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Causal inference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938223/the-high-frequency-of-the-u2af1-s34y-mutation-and-its-association-with-isolated-trisomy-8-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-in-asians-but-not-in-caucasians
#1
Seon Young Kim, Kwantae Kim, Byungjin Hwang, Kyongok Im, Si Nae Park, Jung-Ah Kim, Sang Mee Hwang, Duhee Bang, Dong Soon Lee
Mutational profiles of 153 Korean myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients were investigated. Sequencing of 87 genes presented similar mutational profiles in Korean MDS patients compared with previous reports. The most frequently mutated genes were ASXL1 (22.9%), U2AF1 (16.3%), TP53 (13.7%), RUNX1 (10.5%), TET2 (10.5%), DNMT3A (8.5%), and SRSF2 (8.5%). The U2AF1 mutation frequency was higher, with different frequencies in the mutated sites of U2AF1 (S34Y, 6/25; S34F, 11/25; and Q157P 8/25). The U2AF1 S34Y mutation was strongly associated with isolated trisomy 8 (5/6, 83%) and was characterized by a younger age of MDS onset (median, 39 years)...
September 7, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936887/interpretation-of-correlations-in-clinical-research
#2
Man Hung, Jerry Bounsanga, Maren Wright Voss
BACKGROUND: Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. OBJECTIVE: As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935654/opioid-prescription-morbidity-and-mortality-in-united-states-dialysis-patients
#3
Paul L Kimmel, Chyng-Wen Fwu, Kevin C Abbott, Anne W Eggers, Prudence P Kline, Paul W Eggers
Aggressive pain treatment was advocated for ESRD patients, but new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend cautious opioid prescription. Little is known regarding outcomes associated with ESRD opioid prescription. We assessed opioid prescriptions and associations between opioid prescription and dose and patient outcomes using 2006-2010 US Renal Data System information in patients on maintenance dialysis with Medicare Part A, B, and D coverage in each study year (n=671,281, of whom 271,285 were unique patients)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933874/wisdom-bias-and-balance-toward-a-process-sensitive-measurement-of-wisdom-related-cognition
#4
Justin P Brienza, Franki Y H Kung, Henri C Santos, D Ramona Bobocel, Igor Grossmann
Philosophers and behavioral scientists refer to wisdom as unbiased reasoning that guides one toward a balance of interests and promotes a good life. However, major instruments developed to test wisdom appear biased, and it is unclear whether they capture balance-related tendencies. We examined whether shifting from global, de-contextualized reports to state-level reports about concrete situations provides a less biased method to assess wise reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty and change, consideration of the broader context at hand and perspectives of others, integration of these perspectives or compromise), which may be aligned with the notion of balancing interests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933251/population-metrics-for-suicide-events-a-causal-inference-approach
#5
Hua He, Naiji Lu, Brady Stephens, Yinglin Xia, Robert M Bossarte, Cathleen P Kane, Wan Tang, Xin M Tu
Large-scale public health prevention initiatives and interventions are a very important component to current public health strategies. But evaluating effects of such large-scale prevention/intervention faces a lot of challenges due to confounding effects and heterogeneity of study population. In this paper, we will develop metrics to assess the risk for suicide events based on causal inference framework when the study population is heterogeneous. The proposed metrics deal with the confounding effect by first estimating the risk of suicide events within each of the risk levels, number of prior attempts, and then taking a weighted sum of the conditional probabilities...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931835/in-search-of-features-that-constitute-an-enriched-environment-in-humans-associations-between-geographical-properties-and-brain-structure
#6
Simone Kühn, Sandra Düzel, Peter Eibich, Christian Krekel, Henry Wüstemann, Jens Kolbe, Johan Martensson, Jan Goebel, Jürgen Gallinat, Gert G Wagner, Ulman Lindenberger
Enriched environments elicit brain plasticity in animals. In humans it is unclear which environment is enriching. Living in a city has been associated with increased amygdala activity in a stress paradigm, and being brought up in a city with increased pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activity. We set out to identify geographical characteristics that constitute an enriched environment affecting the human brain. We used structural equation modelling on 341 older adults to establish three latent brain factors (amygdala, pACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)) to test the effects of forest, urban green, water and wasteland around the home address...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#7
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928189/disability-acquisition-and-mental-health-effect-modification-by-demographic-and-socioeconomic-characteristics-using-data-from-an-australian-longitudinal-study
#8
Zoe Aitken, Julie Anne Simpson, Rebecca Bentley, Anne Marie Kavanagh
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health, but the substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect is poorly understood and may be aetiologically informative. This study aimed to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors that modify the effect of disability acquisition on mental health. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Australian households that has been conducted annually since 2001...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924492/the-essentials-of-a-global-index-for-cognitive-function
#9
Joseph Mathew Antony, Ian Weaver, Matthew Rueffer, Najla Guthrie, Malkanthi Evans
Cognition is comprised of the faculties: perception, creativity, intuition, and ratiocination. Optimal levels of cognition are needed for independent functioning and balanced living. With an aging population that continues to grow, dietary supplements that tilt the balance towards maintenance of cognition are being marketed for vulnerable populations facing these challenges. Randomized clinical trials provide the causal inference necessary to define the efficacy of emerging nutraceuticals. Cognition testing, in particular, requires a battery of tests that encompass all brain regions involved in cognition so as to provide endpoints necessary for product validation...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919913/the-interaction-effect-of-body-mass-index-and-age-on-fat-free-mass-waist-to-hip-ratio-and-soft-lean-mass
#10
Alireza Shahab Jahanlou, Kamiar Kouzekanani
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that body mass index (BMI) does not take into consideration the gender and ethnicity. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the interaction effect of the BMI and age on fat-free mass (FFM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and soft lean mass (SLM). The secondary purpose was to evaluate the practical significance of the findings by examining effect sizes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was comparative in nature and employed a factorial design...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919652/causal-inference-with-a-graphical-hierarchy-of-interventions
#11
Ilya Shpitser, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen
Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification...
