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Causal inference

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545066/bayesian-estimation-of-directed-functional-coupling-from-brain-recordings
#1
Danilo Benozzo, Pasi Jylänki, Emanuele Olivetti, Paolo Avesani, Marcel A J van Gerven
In many fields of science, there is the need of assessing the causal influences among time series. Especially in neuroscience, understanding the causal interactions between brain regions is of primary importance. A family of measures have been developed from the parametric implementation of the Granger criteria of causality based on the linear autoregressive modelling of the signals. We propose a new Bayesian method for linear model identification with a structured prior (GMEP) aiming to apply it as linear regression method in the context of the parametric Granger causal inference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541220/mgt-sm-a-method-for-constructing-cellular-signal-transduction-networks
#2
Min Li, Ruiqing Zheng, Yaohang Li, Fang-Xiang Wu, Jianxin Wang
A cellular signal transduction network is an important means to describe biological responses to environmental stimuli and exchange of biological signals. Constructing the cellular signal transduction network provides an important basis for the study of the biological activities, the mechanism of the diseases, drug targets and so on. The statistical approaches to network inference are popular in literature. Granger test has been used as an effective method for causality inference. Compared with bivariate granger tests, multivariate granger tests reduce the indirect causality and were used widely for the construction of cellular signal transduction networks...
May 19, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536170/door-to-needle-delays-in-minor-stroke-a-causal-inference-approach
#3
Sara K Rostanski, Zachary Shahn, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ava L Liberman, Randolph S Marshall, Joshua I Stillman, Olajide Williams, Joshua Z Willey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombolysis rates among minor stroke (MS) patients are increasing because of increased recognition of disability in this group and guideline changes regarding treatment indications. We examined the association of delays in door-to-needle (DTN) time with stroke severity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all stroke patients who received intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator in our emergency department between July 1, 2011, and February 29, 2016...
May 23, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532363/early-visual-cortex-as-a-multiscale-cognitive-blackboard
#4
Pieter R Roelfsema, Floris P de Lange
Neurons in early visual cortical areas not only represent incoming visual information but are also engaged by higher level cognitive processes, including attention, working memory, imagery, and decision-making. Are these cognitive effects an epiphenomenon or are they functionally relevant for these mental operations? We review evidence supporting the hypothesis that the modulation of activity in early visual areas has a causal role in cognition. The modulatory influences allow the early visual cortex to act as a multiscale cognitive blackboard for read and write operations by higher visual areas, which can thereby efficiently exchange information...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529400/long-term-consequences-of-early-sexual-initiation-on-young-adult-health-a-causal-inference-approach
#5
Kari C Kugler, Sara A Vasilenko, Nicole M Butera, Donna L Coffman
Although early sexual initiation has been linked to negative outcomes, it is unknown whether these effects are causal. In this study, we use propensity score methods to estimate the causal effect of early sexual initiation on young adult sexual risk behaviors and health outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We found that early sexual initiation predicted having 2 or more partners (for both males and females) and having a sexually transmitted infection in the past year (females only) but did not predict depressive symptoms in the past week (for either gender)...
