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in vivo facilitated diffusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755979/design-and-validation-of-diffusion-mri-models-of-white-matter
#1
Ileana O Jelescu, Matthew D Budde
Diffusion MRI is arguably the method of choice for characterizing white matter microstructure in vivo. Over the typical duration of diffusion encoding, the displacement of water molecules is conveniently on a length scale similar to that of the underlying cellular structures. Moreover, water molecules in white matter are largely compartmentalized which enables biologically-inspired compartmental diffusion models to characterize and quantify the true biological microstructure. A plethora of white matter models have been proposed...
November 28, 2017: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737330/therapy-for-cartilage-defects-functional-ectopic-cartilage-constructed-by-cartilage-simulating-collagen-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronic-acid-cch-hybrid-hydrogel-with-allogeneic-chondrocytes
#2
Xianfang Jiang, Junting Liu, Qin Liu, Zhenhui Lu, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao, Xingdong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To regenerate functional cartilage-mimicking ectopic cartilage as a source for the restoration of cartilage defects, we used a previously synthesized three-phase collagen, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (CCH) hydrogel for the encapsulation of allogeneic chondrocytes with a diffusion chamber system that was buried subcutaneously in the host for 4 weeks and then implanted into a cartilage defect. METHODS: The CCH hydrogel was prepared and seeded with allogeneic chondrocytes from new-born rabbits, prior to being enveloped in a diffusion chamber that prevents cell ingrowth and vascular invasion of the host, as described previously...
May 8, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723281/immunity-to-lulohya-and-lundep-the-salivary-spreading-factors-from-lutzomyia-longipalpis-protects-against-leishmania-major-infection
#3
Ines Martin-Martin, Andrezza Campos Chagas, Anderson B Guimaraes-Costa, Laura Amo, Fabiano Oliveira, Ian N Moore, Thiago S DeSouza-Vieira, Elda E Sanchez, Montamas Suntravat, Jesus G Valenzuela, Jose M C Ribeiro, Eric Calvo
Salivary components from disease vectors help arthropods to acquire blood and have been shown to enhance pathogen transmission in different model systems. Here we show that two salivary enzymes from Lutzomyia longipalpis have a synergist effect that facilitates a more efficient blood meal intake and diffusion of other sialome components. We have previously shown that Lundep, a highly active endonuclease, enhances parasite infection and prevent blood clotting by inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of coagulation...
May 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722261/multifunctional-micelles-dually-responsive-to-hypoxia-and-singlet-oxygen-enhanced-photodynamic-therapy-via-interactively-triggered-photosensitizer-delivery
#4
Juanjuan Li, Xuan Meng, Deng Jian, Di Lu, Xin Zhang, Yanrui Chen, Jundong Zhu, Aiping Fan, Dan Ding, Deling Kong, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
Nanoparticulate anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suffering from the limited dose accumulation in tumor. Herein, we report dually hypoxia- and singlet oxygen-responsive polymeric micelles to efficiently utilize the photosensitizer deposited in the disease site and hence facilely improve the therapeutic efficacy of PDT. Tailored methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-azobenzene-poly(aspartic acid-imidazole) copolymer conjugate was synthesized. The self-assembled conjugate micelles (189 ± 19 nm) could efficiently load a model photosensitizer, chlorin e6 (Ce6) with a loading of 4...
May 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660407/application-of-water-soluble-polyvinyl-alcohol-based-film-patches-on-laser-microporated-skin-facilitates-intradermal-macromolecule-and-nanoparticle-delivery
#5
Laura Engelke, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs)...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648788/tyr-1-%C3%AF-z-cf-ch-gly-2-fluorinated-peptidomimetic-improves-distribution-and-metabolism-properties-of-leu-enkephalin
#6
Ryan A Altman, Krishna Sharma, Lian G Rajewski, Paul Chester Toren, Michael J Baltezor, Mohan Pal, Somnath Narayan Karad
Opioid peptides are key regulators in cellular and intercellular physiological responses, and could be therapeutically useful for modulating several pathological conditions. Unfortunately, the use of peptide-based agonists to target centrally located opioid receptors is limited by poor physicochemical (PC), distribution, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) properties that restrict penetration across the blood-brain-barrier via passive diffusion. To address these problems, the present manuscript exploits fluorinated peptidomimetics to simultaneously modify PC and DMPK properties, thus facilitating entry into the central nervous system...
April 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550369/asymmetric-orientation-distribution-functions-aodfs-revealing-intravoxel-geometry-in-diffusion-mri
#7
Suheyla Cetin Karayumak, Evren Özarslan, Gozde Unal
Characterization of anisotropy via diffusion MRI reveals fiber crossings in a substantial portion of voxels within the white-matter (WM) regions of the human brain. A considerable number of such voxels could exhibit asymmetric features such as bends and junctions. However, widely employed reconstruction methods yield symmetric Orientation Distribution Functions (ODFs) even when the underlying geometry is asymmetric. In this paper, we employ inter-voxel directional filtering approaches through a cone model to reveal more information regarding the cytoarchitectural organization within the voxel...
