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Causal inference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211974/whole-exome-sequencing-identified-1-base-pair-novel-deletion-in-bcl2-associated-athanogene-3-bag3-gene-associated-with-severe-dilated-cardiomyopathy-dcm-requiring-heart-transplant-in-multiple-family-members
#1
Muhammad Arshad Rafiq, Ayeshah Chaudhry, Melanie Care, Danna A Spears, Chantal F Morel, Robert M Hamilton
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by dilation and impaired contraction of the left ventricle or both ventricles. Among hereditary DCM, the genetic causes are heterogeneous, and include mutations encoding cytoskeletal, nucleoskeletal, mitochondrial, and calcium-handling proteins. We report three severely affected males, in a four-generation pedigree, with DCM phenotype who underwent cardiac transplant. Cardiomegaly with marked biventricular dilation and fibrosis were noticeable histopathological findings...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207734/a-causal-inference-model-explains-perception-of-the-mcgurk-effect-and-other-incongruent-audiovisual-speech
#2
John F Magnotti, Michael S Beauchamp
Audiovisual speech integration combines information from auditory speech (talker's voice) and visual speech (talker's mouth movements) to improve perceptual accuracy. However, if the auditory and visual speech emanate from different talkers, integration decreases accuracy. Therefore, a key step in audiovisual speech perception is deciding whether auditory and visual speech have the same source, a process known as causal inference. A well-known illusion, the McGurk Effect, consists of incongruent audiovisual syllables, such as auditory "ba" + visual "ga" (AbaVga), that are integrated to produce a fused percept ("da")...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206793/do-positive-spontaneous-thoughts-function-as-incentive-salience
#3
Elise L Rice, Barbara L Fredrickson
The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204514/causal-inference-so-much-more-than-statistics
#4
Neil Pearce, Debbie A Lawlor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202023/logical-fallacies-in-animal-model-research
#5
REVIEW
Espen A Sjoberg
BACKGROUND: Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion...
February 15, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193182/de-novo-mutational-profile-in-rb1-clarified-using-a-mutation-rate-modeling-algorithm
#6
Varun Aggarwala, Arupa Ganguly, Benjamin F Voight
BACKGROUND: Studies of de novo mutations offer great promise to improve our understanding of human disease. After a causal gene has been identified, it is natural to hypothesize that disease relevant mutations accumulate within a sub-sequence of the gene - for example, an exon, a protein domain, or at CpG sites. These assessments are typically qualitative, because we lack methodology to assess the statistical significance of sub-gene mutational burden ultimately to infer disease-relevant biology...
February 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190383/explanation-in-causal-inference-methods-for-mediation-and-interaction
#7
Jan R Böhnke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188994/anxiety-disorder-among-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-insights-from-real-life-data
#8
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Gali Aljadeff, Howard Amital, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen, Daniela Amital
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders occur in a considerable proportion of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), often reflecting the difficulties of these patients in coping with a chronic debilitating disorder. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the proportion of anxiety disorder in RA patients using a large database analysis. METHODS: The study was designed as a case-control population-based study using data from the Clalit Health Services (CHS) database...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187788/assessing-the-short-term-impact-of-air-pollution-on-mortality-a-matching-approach
#9
Michela Baccini, Alessandra Mattei, Fabrizia Mealli, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Michele Carugno
BACKGROUND: The opportunity to assess short term impact of air pollution relies on the causal interpretation of the exposure-response association. However, up to now few studies explicitly faced this issue within a causal inference framework. In this paper, we reformulated the problem of assessing the short term impact of air pollution on health using the potential outcome approach to causal inference. We considered the impact of high daily levels of particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) on mortality within two days from the exposure in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy), during the period 2003-2006...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181250/causal-inference-and-the-spatial-math-link-in-early-childhood
#10
Drew H Bailey
Verdine et al. (2017) present compelling evidence for a causal effect of spatial skills on children's mathematics achievement in early childhood. In additional analyses of the correlation matrix reported by Verdine et al., I present evidence that the spatial-math link is not merely an epiphenomenon of general cognitive demands of both tasks. However, the question of whether the link is due to a causal effect of spatial skills on mathematics skills, a causal effect of mathematics skills on spatial skills, or common factors influencing both during this developmental period is a more difficult one to answer...
