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in vivo facilitated diffusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809799/update-on-monoterpenes-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-particular-focus-on-p-cymene
#1
REVIEW
Anna Marchese, Carla Renata Arciola, Ramona Barbieri, Ana Sanches Silva, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Morteza Izadi, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ipek Suntar, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
p-Cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene] is a monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This last property has been widely investigated due to the urgent need for new substances with antimicrobial properties, to be used to treat communicable diseases whose diffusion in developed countries has been facilitated by globalization and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance...
August 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800324/fluid-in-the-tissue-channels-of-vascular-adventitia-investigated-by-afm-and-tem
#2
Xinxiao Han, Hongyi Li, Wenda Hua, Luru Dai, Zhuo Ao, Fulong Liao, Dong Han
BACKGROUND: Tissue channels as a part of microcirculation system have been proposed over three decade, playing an important role in fluid transportation as reported. Adventitia of inferior vena cava (IVC) is a typical hierarchical porous media with abundant tissue channels. Its fluid transportation behaviors attract massive research interest. However, the mechanism of the driving force and microstructure was lack of deep research. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the microstructural basis of fluid transportation within inferior vena cava (IVC)...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767072/insights-into-the-mechanisms-involved-in-strong-hemorrhage-and-dermonecrosis-induced-by-atroxlysin-ia-a-pi-class-snake-venom-metalloproteinase
#3
Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Mônica Colombini, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Solange M T Serrano, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva
Hemorrhage is the most prominent effect of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in human envenomation. The capillary injury is a multifactorial effect caused by hydrolysis of the components of the basement membrane (BM). The PI and PIII classes of SVMPs are abundant in viperid venoms and hydrolyze BM components. However, hemorrhage is associated mostly with PIII-class SVMPs that contain non-catalytic domains responsible for the binding of SVMPs to BM proteins, facilitating enzyme accumulation in the tissue and enhancing its catalytic efficiency...
August 2, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759222/a-permeability-limited-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-model-for-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-in-male-rats
#4
Weixiao Cheng, Carla Ng
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a powerful in silico tool that can be used to simulate the toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of xenobiotic substances, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in organisms. However, most existing PBPK models have been based on the flow-limited assumption and largely rely on in vivo data for parameterization. In this study, we propose a permeability-limited PBPK model to estimate the toxicokinetics and tissue distribution of PFOA in male rats. Our model considers the cellular uptake and efflux of PFOA via both passive diffusion and transport facilitated by various membrane transporters, association with serum albumin in circulatory and extracellular spaces, and association with intracellular proteins in liver and kidney...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757359/identification-of-cyclic-peptides-for-facilitation-of-transcellular-transport-of-phages-across-intestinal-epithelium-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Shunsuke Yamaguchi, Shingo Ito, Mio Kurogi-Hirayama, Sumio Ohtsuki
Methodology to enhance intestinal absorption of macromolecular drugs is an important challenge for developing next-generation biomedicines. So far, various cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been reported to facilitate uptake of certain bioactive proteins. However, cyclic peptides might be better candidates, as they are more metabolically stable than linear peptides. Accordingly, we hypothesized that suitable cyclic peptides would promote the absorption of macromolecules across intestinal epithelium. To test this idea, we adopted Caco-2 cell permeability assay as an in vitro human intestinal absorption model, and M13 phage as a model of macromolecules...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753952/amperometric-microsensors-monitoring-glutamate-evoked-in-situ-responses-of-nitric-oxide-and-carbon-monoxide-from-live-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Yejin Ha, Chaejeong Heo, Juhyun Woo, Hyunwoo Ryu, Youngmi Lee, And Minah Suh
In the brain, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important signaling gases which have multifaceted roles, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and vasodilators. Even though it is difficult to measure NO and CO in a living system due to their high diffusibility and extremely low release levels, electrochemical sensors are promising tools to measure in vivo and in vitro NO and CO gases. In this paper, using amperometric dual and septuple NO/CO microsensors, real-time NO and CO changes evoked by glutamate were monitored simultaneously for human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells...
July 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753017/acidity-triggered-ligand-presenting-nanoparticles-to-overcome-sequential-drug-delivery-barriers-to-tumors
#7
Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Jianping Liu, Bing Feng, Fangyuan Zhou, Hanwu Zhang, Lei Zhou, Qi Yin, Zhiwen Zhang, Zhonglian Cao, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
The success of cancer chemotherapy is impeded by poor drug delivery efficiency due to the existence of a series of pathophysiological barriers in the tumor. In this study, we reported a tumor acidity-triggered ligand-presenting (ATLP) nanoparticle for cancer therapy. The ATLP nanoparticles were composed of an acid-responsive diblock copolymer as a sheddable matrix and an iRGD-modified polymeric prodrug of doxorubicin (iPDOX) as an amphiphilic core. A PEG corona of the polymer matrix protected the iRGD ligand from serum degradation and nonspecific interactions with the normal tissues while circulating in the blood...
