keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Causal inference

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777239/inference-about-causation-between-body-mass-index-and-dna-methylation-in-blood-from-a-twin-family-study
#1
Shuai Li, Ee Ming Wong, Minh Bui, Tuong L Nguyen, Ji-Hoon Eric Joo, Jennifer Stone, Gillian S Dite, Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles, Richard Saffery, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported DNA methylation in blood to be associated with body mass index (BMI), but few have investigated causal aspects of the association. We used a twin family design to assess this association at two life points and applied a novel analytical approach to appraise the evidence for causality. METHODS: The methylation profile of DNA from peripheral blood was measured for 479 Australian women from 130 twin families. Linear regression was used to estimate the associations of DNA methylation at ~410,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs), and of the average DNA methylation at ~20,000 genes, with current BMI, BMI at age 18-21 years, and the change between the two (BMI change)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774591/causal-estimands-and-confidence-intervals-associated-with-wilcoxon-mann-whitney-tests-in-randomized-experiments
#2
Michael P Fay, Erica H Brittain, Joanna H Shih, Dean A Follmann, Erin E Gabriel
Although the P value from a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is used often with randomized experiments, it is rarely accompanied with a causal effect estimate and its confidence interval. The natural parameter for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test is the Mann-Whitney parameter, ϕ, which measures the probability that a randomly selected individual in the treatment arm will have a larger response than a randomly selected individual in the control arm (plus an adjustment for ties). We show that the Mann-Whitney parameter may be framed as a causal parameter and show that it is not equal to a closely related and nonidentifiable causal effect, ψ, the probability that a randomly selected individual will have a larger response under treatment than under control (plus an adjustment for ties)...
May 17, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771543/making-stronger-causal-inferences-accounting-for-selection-bias-in-associations-between-high-performance-work-systems-leadership-and-employee-and-customer-satisfaction
#3
Joseph A Schmidt, Dionne M Pohler
We develop competing hypotheses about the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) with employee and customer satisfaction. Drawing on 8 years of employee and customer survey data from a financial services firm, we used a recently developed empirical technique-covariate balanced propensity score (CBPS) weighting-to examine if the proposed relationships between HPWS and satisfaction outcomes can be explained by reverse causality, selection effects, or commonly omitted variables such as leadership behavior...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771313/evaluating-the-potential-role-of-pleiotropy-in-mendelian-randomization-studies
#4
Gibran Hemani, Jack Bowden, George Davey Smith
Pleiotropy, the phenomenon of a single genetic variant influencing multiple traits, is likely widespread in the human genome. If pleiotropy arises because the SNP influences one trait, which in turn influences another ("vertical pleiotropy"), then Mendelian randomisation (MR) can be used to estimate the causal influence between the traits. Of prime focus among the many limitations to MR is the unprovable assumption that apparent pleiotropic associations are mediated by the exposure (i.e. reflect vertical pleiotropy), and do not arise due to SNPs influencing the two traits through independent pathways ("horizontal pleiotropy")...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768982/mentalizing-oneself-detecting-reflective-functioning-in-life-narratives
#5
Christin Köber, Magdalena Maria Kuhn, Isabel Peters, Tilmann Habermas
Reflective functioning (RF) is defined as the ability to infer mental states of others and oneself. While RF has been predominantly studied in attachment research, it might also occur in other autobiographical narratives because of its strong connection to self-organization and self-understanding. Therefore, this study took a first step combining research on RF with developmental narrative research. In a longitudinal lifespan study covering up to three measurements across 8 years and six age groups (N = 172), we aimed to detect RF in entire life narratives to explore its development with age and its contribution to causal-motivational coherence of life narratives...
May 16, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767377/the-effect-of-omitted-covariates-in-marginal-and-partially-conditional-recurrent-event-analyses
#6
Yujie Zhong, Richard J Cook
There have been many advances in statistical methodology for the analysis of recurrent event data in recent years. Multiplicative semiparametric rate-based models are widely used in clinical trials, as are more general partially conditional rate-based models involving event-based stratification. The partially conditional model provides protection against extra-Poisson variation as well as event-dependent censoring, but conditioning on outcomes post-randomization can induce confounding and compromise causal inference...