May 2017: Journal of Early Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527048/interpreting-findings-from-mendelian-randomization-using-the-mr-egger-method
#6
Stephen Burgess, Simon G Thompson
Mendelian randomization-Egger (MR-Egger) is an analysis method for Mendelian randomization using summarized genetic data. MR-Egger consists of three parts: (1) a test for directional pleiotropy, (2) a test for a causal effect, and (3) an estimate of the causal effect. While conventional analysis methods for Mendelian randomization assume that all genetic variants satisfy the instrumental variable assumptions, the MR-Egger method is able to assess whether genetic variants have pleiotropic effects on the outcome that differ on average from zero (directional pleiotropy), as well as to provide a consistent estimate of the causal effect, under a weaker assumption-the InSIDE (INstrument Strength Independent of Direct Effect) assumption...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521005/using-directed-acyclic-graphs-in-epidemiological-research-in-psychosis-an-analysis-of-the-role-of-bullying-in-psychosis
#7
Giusi Moffa, Gennaro Catone, Jack Kuipers, Elizabeth Kuipers, Daniel Freeman, Steven Marwaha, Belinda R Lennox, Matthew R Broome, Paul Bebbington
Modern psychiatric epidemiology researches complex interactions between multiple variables in large datasets. This creates difficulties for causal inference. We argue for the use of probabilistic models represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). These capture the dependence structure of multiple variables and, used appropriately, allow more robust conclusions about the direction of causation. We analyzed British national survey data to assess putative mediators of the association between bullying victimization and persecutory ideation...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515044/exploring-the-causal-pathway-from-telomere-length-to-coronary-heart-disease-a-network-mendelian-randomization-study
#8
Yiqiang Zhan, Ida K Karlsson, Robert Karlsson, Annika Tillander, Chandra A Reynolds, Nancy L Pedersen, Sara Hägg
Rationale: Observational studies have found shorter leukocyte telomere length to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), and more recently the association was suggested to be causal. However, the relationship between telomere length and common metabolic risk factors for CHD is not well understood. Whether these risk factors could explain pathways from telomere length to CHD warrants further attention. Objective: To examine if metabolic risk factors for CHD mediate the causal pathway from short telomere length to increased risk of CHD using a network Mendelian randomization (MR) design...
May 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506484/a-surgical-approach-to-the-anatomo-functional-structure-of-language
#9
REVIEW
E Mandonnet
INTRODUCTION: Language is the most widely mapped cognitive function during brain surgery. Intraoperative language functional mapping using direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions is currently the gold standard technique for establishing the causal link between an area and a deficit that would be caused by its resection. It is also a powerful tool to investigate the anatomical correlates of current neuropsychological models of language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to reexamine the anatomo-functional structure of language that could be inferred from data obtained in direct electrical stimulation studies during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499120/characterising-bias-in-regulatory-risk-and-decision-analysis-an-analysis-of-heuristics-applied-in-health-technology-appraisal-chemicals-regulation-and-climate-change-governance
#10
Brian H MacGillivray
In many environmental and public health domains, heuristic methods of risk and decision analysis must be relied upon, either because problem structures are ambiguous, reliable data is lacking, or decisions are urgent. This introduces an additional source of uncertainty beyond model and measurement error - uncertainty stemming from relying on inexact inference rules. Here we identify and analyse heuristics used to prioritise risk objects, to discriminate between signal and noise, to weight evidence, to construct models, to extrapolate beyond datasets, and to make policy...
May 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497723/the-intention-outcome-asymmetry-effect
#11
Arunima Sarin, David A Lagnado, Paul W Burgess
Knowledge of intention and outcome is integral to making judgments of responsibility, blame, and causality. Yet, little is known about the effect of conflicting intentions and outcomes on these judgments. In a series of four experiments, we combine good and bad intentions with positive and negative outcomes, presenting these through everyday moral scenarios. Our results demonstrate an asymmetry in responsibility, causality, and blame judgments for the two incongruent conditions: well-intentioned agents are regarded more morally and causally responsible for negative outcomes than ill-intentioned agents are held for positive outcomes...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496370/trends-and-causes-of-maternal-mortality-in-jimma-university-specialized-hospital-southwest-ethiopia-a-matched-case-control-study
#12
Tegene Legesse, Misra Abdulahi, Anteneh Dirar
