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Causal inference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903100/making-causal-inferences-from-observational-databases
#1
T Michael Kashner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898842/inferring-phenotypic-causal-structures-among-meat-quality-traits-and-the-application-of-a-structural-equation-model-in-japanese-black-cattle
#2
K Inoue, B D Valente, N Shoji, T Honda, K Oyama, G J M Rosa
Meat quality is one of the most important traits determining carcass price in the Japanese beef market. Optimized breeding goals and management practices for the improvement of meat quality traits requires knowledge regarding any potential functional relationships between them. In this context, the objective of this research was to infer phenotypic causal networks involving beef marbling score (BMS), beef color score (BCL), firmness of beef (FIR), texture of beef (TEX), beef fat color score (BFS), and the ratio of MUFA to SFA (MUS) from 11,855 Japanese Black cattle...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898442/epidemiology-of-pathologic-myopia-in-asia-and-worldwide
#3
Yee-Ling Wong, Seang-Mei Saw
The myopia epidemic in Asia is evident because the prevalence of high myopia among young adults is higher among Asian (6.8%-21.6%) compared with non-Asian populations (2.0%-2.3%). High myopia is linked to pathologic myopia (PM), which may cause irreversible visual impairment (VI). This review will highlight updates on the prevalence of PM and the associated VI from PM. The prevalence of PM among the middle-aged and elderly (0.9%-3.1%) is higher than the prevalence among children and adolescents (<0.2%). The PM lesions detected among older adults include advanced lesions, such as posterior staphyloma, chorioretinal atrophy, lacquer cracks, and Fuchs spot (in descending frequency of occurrence)...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896968/exploring-the-reproducibility-of-probabilistic-causal-molecular-network-models
#4
Ariella Cohain, Aparna A Divaraniya, Kuixi Zhu, Joseph R Scarpa, Andrew Kasarskis, Jun Zhu, Rui Chang, Joel T Dudley, Eric E Schadt
Network reconstruction algorithms are increasingly being employed in biomedical and life sciences research to integrate large-scale, high-dimensional data informing on living systems. One particular class of probabilistic causal networks being applied to model the complexity and causal structure of biological data is Bayesian networks (BNs). BNs provide an elegant mathematical framework for not only inferring causal relationships among many different molecular and higher order phenotypes, but also for incorporating highly diverse priors that provide an efficient path for incorporating existing knowledge...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896874/five-myths-about-variable-selection
#5
REVIEW
Georg Heinze, Daniela Dunkler
Multivariable regression models are often used in transplantation research to identify or to confirm baseline variables which have an independent association, causally or only evidenced by statistical correlation, with transplantation outcome. Although sound theory is lacking, variable selection is a popular statistical method which seemingly reduces the complexity of such models. However, in fact, variable selection often complicates analysis as it invalidates common tools of statistical inference such as p-values and confidence intervals...
November 29, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896738/inferring-genome-wide-interaction-networks
#6
Gökmen Altay, Onur Mendi
The inference of gene regulatory networks is an important process that contributes to a better understanding of biological and biomedical problems. These networks aim to capture the causal molecular interactions of biological processes and provide valuable information about normal cell physiology. In this book chapter, we introduce GNI methods, namely C3NET, RN, ARACNE, CLR, and MRNET and describe their components and working mechanisms. We present a comparison of the performance of these algorithms using the results of our previously published studies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880691/commentary-incorporating-concepts-and-methods-from-causal-inference-into-life-course-epidemiology
#7
Bianca L De Stavola, Rhian M Daniel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871728/the-chrna5-a3-b4-gene-cluster-and-smoking-from-discovery-to-therapeutics
#8
REVIEW
Glenda Lassi, Amy E Taylor, Nicholas J Timpson, Paul J Kenny, Robert J Mather, Tim Eisen, Marcus R Munafò
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified associations between the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster and smoking heaviness and nicotine dependence. Studies in rodents have described the anatomical localisation and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) formed by the subunits encoded by this gene cluster. Further investigations that complemented these studies highlighted the variability of individuals' smoking behaviours and their ability to adjust nicotine intake. GWASs of smoking-related health outcomes have also identified this signal in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster...
November 18, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870928/mir-182-5p-inhibition-ameliorates-ischemic-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Julia Wilflingseder, Kíra Jelencsics, Helga Bergmeister, Judith Sunzenauer, Heinz Regele, Farsad Eskandary, Roman Reindl-Schwaighofer, Alexander Kainz, Rainer Oberbauer
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a major clinical event with high mortality rates. We previously identified renal miR-182 as the main driver of post-transplantation AKI. Therefore, we tested the causal inference of miR-182 by inhibiting its renal expression in vivo. In 45 rats AKI was induced by right nephrectomy and contralateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 40 minutes. Systemically administered antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibited miR-182 in the kidneys up to 96 hours. The maximum creatinine elevation was on day 2 after injury (ASO 2...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867250/approaches-to-the-estimation-of-the-local-average-treatment-effect-in-a-regression-discontinuity-design
#10
Aidan G O'Keeffe, Gianluca Baio
Regression discontinuity designs (RD designs) are used as a method for causal inference from observational data, where the decision to apply an intervention is made according to a 'decision rule' that is linked to some continuous variable. Such designs are being increasingly developed in medicine. The local average treatment effect (LATE) has been established as an estimator of the intervention effect in an RD design, particularly where a design's 'decision rule' is not adhered to strictly. Estimating the variance of the LATE is not necessarily straightforward...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, Theory and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866947/integrating-gwas-and-co-expression-network-data-identifies-bone-mineral-density-genes-sptbn1-and-mark3-and-an-osteoblast-functional-module
#11
Gina M Calabrese, Larry D Mesner, Joseph P Stains, Steven M Tommasini, Mark C Horowitz, Clifford J Rosen, Charles R Farber
Bone mineral density (BMD) is a highly heritable predictor of osteoporotic fracture. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMD have identified dozens of associations; yet, the genes responsible for most associations remain elusive. Here, we used a bone co-expression network to predict causal genes at BMD GWAS loci based on the premise that genes underlying a disease are often functionally related and functionally related genes are often co-expressed. By mapping genes implicated by BMD GWAS onto a bone co-expression network, we predicted and inferred the function of causal genes for 30 of 64 GWAS loci...