March 2017: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176290/effects-of-explaining-on-children-s-preference-for-simpler-hypotheses
#11
Caren M Walker, Elizabeth Bonawitz, Tania Lombrozo
Research suggests that the process of explaining influences causal reasoning by prompting learners to favor hypotheses that offer "good" explanations. One feature of a good explanation is its simplicity. Here, we investigate whether prompting children to generate explanations for observed effects increases the extent to which they favor causal hypotheses that offer simpler explanations, and whether this changes over the course of development. Children aged 4, 5, and 6 years observed several outcomes that could be explained by appeal to a common cause (the simple hypothesis) or two independent causes (the complex hypothesis)...
February 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167396/musical-friends-and-foes-the-social-cognition-of-affiliation-and-control-in-improvised-interactions
#12
Jean-Julien Aucouturier, Clément Canonne
A recently emerging view in music cognition holds that music is not only social and participatory in its production, but also in its perception, i.e. that music is in fact perceived as the sonic trace of social relations between a group of real or virtual agents. While this view appears compatible with a number of intriguing music cognitive phenomena, such as the links between beat entrainment and prosocial behaviour or between strong musical emotions and empathy, direct evidence is lacking that listeners are at all able to use the acoustic features of a musical interaction to infer the affiliatory or controlling nature of an underlying social intention...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166542/expectation-propagation-for-large-scale-bayesian-inference-of-non-linear-molecular-networks-from-perturbation-data
#13
Zahra Narimani, Hamid Beigy, Ashar Ahmad, Ali Masoudi-Nejad, Holger Fröhlich
Inferring the structure of molecular networks from time series protein or gene expression data provides valuable information about the complex biological processes of the cell. Causal network structure inference has been approached using different methods in the past. Most causal network inference techniques, such as Dynamic Bayesian Networks and ordinary differential equations, are limited by their computational complexity and thus make large scale inference infeasible. This is specifically true if a Bayesian framework is applied in order to deal with the unavoidable uncertainty about the correct model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164801/beyond-intent-to-treat-itt-a-complier-average-causal-effect-cace-estimation-primer
#14
James L Peugh, Daniel Strotman, Meghan McGrady, Joseph Rausch, Susmita Kashikar-Zuck
Randomized control trials (RCTs) have long been the gold standard for allowing causal inferences to be made regarding the efficacy of a treatment under investigation, but traditional RCT data analysis perspectives do not take into account a common reality: imperfect participant compliance to treatment. Recent advances in both maximum likelihood parameter estimation and mixture modeling methodology have enabled treatment effects to be estimated, in the presence of less than ideal levels of participant compliance, via a Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) structural equation mixture model...
February 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164092/propensity-score-method-a-non-parametric-technique-to-reduce-model-dependence
#15
EDITORIAL
Zhongheng Zhang
Propensity score analysis (PSA) is a powerful technique that it balances pretreatment covariates, making the causal effect inference from observational data as reliable as possible. The use of PSA in medical literature has increased exponentially in recent years, and the trend continue to rise. The article introduces rationales behind PSA, followed by illustrating how to perform PSA in R with MatchIt package. There are a variety of methods available for PS matching such as nearest neighbors, full matching, exact matching and genetic matching...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#16
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158897/sex-specific-genetic-diversity-is-shaped-by-cultural-factors-in-inner-asian-human-populations
#17
Nina Marchi, Tatyana Hegay, Philippe Mennecier, Myriam Georges, Romain Laurent, Mark Whitten, Philipp Endicott, Almaz Aldashev, Choduraa Dorzhu, Firuza Nasyrova, Boris Chichlo, Laure Ségurel, Evelyne Heyer
OBJECTIVES: Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. METHODS: We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155632/global-inference-of-disease-causing-single-nucleotide-variants-from-exome-sequencing-data
#18
Mengmeng Wu, Ting Chen, Rui Jiang
BACKGROUND: Whole exome sequencing (WES) has recently emerged as an effective approach for identifying genetic variants underlying human diseases. However, considerable time and labour is needed for careful investigation of candidate variants. Although filtration based on population frequencies and functional prediction scores could effectively remove common and neutral variants, hundreds or even thousands of rare deleterious variants still remain. In addition, current WES platforms also provide variant information in flanking noncoding regions, such as promoters, introns and splice sites...
December 23, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153337/a-practical-guide-to-propensity-score-analysis-for-applied-clinical-research
#19
Jaehoon Lee, Todd D Little
Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances...
January 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153017/meal-planning-is-associated-with-food-variety-diet-quality-and-body-weight-status-in-a-large-sample-of-french-adults
#20
Pauline Ducrot, Caroline Méjean, Vani Aroumougame, Gladys Ibanez, Benjamin Allès, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Serge Hercberg, Sandrine Péneau
BACKGROUND: Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status. METHODS: Meal planning, i...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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