December 2016: Annals of Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917195/uric-acid-in-major-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders
#12
Catherine N Black, Mariska Bot, Peter G Scheffer, Harold Snieder, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Uric acid has neuroprotective effects, owing to its antioxidant properties. Lowered antioxidant capacity, causing increased oxidative stress, may be involved in affective disorders and might be altered by antidepressants. This study investigated the association of plasma uric acid, the greatest contributor to blood antioxidant capacity, with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety including patients with current (N = 1648), remitted (N = 609) MDD and/or anxiety disorders (of which N = 710 antidepressant users) and 618 controls...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916452/symbolic-dynamics-of-animal-interaction
#13
Maurizio Porfiri, Manuel Ruiz Marín
Since its introduction nearly two decades ago, transfer entropy has contributed to an improved understanding of cause-and-effect relationships in coupled dynamical systems from raw time series. In the context of animal behavior, transfer entropy might help explain the determinants of leadership in social groups and elucidate escape response to predator attacks. Despite its promise, the potential of transfer entropy in animal behavior is yet to be fully tested, and a number of technical challenges in information theory and statistics remain open...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912825/randomised-and-non-randomised-studies-to-estimate-the-effect-of-community-level-public-health-interventions-definitions-and-methodological-considerations
#14
Wolf-Peter Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The preferred method to evaluate public health interventions delivered at the level of whole communities is the cluster randomised trial (CRT). The practical limitations of CRTs and the need for alternative methods continue to be debated. There is no consensus on how to classify study designs to evaluate interventions, and how different design features are related to the strength of evidence. ANALYSIS: This article proposes that most study designs for the evaluation of cluster-level interventions fall into four broad categories: the CRT, the non-randomised cluster trial (NCT), the controlled before-and-after study (CBA), and the before-and-after study without control (BA)...
2017: Emerging Themes in Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#15
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899009/in-and-out-of-control-brain-mechanisms-linking-fluency-of-action-selection-to-self-agency-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Martin Voss, Valérian Chambon, Dorit Wenke, Simone Kühn, Patrick Haggard
Sense of agency refers to the feeling of control over one's actions, and their consequences. It involves both predictive processes linked to action control, and retrospective 'sense-making' causal inferences. Schizophrenia has been associated with impaired predictive processing, but the underlying mechanisms that impair patients' sense of agency remain unclear. We introduce a new 'prospective' aspect of agency and show that subliminally priming an action not only influences response times, but also influences reported sense of agency over subsequent action outcomes...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893555/pacing-stereotypies-in-laboratory-rhesus-macaques-implications-for-animal-welfare-and-the-validity-of-neuroscientific-findings
#17
REVIEW
Colline Poirier, Melissa Bateson
Stereotypic behaviours are commonly observed in captive animals and are usually interpreted as a sign of poor welfare. Stereotypies have also been linked with brain abnormalities. However, stereotypies are a heterogeneous class of behaviours and mounting evidence indicates that different stereotypies can have different causes, and can be linked to different affective states. As a consequence, the implications of a specific stereotypy in a specific species cannot be safely inferred from evidence on other stereotypies or species...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893221/the-indirect-and-direct-pathways-between-physical-fitness-and-academic-achievement-on-commencement-in-post-compulsory-education-in-a-historical-cohort-of-danish-school-youth
#18
Mikkel Porsborg Andersen, Liis Starkof, Maurizio Sessa, Rikke Nørmark Mortensen, Henrik Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik Bøggild, Theis Lange, Christian Torp-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Some studies have found positive associations between physical fitness and academic achievements. Pupils' academic achievements should indicate scholastic abilities to commence a post-compulsory education. However, the effect magnitude of physical fitness and academic achievements on commencement in post-compulsory education is unknown. We examined the pathways between physical fitness and academic achievement on pupils' commencement in post-compulsory education. METHODS: This historical cohort study followed 530 girls and 554 boys from the Danish municipality of Aalborg in the period 2008-2014, 13 to 15 years old in 2010...
September 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891667/in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-can-counter-stereotypes-change-perceptions-of-older-adults-social-status
#19
Deirdre A Robertson, David Weiss
Negative age-related stereotypes often entail the perception that older adults have a lower social status than middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that older adults are perceived to have lower social status because they are less likely to be seen in prestigious occupational positions. People tend to infer general assumptions about group characteristics from exemplars. According to this, presenting a stereotype-inconsistent exemplar (i.e., older person in a high-status position) should change perceptions of older adults' social status...
September 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886603/review-of-epidemiological-studies-of-drinking-water-turbidity-in-relation-to-acute-gastrointestinal-illness
#20
REVIEW
Anneclaire J De Roos, Patrick L Gurian, Lucy F Robinson, Arjita Rai, Issa Zakeri, Michelle C Kondo
BACKGROUND: Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between turbidity of drinking-water supplies and incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including a synthesis of the overall weight of evidence...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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