November 15, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865202/compulsive-exercise-as-a-mediator-between-clinical-perfectionism-and-eating-pathology
#12
Sarah J Egan, Kate Bodill, Hunna J Watson, Emily Valentine, Chloe Shu, Martin S Hagger
The aim of this study was to examine whether compulsive exercise mediates the relationship between clinical perfectionism and eating pathology, based on the cognitive behavioral model of compulsive exercise. Participants were 368 adults who participated regularly in sport/exercise and completed online measures of perfectionism, compulsive exercise and eating disorders. In support of the well-established link between perfectionism and eating disorders, clinical perfectionism predicted eating pathology both directly and indirectly mediated by compulsive exercise...
November 10, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864408/the-epidemiology-of-two-things-considered-together-commentary-on-explanation-in-causal-inference-developments-in-mediation-and-interaction-by-tyler-j-vanderweele
#13
Jay S Kaufman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864406/explanation-in-causal-inference-developments-in-mediation-and-interaction
#14
Tyler J VanderWeele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859958/phylogeny-and-variability-of-colletotrichum-truncatum-associated-soybean-anthracnose-in-brazil
#15
Flávia Rogério, Maisa Ciampi-Guillardi, Marina Coan Goldoni Barbieri, Carlos Augusto Dórea Bragança, Claudine Dinali Santos Seixas, Álvaro Manuel Rodrigues Almeida, Nelson Sidnei Massola
AIMS: Fungal diseases are among the main factors limiting high yields of soybean crop. Colletotrichum isolates from soybean plants with anthracnose symptoms were studied from different regions and time periods in Brazil using molecular, morphological and pathogenic analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bayesian phylogenetic inference of GAPDH, HIS3 and ITS-5.8S rDNA sequences, the morphologies of colony and conidia and inoculation tests on seeds and seedlings were performed...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857130/early-life-exposure-to-edcs-role-in-childhood-obesity-and-neurodevelopment
#16
REVIEW
Joseph M Braun
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) might increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormone-mediated processes that are critical for growth and development during gestation, infancy and childhood. The fetus, infant and child might have enhanced sensitivity to environmental stressors such as EDCs due to their rapid development and increased exposure to some EDCs as a consequence of development-specific behaviour, anatomy and physiology. In this Review, I discuss epidemiological studies examining the relationship between early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, triclosan and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with childhood neurobehavioural disorders and obesity...
November 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854526/evaluating-public-health-interventions-5-causal-inference-in-public-health-research-do-sex-race-and-biological-factors-cause-health-outcomes
#17
M Maria Glymour, Donna Spiegelman
Counterfactual frameworks and statistical methods for supporting causal inference are powerful tools to clarify scientific questions and guide analyses in public health research. Counterfactual accounts of causation contrast what would happen to a population's health under alternative exposure scenarios. A long-standing debate in counterfactual theory relates to whether sex, race, and biological characteristics, including obesity, should be evaluated as causes, given that these variables do not directly correspond to clearly defined interventions...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854423/why-causal-inference-matters-to-nurses-the-case-of-nurse-staffing-and-patient-outcomes
#18
Deena Kelly Costa, Olga Yakusheva
Since the early 1990s researchers have steadily built a broad evidence base for the association between nurse staffing and patient outcomes. However, the majority of the studies in the literature employ designs that are unable to robustly examine causal pathways to meaningful improvement in patient outcomes. A focus on causal inference is essential to moving the field of nursing research forward, and as part of the essential skill-set for all nurses as consumers of research. In this article, we aim to describe the importance of causal inference in nursing research and discuss study designs that are more likely to produce causal findings...
May 31, 2016: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848247/hospital-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-obesity-a-scoping-review
#19
Jennifer C Seida, Arya M Sharma, Jeffrey A Johnson, Mary Forhan
PURPOSE: To explore the evidence on rehabilitation for hospitalized patients with obesity. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PubMed were searched from 1994 to May 2016. Grey literature was hand-searched. Two reviewers independently selected studies examining patients with obesity receiving hospital-based therapy for a physical impairment. One reviewer extracted the data and a second reviewer verified a random sample. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies (two trials, 37 observational) were included...
November 16, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846292/implicit-and-explicit-self-esteem-in-current-remitted-recovered-and-comorbid-depression-and-anxiety-disorders-the-nesda-study
#20
Lonneke A van Tuijl, Klaske A Glashouwer, Claudi L H Bockting, Jorge N Tendeiro, Brenda W J H Penninx, Peter J de Jong
BACKGROUND: Dual processing models of psychopathology emphasize the relevance of differentiating between deliberative self-evaluative processes (explicit self-esteem; ESE) and automatically-elicited affective self-associations (implicit self-esteem; ISE). It has been proposed that both low ESE and ISE would be involved in major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD). Further, it has been hypothesized that MDD and AD may result in a low ISE "scar" that may contribute to recurrence after remission...
2016: PloS One
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