May 16, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766047/a-transient-dopamine-signal-represents-avoidance-value-and-causally-influences-the-demand-to-avoid
#7
Katherine J Pultorak, Scott A Schelp, Dominic P Isaacs, Gregory Krzystyniak, Erik B Oleson
While an extensive literature supports the notion that mesocorticolimbic dopamine plays a role in negative reinforcement, recent evidence suggests that dopamine exclusively encodes the value of positive reinforcement. In the present study, we employed a behavioral economics approach to investigate whether dopamine plays a role in the valuation of negative reinforcement. Using rats as subjects, we first applied fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to determine that dopamine concentration decreases with the number of lever presses required to avoid electrical footshock (i...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759069/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-risk-among-individuals-infected-with-zika-virus-a-multi-country-assessment
#8
Luis Mier-Y-Teran-Romero, Mark J Delorey, James J Sejvar, Michael A Johansson
BACKGROUND: Countries with ongoing outbreaks of Zika virus have observed a notable rise in reported cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), with mounting evidence of a causal link between Zika virus infection and the neurological syndrome. However, the risk of GBS following a Zika virus infection is not well characterized. In this work, we used data from 11 locations with publicly available data to estimate the risk of GBS following an infection with Zika virus, as well as the location-specific incidence of infection and the number of suspect GBS cases reported per infection...
May 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758234/a-validation-of-dynamic-causal-modelling-for-7t-fmri
#9
S Tak, J Noh, C Cheong, P Zeidman, A Razi, W D Penny, K J Friston
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cognitive and clinical neuroscience studies. However, the benefits offered by higher field strength have not been evaluated in terms of effective connectivity and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). NEW METHOD: In this study, we address the validity of DCM for 7T functional MRI data at two levels. First, we evaluate the predictive validity of DCM estimates based upon 3T and 7T in terms of reproducibility...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757444/physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-associated-factors-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplantation
#10
Edwin J van Adrichem, Rienk Dekker, Wim P Krijnen, Erik A M Verschuuren, Pieter U Dijkstra, Cees P van der Schans
Background: Short-term survival after solid-organ transplantation has substantially improved, and the focus has shifted to long-term survival, including the role of physical activity (PA). Knowledge about PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation is limited, and identification of the levels and associated factors is necessary for intervention development. Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of PA and sedentary time in recipients of solid-organ transplantation and to identify factors associated with these behaviors...
May 10, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755201/a-constraint-optimization-approach-to-causal-discovery-from-subsampled-time-series-data
#11
Antti Hyttinen, Sergey Plis, Matti Järvisalo, Frederick Eberhardt, David Danks
We consider causal structure estimation from time series data in which measurements are obtained at a coarser timescale than the causal timescale of the underlying system. Previous work has shown that such subsampling can lead to significant errors about the system's causal structure if not properly taken into account. In this paper, we first consider the search for system timescale causal structures that correspond to a given measurement timescale structure. We provide a constraint satisfaction procedure whose computational performance is several orders of magnitude better than previous approaches...
November 2017: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753811/systematic-analysis-reveals-long-noncoding-rnas-regulating-neighboring-transcription-factors-in-human-cancers
#12
Zhi Liu, Juncheng Dai, Hongbing Shen
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proposed to play essential roles in regulating gene transcription. Moreover, a subset has been implicated in modulating the expression of the nearby loci. Here we systematically evaluated the relationship between lncRNAs and their neighboring genes based on transcriptome expression profiles from 4900 samples across 12 cancer types. Our findings reveal that lncRNAs, especially those of high syntenic conservation across species, are spatially correlated with transcription factors across the genome...
