif
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Theresa Betancourt, Paul Bolton, Chiara Bonetto, Chiara Gastaldon, James Gordon, Paul O'Callaghan, Davide Papola, Kirsi Peltonen, Raija-Leena Punamaki, Justin Richards, Julie K Staples, Johanna Unterhitzenberger, Mark van Ommeren, Joop de Jong, Mark J D Jordans, Wietse A Tol, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
George Bazoukis, Costas Thomopoulos, Gary Tse, Costas Tsioufis
Although mineralocorticoid antagonists (MRAs) have been proposed as effective fourth-line blood pressure (BP) lowering agents in resistant hypertension, this effect in heart failure is undetermined. In this synthesis of heart failure randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we evaluated the extent of BP lowering following MRA treatment against placebo. We searched Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration Library databases from 1991 to September 2016 for RCTs, in which MRAs were compared with placebo. The quality of RCTs was assessed with Cochrane risk of bias tool...
March 12, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Christian Jung, Lena Tepohl, Reina Tholen, Knut Beitzel, Stefan Buchmann, Thomas Gottfried, Casper Grim, Bettina Mauch, Gert Krischak, Hans Ortmann, Christian Schoch, Frieder Mauch
Background: Tears and lesions of the rotator cuff are a frequent cause of shoulder pain and disability. Surgical repair of the rotator cuff is a valuable procedure to improve shoulder function and decrease pain. However, there is no consensus concerning the rehabilitation protocol following surgery. Objectives: To review and evaluate current rehabilitation contents and protocols after rotator cuff repair by reviewing the existing scientific literature and providing an overview of the clinical practice of selected German Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery e...
2018: Obere Extremität
Haitao Chen, Biao Chen, Kai Tie, Zhengdao Fu, Liaobin Chen
BACKGROUND: Both single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) techniques were widely used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction recently. Nevertheless, up to now, no consensus has been reached on whether the DB technique was superior to the SB technique. Moreover, follow-up of the included studies in the published meta-analyses is mostly short term. Our study aims to compare the mid- to long-term outcome of SB and DB ACL reconstruction concerning knee stability, clinical function, graft failure rate, and osteoarthritis (OA) changes...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Raymond J Chan, Wolfgang Marx, Natalie Bradford, Louisa Gordon, Ann Bonner, Clint Douglas, Diana Schmalkuche, Patsy Yates
BACKGROUND: With the increasing burden of chronic and age-related diseases, and the rapidly increasing number of patients receiving ambulatory or outpatient-based care, nurse-led services have been suggested as one solution to manage increasing demand on the health system as they aim to reduce waiting times, resources, and costs while maintaining patient safety and enhancing satisfaction. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to assess the clinical effectiveness, economic outcomes and key implementation characteristics of nurse-led services in the ambulatory care setting...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Babikir Kheiri, Ahmed Abdalla, Mohammed Osman, Sahar Ahmed, Mustafa Hassan, Ghassan Bachuwa
BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic strokes can be attributed to paradoxical emboli through patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, the effectiveness of PFO closure in preventing recurrent stroke is uncertain and the results of previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been inconclusive. Hence, this study provides an updated meta-analysis of all RCTs comparing PFO closure with medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. METHODS: All RCTs were identified by a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Clinicaltrials...
March 7, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Hrvoje Barić, Veljko Đorđević, Ivan Cerovečki, Vladimir Trkulja
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate efficacy/safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on randomized controlled trials in adults. METHODS: Data sources. Six electronic databases ("generalized anxiety (disorder)" and "randomized trial") and reference lists of identified publications were searched to March 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility: full-text publications (English, German language); CAM versus conventional treatment, placebo/sham or no treatment; GAD diagnosed according to standard criteria; and a validated scale for disease severity...
March 5, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Manuel A Franco-Martín, Juan Luis Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Sainz-de-Abajo, Gema Castillo-Sánchez, Sofiane Hamrioui, Isabel de la Torre-Díez
Suicide is the second cause of death in young people. The use of technologies as tools facilitates the detection of individuals at risk of suicide thus allowing early intervention and efficacy. Suicide can be prevented in many cases. Technology can help people at risk of suicide and their families. It could prevent situations of risk of suicide with the technological evolution that is increasing. This work is a systematic review of research papers published in the last ten years on technology for suicide prevention...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
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