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in vivo facilitated diffusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079471/pre-implant-modeling-of-depth-lead-placement-in-white-matter-for-maximizing-the-extent-of-cortical-activation-during-direct-neurostimulation-therapy
#1
Leopoldo Cendejas Zaragoza, Richard W Byrne, Marvin A Rossi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to predict preoperatively the maximum extent to which direct stimulation therapy can propagate through an epileptic circuit for stabilizing refractory focal-onset epilepsy. A pre-surgical workflow is presented which comprises a computationally intensive process for calculating the volume of cortical activation (VOCA) surrounding cylindrical depth contacts virtually placed in white matter. The process employs an activation function (AF) derived from cable modeling of an axon...
January 12, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054004/diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-of-white-matter-compared-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunofluorescence-in-tissue-cleared-intact-brains
#2
Eric H Chang, Miklos Argyelan, Manisha Aggarwal, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Susumu Mori, Anil K Malhotra
We provide datasets from combined ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Clear Lipid-exchanged, Anatomically Rigid, Imaging/immunostaining compatible, Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY) performed on intact mouse brains. DTI-derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were compared to antibody-based labeling of myelin basic protein (MBP), as measured by fluorescence microscopy. We used a customized CLARITY hydrogel solution to facilitate whole brain tissue clearing and subsequent immunolabeling...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977215/-31-p-and-1-h-nmr-studies-of-the-molecular-organization-of-lipids-in-the-parallel-artificial-membrane-permeability-assay
#3
Frauke Assmus, Alfred Ross, Holger Fischer, Joachim Seelig, Anna Seelig
The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) has emerged as a widely used primary in vitro screen for passive permeability of potential drug candidates. However, the molecular structure of the permeation barrier (consisting of a filter-supported dodecane-egg lecithin mixture) has never been characterized. Here, we investigated the long-range order of phospholipids in the PAMPA barrier by means of (31)P static solid-state NMR. Diffusion constants of PAMPA membrane components were derived from liquid state NMR and, in addition, drug distribution between the PAMPA lipid phase and buffer (log DPAMPA at pH 7...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973451/evaluation-of-laser-assisted-trans-nail-drug-delivery-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#4
Meng-Tsan Tsai, Ting-Yen Tsai, Su-Chin Shen, Chau Yee Ng, Ya-Ju Lee, Jiann-Der Lee, Chih-Hsun Yang
The nail provides a functional protection to the fingertips and surrounding tissue from external injuries. The nail plate consists of three layers including dorsal, intermediate, and ventral layers. The dorsal layer consists of compact, hard keratins, limiting topical drug delivery through the nail. In this study, we investigate the application of fractional CO₂ laser that produces arrays of microthermal ablation zones (MAZs) to facilitate drug delivery in the nails. We utilized optical coherence tomography (OCT) for real-time monitoring of the laser-skin tissue interaction, sparing the patient from an invasive surgical sampling procedure...
December 12, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927188/investigating-potentially-salvageable-penumbra-tissue-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-transient-ischemic-stroke-using-sodium-diffusion-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Friedrich Wetterling, Eva Chatzikonstantinou, Laurent Tritschler, Stephen Meairs, Marc Fatar, Lothar R Schad, Saema Ansar
BACKGROUND: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current-state-of-the-art technique to clinically investigate acute (0-24 h) ischemic stroke tissue. However, reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-considered a marker of tissue damage-was observed to reverse spontaneously during the subacute stroke phase (24-72 h) which means that low ADC cannot be used to reflect the damaged tissue after 24 h in experimental and clinical studies. One reason for the change in ADC is that ADC values drop with cytotoxic edema (acute phase) and rise when vasogenic edema begins (subacute phase)...
December 7, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924941/progressive-muscle-cell-delivery-as-a-solution-for-volumetric-muscle-defect-repair
#6
Ji Hyun Kim, In Kap Ko, Anthony Atala, James J Yoo
Reconstructing functional volumetric tissue in vivo following implantation remains a critical challenge facing cell-based approaches. Several pre-vascularization approaches have been developed to increase cell viability following implantation. Structural and functional restoration was achieved in a preclinical rodent tissue defect; however, the approach used in this model fails to repair larger (>mm) defects as observed in a clinical setting. We propose an effective cell delivery system utilizing appropriate vascularization at the site of cell implantation that results in volumetric and functional tissue reconstruction...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865856/melatonin-loaded-silica-coated-with-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-phthalate-for-enhanced-oral-bioavailability-preparation-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#7
Yuanyuan Li, Xiuhua Zhao, Yuangang Zu, Lingling Wang, Weiwei Wu, Yiping Deng, Chang Zu, Yanjie Liu
Melatonin (MLT) is a small molecule with low water solubility and high permeability. According to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, MLT is a class II drug exhibiting a very short half-life and minimal and variable bioavailability. This work aimed to establish a delivery system composed of an enteric MLT nanosphere with favorably controlled and sustained release characteristics superior to those of raw MLT. The nanosphere was composed of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) and silica (SiO2) with MLT...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857749/erythropoietin-reduces-apoptosis-of-brain-tissue-cells-in-rats-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-a-characteristic-analysis-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Chun-Juan Jiang, Zhong-Juan Wang, Yan-Jun Zhao, Zhui-Yang Zhang, Jing-Jing Tao, Jian-Yong Ma