June 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520011/modulating-the-water-channel-aqp4-alters-mirna-expression-astrocyte-connectivity-and-water-diffusion-in-the-rodent-brain
#8
Amandine Jullienne, Andrew M Fukuda, Aleksandra Ichkova, Nina Nishiyama, Justine Aussudre, André Obenaus, Jérôme Badaut
Aquaporins (AQPs) facilitate water diffusion through the plasma membrane. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is present in astrocytes and has critical roles in normal and disease physiology. We previously showed that a 24.9% decrease in AQP4 expression after in vivo silencing resulted in a 45.8% decrease in tissue water mobility as interpreted from magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). Similar to previous in vitro studies we show decreased expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in vivo after intracortical injection of siAQP4 in the rat...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518466/peg-pga-enveloped-octaarginine-peptide-nanocomplexes-an-oral-peptide-delivery-strategy
#9
Zhigao Niu, Eleni Samaridou, Emilie Jaumain, Julie Coëne, Gabriela Ullio, Neha Shrestha, Josep Garcia, Matilde Durán-Lobato, Sulay Tovar, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, M Victoria Lozano, M Mar Arroyo-Jimenez, Rocío Ramos-Membrive, Iván Peñuelas, Aloïse Mabondzo, Véronique Préat, Meritxell Teixidó, Ernest Giralt, María José Alonso
The objective of this work was the development of a new drug nanocarrier intended to overcome the barriers associated to the oral modality of administration and to assess its value for the systemic or local delivery of peptides. The nanocarrier was rationally designed taking into account the nature of the intestinal barriers and was loaded with insulin, which was selected as a model peptide. The nanocarrier consisted of a complex between insulin and a hydrophobically-modified cell penetrating peptide (CPP), enveloped by a protecting polymer...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484131/dual-targeting-of-mitochondrial-function-and-mtor-pathway-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#10
Maria Tsoli, Jie Liu, Laura Franshaw, Han Shen, Cecilia Cheng, MoonSun Jung, Swapna Joshi, Anahid Ehteda, Aaminah Khan, Angel Montero-Carcabosso, Pierre J Dilda, Philip Hogg, David S Ziegler
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG) are the most devastating of all pediatric brain tumors. They mostly affect young children and, as there are no effective treatments, almost all patients with DIPG will die of their tumor within 12 months of diagnosis. A key feature of this devastating tumor is its intrinsic resistance to all clinically available therapies. It has been shown that glioma development is associated with metabolic reprogramming, redox state disruption and resistance to apoptotic pathways...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466733/a%C3%A3-facilitates-ltd-at-schaffer-collateral-synapses-preferentially-in-the-left-hippocampus
#11
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Promotion of long-term depression (LTD) mechanisms by synaptotoxic soluble oligomers of amyloid-β (Aß) has been proposed to underlie synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, LTD was induced by relatively non-specific electrical stimulation. Exploiting optogenetics, we studied LTD using a more physiologically diffuse spatial pattern of selective pathway activation in the rat hippocampus in vivo. This relatively sparse synaptic LTD requires both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor but, in contrast to electrically induced LTD, is not facilitated by boosting endogenous muscarinic acetylcholine or metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor activation...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430094/effect-of-ultrasonic-activation-of-photosensitizer-dye-temoporfin-foscan-on-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-an-ex-vivo-study
#12
Aleem Mohammad, Srinidhi V Ballullaya, Jayaprakash Thumu, Sohani Maroli, Pushpa Shankarappa
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic activation of photosensitizer (PS) drug Foscan in the elimination of endodontic pathogen from root canal system. Materials and Methods: The minimal bactericidal concentration of "Foscan" was determined using disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Forty-eight extracted single-rooted premolars with periapical pathology were used for the study. After access opening, the first microbial sample was taken...
November 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403032/structural-tract-alterations-predict-downstream-tau-accumulation-in-amyloid-positive-older-individuals
#13
Heidi I L Jacobs, Trey Hedden, Aaron P Schultz, Jorge Sepulcre, Rodrigo D Perea, Rebecca E Amariglio, Kathryn V Papp, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson
Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have suggested that tau pathology propagation, facilitated by amyloid pathology, may occur along connected pathways. To investigate these ideas in humans, we combined amyloid scans with longitudinal data on white matter connectivity, hippocampal volume, tau positron emission tomography and memory performance in 256 cognitively healthy older individuals. Lower baseline hippocampal volume was associated with increased mean diffusivity of the connecting hippocampal cingulum bundle (HCB)...