INTRODUCTION: Measures of maternal death are fundamental to a country's health and development status. In developing countries, it remains a daunting and largely unmet public health challenge. There were two studies completed over 10 years ago in Jimma University Specialized Hospital to identify trends, but recently there have been many changes in Ethiopia to reduce maternal death. Therefore, it is important to track the achievements made in Ethiopia in the context of Jimma University Specialized Hospital...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490239/components-of-successful-staple-food-fortification-programs-lessons-from-latin-america
#13
Reynaldo Martorell, Daniel López de Romaña
BACKGROUND: There are few effectiveness evaluations of food fortification programs, and little is known about what makes programs successful. OBJECTIVE: We examined 3 food fortification programs in Latin America to identify common features that might explain their success and to draw lessons for program design and implementation everywhere: The vitamin A fortification of sugar in Guatemala with impact on vitamin A status of the population, the fortification of a basket of foods with iron and other micronutrients in Costa Rica with impact on iron status and anemia in women and children, and the fortification of wheat flour with folic acid in Chile, which reduced the incidence of neural tube defects...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486245/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-national-time-trends-in-mortality-cautions-regarding-causal-inference
#14
JoAnn E Manson, Shari S Bassuk, C Noel Bairey Merz, Andrew M Kaunitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486151/causal-inference-framework-for-generalizable-safety-effect-estimates
#15
Jonathan S Wood, Eric T Donnell
This study integrates a causal inference framework to the Empirical Bayes (EB) before-after method to develop generalizable safety effect estimates (i.e., crash modification factor (CMF)). The method considers approaches to estimate the average treatment effect for the treated (ATT), average treatment effect for the untreated (ATU), and average treatment effect (ATE). The current EB method is shown to estimate ATT while ATE is what is typically desired in traffic safety research. Modifications to the current EB method to estimate ATU and ATE are provided...
May 6, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482296/is-mercury-exposure-causing-diabetes-metabolic-syndrome-and-insulin-resistance-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
Cynthia Roy, Pierre-Yves Tremblay, Pierre Ayotte
INTRODUCTION: Several populations are exposed to mercury (Hg) via their environment, occupation or diet. It is hypothesized that Hg exposure can lead to the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Metabolic syndrome (MS) is also a possible outcome as its symptoms are closely linked to those of DM. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of the literature by screening Web of Science, MEDLINE, SciFinder and Embase and we included original studies pertaining to the relationship of total Hg exposure (elemental, inorganic or organic) to DM, MS or insulin resistance...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481714/causal-action-a-fundamental-constraint-on-perception-and-inference-about-body-movements
#17
Yujia Peng, Steven Thurman, Hongjing Lu
The human body navigates the environment via locomotory movements that leverage gravity and limb biomechanics to propel the body in a particular direction. This process creates a causal link between limb movements and whole-body translation. However, it is unknown whether humans use this causal relation as a constraint in perception and inference with body movements. In the present study, participants rated actions of other individuals as more natural when limb movements (as a cause) occurred before body displacements (as an effect) than when limb movements temporally lagged behind body displacements...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481621/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-genomic-contributions-and-opportunities
#18
John P Reilly, Jason D Christie, Nuala J Meyer
Clinical factors alone poorly explain ARDS risk and ARDS outcome. In the search for individual factors that may influence ARDS risk, the past 20 years have witnessed the identification of numerous genes and genetic variants that are associated with ARDS. The field of ARDS genomics has cycled from candidate gene association studies to bias-free approaches that identify new candidates, and increasing effort is made to understand the functional consequences that may underlie significant associations. More recently, methodologies of causal inference are being applied to maximize the information gained from genetic associations...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481616/the-unique-contributions-of-perceiver-and-target-characteristics-in-person-perception
#19
Eric Hehman, Clare A M Sutherland, Jessica K Flake, Michael L Slepian
Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478794/inferring-causal-structures-and-comparing-the-causal-effects-among-calving-difficulty-gestation-length-and-calf-size-in-japanese-black-cattle
#20
K Inoue, M Hosono, Y Tanimoto
The objectives of this study were to infer phenotypic causal networks involving gestation length (GL) and calving difficulty (CD) for the primiparity of 1850 Japanese Black heifers, and the birth weight (BWT), withers height (WH) and chest girth (CHG) of their full blood calves, and to compare the causal effects among them. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was employed to search for causal links among these traits; it was applied to the posterior distribution of the residual (co)variance matrix of a multiple-trait sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model...
May 8, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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