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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813361/transformational-leadership-in-sport-current-status-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Calum A Arthur, Nicolas Bastardoz, Robert Eklund
Borrowed from organizational psychology, the concept of transformational leadership has now been applied to a sport context for a decade. Our review covers and critically discusses empirical articles published on this growing topic. However, because the majority of studies used cross-sectional designs and single-source questionnaires to tap what has been a fuzzy construct, current theoretical and methodological issues impede understanding of whether transformational leadership matters for sport outcomes. To make a difference to applied practice and policy, the transformational leadership construct requires a refined definition and stronger empirical tests allowing for robust causal inference...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812731/cooperation-facilitates-the-colonization-of-harsh-environments
#2
Charlie K Cornwallis, Carlos A Botero, Dustin R Rubenstein, Philip A Downing, Stuart A West, Ashleigh S Griffin
Animals living in harsh environments, where temperatures are hot and rainfall is unpredictable, are more likely to breed in cooperative groups. As a result, harsh environmental conditions have been accepted as a key factor explaining the evolution of cooperation. However, this is based on evidence that has not investigated the order of evolutionary events, so the inferred causality could be incorrect. We resolved this problem using phylogenetic analyses of 4,707 bird species and found that causation was in the opposite direction to that previously assumed...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812537/leveraging-network-analytics-to-infer-patient-syndrome-and-identify-causal-genes-in-rare-disease-cases
#3
Andreas Krämer, Sohela Shah, Robert Anthony Rebres, Susan Tang, Daniel Rene Richards
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is widely used to identify disease-causing variants in patients with rare genetic disorders. Identifying those variants from whole-genome or exome data can be both scientifically challenging and time consuming. A significant amount of time is spent on variant annotation, and interpretation. Fully or partly automated solutions are therefore needed to streamline and scale this process. RESULTS: We describe Phenotype Driven Ranking (PDR), an algorithm integrated into Ingenuity Variant Analysis, that uses observed patient phenotypes to prioritize diseases and genes in order to expedite causal-variant discovery...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#4
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#5
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805739/four-bad-habits-of-modern-psychologists
#6
James Grice, Paul Barrett, Lisa Cota, Crystal Felix, Zachery Taylor, Samantha Garner, Eliwid Medellin, Adam Vest
Four data sets from studies included in the Reproducibility Project were re-analyzed to demonstrate a number of flawed research practices (i.e., "bad habits") of modern psychology. Three of the four studies were successfully replicated, but re-analysis showed that in one study most of the participants responded in a manner inconsistent with the researchers' theoretical model. In the second study, the replicated effect was shown to be an experimental confound, and in the third study the replicated statistical effect was shown to be entirely trivial...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804781/form-and-function-optional-complementizers-reduce-causal-inferences
#7
Hannah Rohde, Joseph Tyler, Katy Carlson
Many factors are known to influence the inference of the discourse coherence relationship between two sentences. Here, we examine the relationship between two conjoined embedded clauses in sentences like The professor noted that the student teacher did not look confident and (that) the students were poorly behaved. In two studies, we find that the presence of that before the second embedded clause in such sentences reduces the possibility of a forward causal relationship between the clauses, i.e., the inference that the student teacher's confidence was what affected student behavior...
2017: Glossa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800495/the-explanatory-effect-of-a-label-explanations-with-named-categories-are-more-satisfying
#8
Carly Giffin, Daniel Wilkenfeld, Tania Lombrozo
Can opium's tendency to induce sleep be explained by appeal to a "dormitive virtue"? If the label merely references the tendency being explained, the explanation seems vacuous. Yet the presence of a label could signal genuinely explanatory content concerning the (causal) basis for the property being explained. In Experiments 1 and 2, we find that explanations for a person's behavior that appeal to a named tendency or condition are indeed judged to be more satisfying than equivalent explanations that differ only in omitting the name...
August 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800320/ensemble-methods-integrated-with-mirna-expression-data-for-predicting-mirna-targets-in-stomach-adenocarcinoma
#9
Guang-Wei Liu, Zhao-Min Qin, Qin-Hai Shen
OBJECTIVE: It is crucially important to discover the relationships between genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer. Thus, we proposed a combined bioinformatics method integrating Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC), Lasso, and causal inference method (IDA) to identify the potential miRNA targets for stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) using Borda count election. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the ensemble method integrating PCC, IDA, and Lasso was used to predict miRNA targets...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798522/wealth-inequality-and-accumulation
#10
Alexandra Killewald, Fabian T Pfeffer, Jared N Schachner
Research on wealth inequality and accumulation and the data upon which it relies have expanded substantially in the twenty-first century. While the field has experienced rapid growth, conceptual and methodological challenges remain. We begin by discussing two major unresolved methodological concerns facing wealth research: how to address challenges to causal inference posed by wealth's cumulative nature and how to operationalize net worth, given its highly skewed nature. To underscore the need for continued empirical attention to net worth, we review trends in wealth levels and inequality and evaluate wealth's distinctiveness as an indicator of social stratification...
July 2017: Annual Review of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795686/hdl-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-genetic-insights-into-complex-biology
#11
REVIEW
Robert S Rosenson, H Bryan Brewer, Philip J Barter, Johan L M Björkegren, M John Chapman, Daniel Gaudet, Daniel Seung Kim, Eric Niesor, Kerry-Anne Rye, Frank M Sacks, Jean-Claude Tardif, Robert A Hegele
Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predict the risk of cardiovascular disease at the epidemiological level, but a direct causal role for HDL in cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Studies in animal models and humans with rare monogenic disorders link only particular HDL-associated mechanisms with causality, including those mechanisms related to particle functionality rather than cholesterol content. Mendelian randomization studies indicate that most genetic variants that affect a range of pathways that increase plasma HDL-C levels are not usually associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, with some exceptions, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein variants...
