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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453948/depression-and-anxiety-among-chronic-pain-patients-receiving-prescription-opioids-and-medical-marijuana
#1
Daniel Feingold, Silviu Brill, Itay Goor-Aryeh, Yael Delayahu, Shaul Lev-Ran
BACKGROUND: High rates of depression and anxiety have been consistently reported among patients suffering from chronic pain. Prescription opioids are one of the most common modalities for pharmacological treatment of pain, however in recent years medical marijuana(MM) has been increasingly used for pain control in the US and in several countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety among pain patients receiving prescription opioids and MM. METHODS: Participants were patients suffering from chronic pain treated with prescription opioids (OP,N=474), MM (N=329) or both (OPMM,N=77)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447843/seeing-what-through-why-evidence-from-probing-the-causal-structure-of-hierarchical-motion
#2
Haokui Xu, Ning Tang, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen, Tao Gao
Although our world is hierarchically organized, the perception, attention, and memory of hierarchical structures remain largely unknown. The current study shows how a hierarchical motion representation enhances the inference of an object's position in a dynamic display. The motion hierarchy is formed as an acyclic tree in which each node represents a distinctive motion component. Each individual object is instantiated as a node in the tree. In a position inference task, participants were asked to infer the position of a target object, given how it moved jointly with other objects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446497/best-but-oft-forgotten-practices-mediation-analysis
#3
Amanda J Fairchild, Heather L McDaniel
This contribution in the "Best (but Oft-Forgotten) Practices" series considers mediation analysis. A mediator (sometimes referred to as an intermediate variable, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint) is a third variable that explains how or why ≥2 other variables relate in a putative causal pathway. The current article discusses mediation analysis with the ultimate intention of helping nutrition researchers to clarify the rationale for examining mediation, avoid common pitfalls when using the model, and conduct well-informed analyses that can contribute to improving causal inference in evaluations of underlying mechanisms of effects on nutrition-related behavioral and health outcomes...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437762/public-attitudes-toward-depression-and-help-seeking-impact-of-the-ospi-europe-depression-awareness-campaign-in-four-european-regions
#4
Elisabeth Kohls, Evelien Coppens, Juliane Hug, Eline Wittevrongel, Chantal Van Audenhove, Nicole Koburger, Ella Arensman, András Székely, Ricardo Gusmão, Ulrich Hegerl
BACKGROUND: Public attitudes toward depression and help-seeking behaviour are important factors influencing depressed people to obtain professional help and adequate treatment. OSPI-Europe is a multi-level suicide prevention programme including a public awareness campaign. It was implemented in four regions of four European countries (Germany, Hungary, Ireland and Portugal). This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the campaign, including its visibility and effects of the campaign on stigma associated with depression and help-seeking behaviour...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434629/does-appropriate-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-modify-intensive-care-unit-acquired-enterobacteriaceae-bacteraemia-mortality-and-discharge
#5
K B Pouwels, E Van Kleef, S Vansteelandt, R Batra, J D Edgeworth, T Smieszek, J V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results have been found regarding outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia and the potentially modifying effect of appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. AIM: To evaluate these associations while adjusting for potential time-varying confounding using methods from the causal inference literature. METHODS: Patients who stayed more than two days in two general ICUs in England between 2002 and 2006 were included in this cohort study...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432483/what-s-in-a-gold-standard-in-defence-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#6
Marius Backmann
The standardised randomised clinical trial (RCT) has been exceedingly popular in medical research, economics, and practical policy making. Recently, RCTs have faced criticism. First, it has been argued by John Worrall that we cannot be certain that our sample is not atypical with regard to possible confounding factors. I will argue that at least in the case of medical research, we know enough about the relevant causal mechanisms to be justified to ignore a number of factors we have good reason not to expect to be disruptive...