March 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395905/high-resolution-in-vivo-diffusion-imaging-of-the-human-hippocampus
#14
Sarah Treit, Trevor Steve, Donald W Gross, Christian Beaulieu
The human hippocampus is a key target of many imaging studies given its capacity for neurogenesis, role in long term potentiation and memory, and nearly ubiquitous involvement in neurological and psychiatric conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has detected microstructural abnormalities of the human hippocampus associated with various disorders, but acquisitions have typically been limited to low spatial resolution protocols designed for whole brain (e.g. > 2 mm isotropic, >8 mm3 voxels), limiting regional specificity and worsening partial volume effects...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339430/simultaneous-binding-of-multiple-ef-tu-copies-to-translating-ribosomes-in-live-escherichia-coli
#15
Mainak Mustafi, James C Weisshaar
In bacteria, elongation factor Tu is a translational cofactor that forms ternary complexes with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and GTP. Binding of a ternary complex to one of four flexible L7/L12 units on the ribosome tethers a charged tRNA in close proximity to the ribosomal A site. Two sequential tests for a match between the aa-tRNA anticodon and the current mRNA codon then follow. Because one elongation cycle can occur in as little as 50 ms and the vast majority of aa-tRNA copies are not cognate with the current mRNA codon, this testing must occur rapidly...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208569/a-digital-3d-atlas-of-the-marmoset-brain-based-on-multi-modal-mri
#16
Cirong Liu, Frank Q Ye, Cecil Chern-Chyi Yen, John D Newman, Daniel Glen, David A Leopold, Afonso C Silva
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New-World monkey of growing interest in neuroscience. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool to unveil the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. To facilitate identification of regions of interest, it is desirable to register MR images to an atlas of the brain. However, currently available atlases of the marmoset brain are mainly based on 2D histological data, which are difficult to apply to 3D imaging techniques. Here, we constructed a 3D digital atlas based on high-resolution ex-vivo MRI images, including magnetization transfer ratio (a T1-like contrast), T2w images, and multi-shell diffusion MRI...
April 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205903/transduction-methods-for-cytosolic-delivery-of-proteins-and-bioconjugates-into-living-cells
#17
REVIEW
Manuela Chiper, Karen Niederreither, Guy Zuber
The human organism and its constituting cells rely on interplay between multiple proteins exerting specific functions. Progress in molecular biotechnologies has facilitated the production of recombinant proteins. When administrated to patients, recombinant proteins can provide important healthcare benefits. To date, most therapeutic proteins must act from the extracellular environment, with their targets being secreted modulators or extracellular receptors. This is because proteins cannot passively diffuse across the plasma membrane into the cytosol...
December 5, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165318/unidirectional-bmp2-loaded-collagen-scaffolds-induce-chondrogenic-differentiation
#18
Michiel W Pot, Laurie M G de Kroon, Peter M van der Kraan, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Willeke F Daamen
Microfracture surgery may be improved by the implantation of unidirectional collagen scaffolds that provide a template for mesenchymal stem cells to regenerate cartilage. Incorporation of growth factors in unidirectional scaffolds may further enhance cartilage regeneration. In scaffolds, immobilization of growth factors is required to prolong in vivo activity, to limit diffusion and to reduce the amount of growth factor needed for safe clinical application. We investigated the immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to unidirectional collagen scaffolds and the effect on in vitro chondrogenesis...
November 22, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160568/nerve-detection-using-optical-spectroscopy-an-evaluation-in-four-different-models-in-human-and-swine-in-vivo-and-post-mortem
#19
Gerrit C Langhout, Torre M Bydlon, Marjolein van der Voort, Manfred Müller, Jeroen Kortsmit, Gerald Lucassen, Andrea J R Balthasar, Geert-Jan van Geffen, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Benno H W Hendriks, Theo J M Ruers
OBJECTIVE: Identification of peripheral nerve tissue is crucial in both surgery and regional anesthesia. Recently, optical tissue identification methods are presented to facilitate nerve identification in transcutaneous procedures and surgery. Optimization and validation of such techniques require large datasets. The use of alternative models to human in vivo, like human post mortem, or swine may be suitable to test, optimize and validate new optical techniques. However, differences in tissue characteristics and thus optical properties, like oxygen saturation and tissue perfusion are to be expected...
November 21, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047121/in-vivo-tracking-of-the-tropism-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-malignant-gliomas-using-reporter-gene-based-mr-imaging
#20
Minghui Cao, Jiaji Mao, Xiaohui Duan, Liejing Lu, Fang Zhang, Bingling Lin, Meiwei Chen, Chushan Zheng, Xiang Zhang, Jun Shen
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising cellular vehicle for gene therapy of malignant gliomas due to their property of tumor tropism. However, MSCs may show bidirectional and divergent effects on tumor growth. Therefore, a robust surveillance system with a capacity for noninvasive monitoring of the homing, distribution and fate of stem cells in vivo is highly desired for developing stem cell-based gene therapies for tumors. In this study, we used ferritin gene-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track the tumor tropism of MSCs in a rat orthotopic xenograft model of malignant glioma...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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