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794385/association-between-a-ccl17-genetic-variant-and-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-chinese-han-population
#12
Yicong Ye, Xinglin Yang, Bo Long, Haiyu Pang, Yicheng Zhu, Shuyang Zhang
BACKGROUND: In the present study we investigated the effects of genetic variations in the C-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) gene on serum CCL17 levels and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).Methods and Results:A case-control study was conducted to determine causal inferences amongCCL17single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), serum CCL17 levels, and risk of CAD. Luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and allele-specific quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to assess the function of the SNPs...
August 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793925/perturbed-human-sub-networks-by-fusobacterium-nucleatum-candidate-virulence-proteins
#13
Andreas Zanzoni, Lionel Spinelli, Shérazade Braham, Christine Brun
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobic species residing in the oral cavity and implicated in several inflammatory processes in the human body. Although F. nucleatum abundance is increased in inflammatory bowel disease subjects and is prevalent in colorectal cancer patients, the causal role of the bacterium in gastrointestinal disorders and the mechanistic details of host cell functions subversion are not fully understood. RESULTS: We devised a computational strategy to identify putative secreted F...
August 10, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783880/identifiability-and-estimation-of-causal-mediation-effects-with-missing-data
#14
Wei Li, Xiao-Hua Zhou
Mediation analysis is a standard approach to understanding how and why an intervention works in social and medical sciences. However, the presence of missing data, especially missing not at random data, poses a great challenge for the applicability of this approach in practice. Current methods for handling such missingness are still lacking in causal mediation analysis. In this article, we first show the identifiability of causal mediation effects with different types of missing outcomes under different missingness mechanisms...
August 7, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782125/dyadic-supervision-evaluation-an-actor-partner-relational-model
#15
Adrian Avila, Brian Distelberg, Ana Estrada, Lauren Foster, Mary Moline, Douglas Huenergardt
This article contributes to research practices in marital and family therapy, specifically the dyadic and development over time in clinical supervision, and describes and applies methodological strategies to develop measurements congruent with the systemic and developmental principles of the field. This project evaluates the psychometric properties of the dyadic supervision evaluation (DSE) in terms of measurement equivalence and causality. A structural equation analysis is conducted utilizing the actor-partner interdependent model resulting in a goodness of fit...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780093/causal-effect-of-prolificacy-on-milk-yield-in-dairy-sheep-using-propensity-score
#16
Vera C Ferreira, David L Thomas, Bruno D Valente, Guilherme J M Rosa
In animal production, it is often important to investigate causal relationships among variables. The gold standard tool for such investigation is randomized experiments. However, randomized experiments may not always be feasible, possible, or cost effective or reflect real-world farm conditions. Sometimes it is necessary to infer effects from farm-recorded data. Inferring causal effects between variables from field data is challenging because the association between them may arise not only from the effect of one on another but also from confounding background factors...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772104/the-role-of-the-lateral-intraparietal-area-in-the-study-of-decision-making
#17
Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz, Jacob L Yates
Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770057/adaptive-molecular-evolution-of-mc1r-gene-reveals-the-evidence-for-positive-diversifying-selection-in-indigenous-goat-populations
#18
Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Chenhui Liu, Yuqing Chong, Huang Huarong
Detecting signatures of selection can provide a new insight into the mechanism of contemporary breeding and artificial selection and further reveal the causal genes associated to the phenotypic variation. However, the signatures of selection on genes entailing for profitable traits between Chinese commercial and indigenous goats have been poorly interpreted. We noticed footprints of positive selection at MC1R gene containing SNPs genotyped in five Chinese native goat breeds. An experimental distribution of FST was built based on approximations of FST for each SNP across five breeds...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769146/what-does-a-swiss-franc-mortgage-cost-the-tale-of-polish-trust-for-foreign-currency-denominated-mortgages-implications-for-well-being-and-health
#19
Piotr Białowolski, Dorota Węziak-Białowolska
It is commonly agreed that excessive household financial debts are detrimental to psychological and physical health. Research also demonstrates that housing instability, mortgage indebtedness and mortgage foreclosure negatively influence subjective well-being. In Poland at the beginning of 2015, homeowners with Swiss franc denominated mortgages suffered from an abrupt swing in the Swiss franc/Polish zloty (CHF/PLN) exchange rate, which resulted in considerable increase in the local currency value of their mortgages...
2017: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765574/the-east-asian-summer-monsoon-variability-over-the-last-145-years-inferred-from-the-shihua-cave-record-north-china
#20
Xianglei Li, Hai Cheng, Liangcheng Tan, Fengmei Ban, Ashish Sinha, Wuhui Duan, Hanying Li, Haiwei Zhang, Youfeng Ning, Gayatri Kathayat, R Lawrence Edwards
The precipitation variability associated with the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) has profound societal implications. Here, we use precisely dated and seasonally-resolved stalagmite oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) records from Shihua Cave, North China to reconstruct the EASM variability over the last 145 years. Our record shows a remarkable weakening of the EASM strength since the 1880s, which may be causally linked to the warming of the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The δ(18)O record also exhibits a significant ~30-year periodicity, consistent with the instrumental, historical and proxy-based rainfall records from North China, plausibly driven by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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