April 21, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431565/traditional-birth-attendant-reorientation-and-motherpacks-incentive-s-effect-on-health-facility-delivery-uptake-in-narok-county-kenya-an-impact-analysis
#7
John Emmanuel Kitui, Vaughan Dutton, Dirk Bester, Rachel Ndirangu, Susan Wangai, Stephen Ngugi
BACKGROUND: A community health programme in Narok County in Kenya aimed to improve skilled birth assistance during childbirth through two demand side interventions. First, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) were co-opted into using their influence to promote use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at health facilities during delivery, and to accompany pregnant women to health facilities in return for a Ksh500 (Approximately USD5 as of August 2016) cash incentive for each pregnant mother they accompanied...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422093/quantum-enhanced-inference-in-markov-logic-networks
#8
Peter Wittek, Christian Gogolin
Markov logic networks (MLNs) reconcile two opposing schools in machine learning and artificial intelligence: causal networks, which account for uncertainty extremely well, and first-order logic, which allows for formal deduction. An MLN is essentially a first-order logic template to generate Markov networks. Inference in MLNs is probabilistic and it is often performed by approximate methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Gibbs sampling. An MLN has many regular, symmetric structures that can be exploited at both first-order level and in the generated Markov network...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421696/assessing-causality-in-drug-policy-analyses-how-useful-are-the-bradford-hill-criteria-in-analysing-take-home-naloxone-programs
#9
Anna Olsen, David McDonald, Simon Lenton, Paul M Dietze
The Bradford Hill criteria for assessing causality are useful in assembling evidence, including within complex policy analyses. In this paper, we argue that the implementation of take-home naloxone (THN) programs in Australia and elsewhere reflects sensible, evidence-based public health policy, despite the absence of randomised controlled trials. However, we also acknowledge that the debate around expanding access to THN would benefit from a careful consideration of causal inference and health policy impact of THN program implementation...
April 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#10
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417061/rates-of-morphological-evolution-in-captorhinidae-an-adaptive-radiation-of-permian-herbivores
#11
Neil Brocklehurst
The evolution of herbivory in early tetrapods was crucial in the establishment of terrestrial ecosystems, although it is so far unclear what effect this innovation had on the macro-evolutionary patterns observed within this clade. The clades that entered this under-filled region of ecospace might be expected to have experienced an "adaptive radiation": an increase in rates of morphological evolution and speciation driven by the evolution of a key innovation. However such inferences are often circumstantial, being based on the coincidence of a rate shift with the origin of an evolutionary novelty...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414864/editorial-finding-the-silver-lining-incorporating-resilience-and-adaptiveness-into-studies-of-psychopathology
#12
EDITORIAL
S Alexandra Burt
The editor muses about studies that might complement and enhance current etiologic studies of psychopathology, many of which focus on monotonically increasing maladaptative outcomes in response to increasing levels of risk/vulnerability. More meaningful and consistent considerations of the resilience counterfactual (e.g., Why are some youth with a given neural deficit unaffected? Why are some youth exposed to a given adversity unaffected?) should strengthen our causal inferences. We might also more frequently test for U-shaped associations with outcome (e...
May 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410477/anxiety-among-adults-with-a-history-of-childhood-adversity-psychological-resilience-moderates-the-indirect-effect-of-emotion-dysregulation
#13
Julia C Poole, Keith S Dobson, Dennis Pusch
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been widely identified as risk factors for increased symptoms of anxiety across the lifespan. Little is known, however, about the processes by which ACEs set the stage for increased symptoms of anxiety in adulthood. The current study evaluated whether emotion dysregulation and psychological resilience influence the association between ACEs and symptoms of anxiety. METHODS: A sample of adult primary care patients (N=4006) completed self-report measures related to ACEs, symptoms of anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408890/assessing-the-role-of-the-unity-assumption-on-multisensory-integration-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Yi-Chuan Chen, Charles Spence
There has been longstanding interest from both experimental psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists in the potential modulatory role of various top-down factors on multisensory integration/perception in humans. One such top-down influence, often referred to in the literature as the 'unity assumption,' is thought to occur in those situations in which an observer considers that various of the unisensory stimuli that they have been presented with belong to one and the same object or event (Welch and Warren, 1980)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407101/early-life-exposures-and-adult-cancer-risk
#15
Megan A Clarke, Corinne E Joshu
Very little is known about the influence of early life exposures on adult cancer risk. The purpose of this narrative review was to summarize the epidemiologic evidence relating early life tobacco use, obesity, diet, and physical activity to adult cancer risk; describe relevant theoretical frameworks and methodological strategies for studying early life exposures; and discuss policies and research initiatives focused on early life. Our findings suggest that in utero exposures may indirectly influence cancer risk by modifying biological pathways associated with carcinogenesis; however, more research is needed to firmly establish these associations...