May 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751243/adult-attachment-representations-and-depressive-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Or Dagan, Christopher R Facompré, Kristin Bernard
BACKGROUND: Attachment theory has long argued that insecure and disorganized attachment representations are associated with vulnerability to psychopathology in general, and depressive symptoms in particular. However, studies assessing the link between insecure and disorganized attachment and depressive symptoms report inconsistent results. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which adult attachment representations are associated with depressive symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a literature search for published studies using PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and ProQuest in March 2017, identifying 55 samples (N = 4,386)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750409/implications-of-the-propensity-score-matching-paradox-in-pharmacoepidemiology
#14
John E Ripollone, Krista F Huybrechts, Kenneth J Rothman, Ryan E Ferguson, Jessica M Franklin
Recent work demonstrated that propensity score matching may lead to increased covariate imbalance, even with the corresponding decrease in propensity score distance between matched units. The extent to which this paradoxical phenomenon might harm causal inference in real epidemiologic studies has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of this phenomenon using insurance claims data from the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (1999-2002) and Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-2007) databases...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749091/using-forecast-modelling-to-evaluate-treatment-effects-in-single-group-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#15
Ariel Linden
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is an evaluation methodology in which a single treatment unit's outcome is studied serially over time and the intervention is expected to "interrupt" the level and/or trend of that outcome. ITSA is commonly evaluated using methods which may produce biased results if model assumptions are violated. In this paper, treatment effects are alternatively assessed by using forecasting methods to closely fit the preintervention observations and then forecast the post-intervention trend...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739930/exploring-the-phenotypic-consequences-of-tissue-specific-gene-expression-variation-inferred-from-gwas-summary-statistics
#16
Alvaro N Barbeira, Scott P Dickinson, Rodrigo Bonazzola, Jiamao Zheng, Heather E Wheeler, Jason M Torres, Eric S Torstenson, Kaanan P Shah, Tzintzuni Garcia, Todd L Edwards, Eli A Stahl, Laura M Huckins, Dan L Nicolae, Nancy J Cox, Hae Kyung Im
Scalable, integrative methods to understand mechanisms that link genetic variants with phenotypes are needed. Here we derive a mathematical expression to compute PrediXcan (a gene mapping approach) results using summary data (S-PrediXcan) and show its accuracy and general robustness to misspecified reference sets. We apply this framework to 44 GTEx tissues and 100+ phenotypes from GWAS and meta-analysis studies, creating a growing public catalog of associations that seeks to capture the effects of gene expression variation on human phenotypes...
May 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739281/the-association-between-adverse-child-health-psychological-educational-and-social-outcomes-and-nondependent-parental-substance-a-rapid-evidence-assessment
#17
Ruth McGovern, Eilish Gilvarry, Michelle Addison, Hayley Alderson, Emma Geijer-Simpson, Raghu Lingam, Debbie Smart, Eileen Kaner
BACKGROUND: Between 5% and 30% of children in high-income countries live with a substance misusing parent, the majority of which is below dependent levels. However, little is understood about the impact of nondependent parental substance misuse upon children. METHODS: We searched the international literature using rigorous systematic methods to identify studies examining parental substance misuse and adverse outcomes in children. The inclusion criteria were cross-sectional, longitudinal, case-control, and cohort studies; of children aged 0-18 years whose parents are high-risk substance misusers; reporting on their health, psychological, substance use, educational, and social outcomes...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734865/peripheral-artery-disease-calf-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-functional-performance
#18
Mary M McDermott, Charlotte A Peterson, Robert Sufit, Luigi Ferrucci, Jack M Guralnik, Melina R Kibbe, Tamar S Polonsky, Lu Tian, Michael H Criqui, Lihui Zhao, James H Stein, Lingyu Li, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh
In people without lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), mitochondrial DNA copy number declines with aging, and this decline is associated with declines in mitochondrial activity and functional performance. However, whether lower extremity ischemia is associated with lower mitochondrial DNA copy number and whether mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with the degree of functional impairment in people with PAD is unknown. In people with and without PAD, age 65 years and older, we studied associations of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) with mitochondrial DNA copy number and associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with functional impairment...
May 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731407/cardiovascular-disease-and-use-of-contemporary-protease-inhibitors-the-d-a-d-international-prospective-multicohort-study
#19
Lene Ryom, Jens D Lundgren, Wafaa El-Sadr, Peter Reiss, Ole Kirk, Matthew Law, Andrew Phillips, Rainer Weber, Eric Fontas, Antonella d' Arminio Monforte, Stéphane De Wit, Francois Dabis, Camilla I Hatleberg, Caroline Sabin, Amanda Mocroft
BACKGROUND: Although earlier protease inhibitors have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whether this increased risk also applies to more contemporary protease inhibitors is unknown. We aimed to assess whether cumulative use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and ritonavir-boosted darunavir were associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV. METHODS: The prospective Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study consists of people living with HIV-1 from 11 cohorts in Australia, Europe, and the USA...
May 3, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724404/causal-reports-context-dependent-contributions-of-intuitive-physics-and-visual-impressions-of-launching
#20
Michele Vicovaro
Everyday causal reports appear to be based on a blend of perceptual and cognitive processes. Causality can sometimes be perceived automatically through low-level visual processing of stimuli, but it can also be inferred on the basis of an intuitive understanding of the physical mechanism that underlies an observable event. We investigated how visual impressions of launching and the intuitive physics of collisions contribute to the formation of explicit causal responses. In Experiment 1, participants observed collisions between realistic objects differing in apparent material and hence implied mass, whereas in Experiment 2, participants observed collisions between abstract, non-material objects...
May 2018: Acta Psychologica
keyword
keyword
8082
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"