August 1, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748393/the-validate29-mri-based-multi-channel-atlas-of-the-squirrel-monkey-brain
#8
Kurt G Schilling, Yurui Gao, Iwona Stepniewska, Tung-Lin Wu, Feng Wang, Bennett A Landman, John C Gore, Li Min Chen, Adam W Anderson
We describe the development of the first digital atlas of the normal squirrel monkey brain and present the resulting product, VALiDATe29. The VALiDATe29 atlas is based on multiple types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast acquired on 29 squirrel monkeys, and is created using unbiased, nonlinear registration techniques, resulting in a population-averaged stereotaxic coordinate system. The atlas consists of multiple anatomical templates (proton density, T1, and T2* weighted), diffusion MRI templates (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and ex vivo templates (fractional anisotropy and a structural MRI)...
July 26, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718502/chansporter-complexes-in-cell-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Geoffrey W Abbott
Ion channels facilitate diffusion of ions across cell membranes for such diverse purposes as neuronal signaling, muscular contraction, and fluid homeostasis. Solute transporters often utilize ionic gradients to move aqueous solutes up their concentration gradient, also fulfilling a wide variety of tasks. Recently, an increasing number of ion channel-transporter ('chansporter') complexes have been discovered. Chansporter complex formation may overcome what could otherwise be considerable spatial barriers to rapid signal integration and feedback between channels and transporters, the ions and other substrates they transport, and environmental factors to which they must respond...
July 17, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707157/parcellation-of-macaque-cortex-with-anatomical-connectivity-profiles
#10
Jiaojian Wang, Zhentao Zuo, Sangma Xie, Yifan Miao, Yuanye Ma, Xudong Zhao, Tianzi Jiang
The macaque model has been widely used to investigate the brain mechanisms of specific cognitive functions and psychiatric disorders. However, a detailed functional architecture map of the macaque cortex in vivo is still lacking. Here, we aimed to construct a new macaque cortex atlas based on its anatomical connectivity profiles using in vivo diffusion MRI. First, we defined the macaque cortical seed areas using the NeuroMaps atlas. Then, we applied the anatomical connectivity patterns-based parcellation approach to parcellate the macaque cortex into 80 subareas in each hemisphere, which were approximately symmetric between the two hemispheres...
July 13, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669918/estimation-of-white-matter-fiber-parameters-from-compressed-multiresolution-diffusion-mri-using-sparse-bayesian-learning
#11
Pramod Kumar Pisharady, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Julio M Duarte-Carvajalino, Guillermo Sapiro, Christophe Lenglet
We present a sparse Bayesian unmixing algorithm BusineX: Bayesian Unmixing for Sparse Inference-based Estimation of Fiber Crossings (X), for estimation of white matter fiber parameters from compressed (under-sampled) diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. BusineX combines compressive sensing with linear unmixing and introduces sparsity to the previously proposed multiresolution data fusion algorithm RubiX, resulting in a method for improved reconstruction, especially from data with lower number of diffusion gradients. We formulate the estimation of fiber parameters as a sparse signal recovery problem and propose a linear unmixing framework with sparse Bayesian learning for the recovery of sparse signals, the fiber orientations and volume fractions...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663857/interstitial-photoacoustic-spectral-analysis-instrumentation-and-validation
#12
Haonan Zhang, Wan-Yu Chao, Qian Cheng, Shengsong Huang, Xueding Wang, Denglong Wu, Guan Xu
Photoacoustic (PA) spectral analysis (PASA) is a recently developed approach for quantifying molecular components and microscopic architectures in tissue. The PASA relies on signals with sufficient temporal length and narrow dynamic range for statistics based analysis. However, the optical and acoustic attenuation within the biological tissue make it difficult to acquire desirable signals from deep locations in biological tissue for PASA. This study proposes an interstitial PASA approach. By combining a fiber optics diffuser and a small aperture needle hydrophone, a fine needle PA probe facilitates PASA in deep tissue...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611425/pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-response-to-chemotherapy-enhanced-with-non-invasive-radio-frequency-evaluated-via-an-integrated-experimental-computational-approach
#13
Matthew J Ware, Louis T Curtis, Min Wu, Jason C Ho, Stuart J Corr, Steven A Curley, Biana Godin, Hermann B Frieboes
Although chemotherapy combined with radiofrequency exposure has shown promise in cancer treatment by coupling drug cytotoxicity with thermal ablation or thermally-induced cytotoxicity, limited access of the drug to tumor loci in hypo-vascularized lesions has hampered clinical application. We recently showed that high-intensity short-wave capacitively coupled radiofrequency (RF) electric-fields may reach inaccessible targets in vivo. This non-invasive RF combined with gemcitabine (Gem) chemotherapy enhanced drug uptake and effect in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), notorious for having poor response and limited therapeutic options, but without inducing thermal injury...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608190/endoluminal-laser-assisted-vascular-anastomosis-an-in-vivo-study-in-a-pig-model
#14
Zacharia Mbaidjol, David Kiermeir, Annemarie Schönfeld, Jörg Arnoldi, Martin Frenz, Mihai A Constantinescu
Microvascular surgery is time consuming and requires high expertise. Laser-assisted vascular anastomosis (LAVA) is a promising sutureless technique that has the potential to facilitate this procedure. In this study, we evaluate the handling of our soldering material and the 1-week patency rate in a porcine model. Six pigs were subjected to LAVA. For each pig, the saphenous artery on one side was transected while the contralateral side was used as control. A porous polycaprolactone scaffold soaked in 40% (w/w) bovine serum albumin solution in combination with 0...