April 12, 2017: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406674/randomization-to-randomization-probability-estimating-treatment-effects-under-actual-conditions-of-use
#16
Brandon J George, Peng Li, Harris R Lieberman, Greg Pavela, Andrew W Brown, Kevin R Fontaine, Madeline M Jeansonne, Gareth R Dutton, Adeniyi J Idigo, Mariel A Parman, Donald B Rubin, David B Allison
Blinded randomized controlled trials (RCT) require participants to be uncertain if they are receiving a treatment or placebo. Although uncertainty is ideal for isolating the treatment effect from all other potential effects, it is poorly suited for estimating the treatment effect under actual conditions of intended use-when individuals are certain that they are receiving a treatment. We propose an experimental design, randomization to randomization probabilities (R2R), which significantly improves estimates of treatment effects under actual conditions of use by manipulating participant expectations about receiving treatment...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403823/empirical-bayes-method-for-reducing-false-discovery-rates-of-correlation-matrices-with-block-diagonal-structure
#17
Clare Pacini, James W Ajioka, Gos Micklem
BACKGROUND: Correlation matrices are important in inferring relationships and networks between regulatory or signalling elements in biological systems. With currently available technology sample sizes for experiments are typically small, meaning that these correlations can be difficult to estimate. At a genome-wide scale estimation of correlation matrices can also be computationally demanding. RESULTS: We develop an empirical Bayes approach to improve covariance estimates for gene expression, where we assume the covariance matrix takes a block diagonal form...
April 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399838/association-of-nutrition-club-membership-with-markers-of-health-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Sai Krupa Das, Taylor A Vail, Namibia Lebrón-Torres, Kara A Livingston, Susan B Roberts, Gail T Rogers, Cheryl H Gilhooly, Lorien E Urban, Edward Saltzman, Nicola M McKeown, Sara C Folta
BACKGROUND: Nutrition clubs (NC) operate in community settings and provide members with nutrition education and meal replacements for weight management. NC are owned and operated by distributors of Herbalife products. There are over 6200 NC in the US, but there has been no independent assessment of the association of these NC with biomarkers of health. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to compare the health status of 100 NC members to 100 community-matched controls (CC) in the greater Boston area...
April 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397796/geographic-barriers-and-pleistocene-climate-change-shaped-patterns-of-genetic-variation-in-the-eastern-afromontane-biodiversity-hotspot
#19
Mario Mairal, Isabel Sanmartín, Alberto Herrero, Lisa Pokorny, Pablo Vargas, Juan J Aldasoro, Marisa Alarcón
The Eastern African Afromontane forest is getting increased attention in conservation studies because of its high endemicity levels and shrinking geographic distribution. Phylogeographic studies have found evidence of high levels of genetic variation structured across the Great Rift System. Here, we use the epiphytic plant species Canarina eminii to explore causal explanations for this pattern. Phylogeographic analyses were undertaken using plastid regions and AFLP fragments. Population genetic analyses, Statistical Parsimony, and Bayesian methods were used to infer genetic diversity, genealogical relationships, structure, gene flow barriers, and the spatiotemporal evolution of populations...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397280/self-blame-attributions-in-relatives-of-people-with-recent-onset-psychosis-associations-with-relatives-distress-and-behavioural-control
#20
Debora Vasconcelos E Sa, Christine Barrowclough, Samantha Hartley, Alison Wearden
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that self-blame is an important predictor of distress and depression in relatives of people with long-term psychosis, but there is limited research investigating the nature and correlates of self-blame in relatives of people with recent-onset psychosis. Self-blame motivates a tendency to engage with others and to repair wrongdoings; it might be that such cognitions also impact on relatives' behaviours towards the patient. This study examined the association between self-blame and psychological distress, and tested the prediction that greater self-blame would be associated with more behavioural control attempts to patients in a sample of relatives of people with recent-onset psychosis...
April 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
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