August 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598703/in-silico-ocular-pharmacokinetic-modeling-delivery-of-topical-fk962-to-retina
#15
Ayumi Mori, Chiho Yabuta, Yayoi Kishimoto, Seiko Kozai, Akira Ohtori, Thomas R Shearer, Mitsuyoshi Azuma
PURPOSES: To establish the in silico ocular pharmacokinetic modeling for eye drops, and to simulate the dose regimen for FK962 in human choroid/retinal diseases. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics for FK962 in vivo was performed by a single instillation of drops containing 0.1% (14)C-FK962 in rabbit eyes. Permeation of FK962 across the cornea, sclera, and choroid/retina was measured in vitro. Neurite elongation by FK962 was measured in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527734/singlet-oxygen-responsive-micelles-for-enhanced-photodynamic-therapy
#16
Xiaodan Li, Min Gao, Keting Xin, Ling Zhang, Dan Ding, Deling Kong, Zheng Wang, Yang Shi, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers, Jianjun Cheng, Yanjun Zhao
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy is limited by the very short half-life and limited diffusion radius of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). We report a (1)O2-responsive micellar nanoplatform subject to considerable size-expansion upon light triggering to facilitate on-demand release of photosensitizers. Imidazole, a well-known (1)O2 scavenger, was incorporated in the hydrophobic core of amphiphilic copolymer micelles, and was used to coordinate with biocompatible Zn(2+) and encapsulate the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351682/two-photon-polymerization-for-production-of-human-ipsc-derived-retinal-cell-grafts
#17
Kristan S Worthington, Luke A Wiley, Emily E Kaalberg, Malia M Collins, Robert F Mullins, Edwin M Stone, Budd A Tucker
Recent advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology have paved the way for the production of patient-specific neurons that are ideal for autologous cell replacement for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of retinal degeneration and associated photoreceptor cell therapy, polymer scaffolds are critical for cellular survival and integration; however, prior attempts to materialize this concept have been unsuccessful in part due to the materials' inability to guide cell alignment...
June 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347688/effects-of-diabetic-retinopathy-on-the-barrier-functions-of-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#18
Tina Xia, Lawrence J Rizzolo
Diabetic retinopathy is a debilitating microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus. A rich literature describes the breakdown of retinal endothelial cells and the inner blood-retinal barrier, but the effects of diabetes on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has received much less attention. RPE lies between the choroid and neurosensory retina to form the outer blood-retinal barrier. RPE's specialized and dynamic barrier functions are crucial for maintaining retinal health. RPE barrier functions include a collection of interrelated structures and activities that regulate the transepithelial movement of solutes, including: diffusion through the paracellular spaces, facilitated diffusion through the cells, active transport, receptor-mediated and bulk phase transcytosis, and metabolic processing of solutes in transit...
March 29, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303844/significance-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-vastus-medialis-oblique-in-recurrent-patellar-dislocation
#19
Li-Si Liu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hui-Shu Yuan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the influence of osseous factors on patellofemoral joint instability, but research on the influence of dynamic muscle factors in vivo is still in the exploratory stage. This study aimed to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate vastus medialis oblique (VMO) fiber bundles in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation to explore the changes in muscle morphology and function. METHODS: This prospective study involved 30 patients (7 males and 23 females; average age, 21...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286316/a-simple-passive-equilibration-method-for-loading-carboplatin-into-pre-formed-liposomes-incubated-with-ethanol-as-a-temperature-dependent-permeability-enhancer
#20
Moe Wehbe, Armaan Malhotra, Malathi Anantha, Jeroen Roosendaal, Ada W Y Leung, David Plackett, Katarina Edwards, Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Marcel B Bally
A passive equilibration method which relies on addition of candidate drugs to pre-formed liposomes is described as an alternative method for preparing liposome encapsulated drugs. The method is simple, rapid and applicable to liposomes prepared with high (45mol%) or low (<20mol%) levels of cholesterol. Passive equilibration is performed in 4-steps: (i) formation of liposomes, (ii) addition of the candidate drug to the liposomes in combination with a permeability enhancing agent, (iii) incubation at a temperature that facilitates diffusion of the added compound across the lipid bilayer, and (iv) quenching the enhanced membrane permeability by reduction in temperature and/or removal of the permeabilization enhancer...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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