Some in vitro experiments have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) increases resistance to apoptosis and facilitates neuronal survival following cerebral ischemia. However, results from in vivo studies are rarely reported. Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been applied successfully to distinguish acute cerebral ischemic necrosis and penumbra in living animals; therefore, we hypothesized that PWI and DWI could be used to provide imaging evidence in vivo for the conclusion that EPO could reduce apoptosis in brain areas injured by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814669/laminin-alginate-beads-as-preadipocyte-carriers-to-enhance-adipogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Yu-Sheng Hsueh, Yo-Shen Chen, Hao-Chih Tai, Ondrej Mestak, Sung-Chuan Chao, Yen-Yu Chen, Ying Shih, Jung-Feng Lin, Ming-Jium Shieh, Feng-Huei Lin
The use of autologous fat grafting in breast reconstruction still requires optimization. Fat survival and calcification are the main issues that affect the outcomes of the procedure. In this study, a cell-based therapy utilizing laminin-alginate beads (LABs) as carriers was proposed to promote cell survival and adipogenesis by providing short-term physical support and facilitate nutrient diffusion of the implants. Laminin-modified alginate beads were fabricated by immobilizing laminin onto ring-opened alginate, used to encapsulate 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
December 13, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792900/identification-of-a-protein-protein-interaction-network-downstream-of-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
David Kaufholdt, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, Martin H Meyer, Oliver D Schwich, Ulrike L Timmerer, Lydia Tobias, Daniela van Thiel, Robert Hänsch, Ralf R Mendel
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is ubiquitously present in all kingdoms of life and vitally important for survival. Among animals, loss of the Moco-containing enzyme (Mo-enzyme) sulphite oxidase is lethal, while for plants the loss of nitrate reductase prohibits nitrogen assimilation. Moco is highly oxygen-sensitive, which obviates a freely diffusible pool and necessitates protein-mediated distribution. During the highly conserved Moco biosynthesis pathway, intermediates are channelled through a multi-protein complex facilitating protected transport...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747597/quantitative-multimodal-multiparametric-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740595/how-glutamate-is-managed-by-the-blood-brain-barrier
#12
REVIEW
Richard A Hawkins, Juan R Viña
A facilitative transport system exists on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that has been tacitly assumed to be a path for glutamate entry to the brain. However, glutamate is a non-essential amino acid whose brain content is much greater than plasma, and studies in vivo show that glutamate does not enter the brain in appreciable quantities except in those small regions with fenestrated capillaries (circumventricular organs). The situation became understandable when luminal (blood facing) and abluminal (brain facing) membranes were isolated and studied separately...
October 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697925/simple-rules-for-passive-diffusion-through-the-nuclear-pore-complex
#13
Benjamin L Timney, Barak Raveh, Roxana Mironska, Jill M Trivedi, Seung Joong Kim, Daniel Russel, Susan R Wente, Andrej Sali, Michael P Rout
Passive macromolecular diffusion through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is thought to decrease dramatically beyond a 30-60-kD size threshold. Using thousands of independent time-resolved fluorescence microscopy measurements in vivo, we show that the NPC lacks such a firm size threshold; instead, it forms a soft barrier to passive diffusion that intensifies gradually with increasing molecular mass in both the wild-type and mutant strains with various subsets of phenylalanine-glycine (FG) domains and different levels of baseline passive permeability...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697631/buccal-absorption-of-diazepam-is-improved-when-administered-in-bioadhesive-tablets-an-in-vivo-study-in-conscious-g%C3%A3-ttingen-mini-pigs
#14
Emil Meng-Lund, Jette Jacobsen, Anette Müllertz, Erling B Jørgensen, René Holm
Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini-pigs...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695327/fabrication-of-gelatin-methacrylate-nanohydroxyapatite-microgel-arrays-for-periodontal-tissue-regeneration
#15
Xi Chen, Shizhu Bai, Bei Li, Huan Liu, Guofeng Wu, Sha Liu, Yimin Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease and is the major cause of tooth loss and other oral health issues around the world. Periodontal tissue regeneration has therefore always been the ultimate goal of dentists and researchers. Existing fabrication methods mainly focused on a top-down tissue engineering strategy in which several drawbacks remain, including low throughput and limited diffusion properties resulting from a large sample size. Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) is a kind of photocrosslinkable and biocompatible hydrogel, with the capacities of enabling cell encapsulation and regeneration of functional tissues...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693689/development-of-multifunctional-films-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
Metin Uz, Anup D Sharma, Pratish Adhikari, Donald S Sakaguchi, Surya K Mallapragada
: In this study, a poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) porous film with longitudinal surface micropatterns was fabricated by a dry phase inversion technique to be used as potential conduit material for peripheral nerve regeneration applications. The presence of a nerve growth factor (NGF) gradient on the patterned film surface and protein loaded, surface-eroding, biodegradable, and amphiphilic polyanhydride (PA) microparticles within the film matrix, enabled co-delivery of neurotrophic factors with controlled release properties and enhanced neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells...
September 29, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690262/detection-of-bone-marrow-changes-related-to-estrogen-withdrawal-in-rats-with-a-tabletop-stray-field-nmr-scanner
#17
Yifat Sarda, Elad Bergman, Inbar Hillel, Itzhak Binderman, Uri Nevo
PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). A preliminary stage of the disease is progressive bone marrow adiposity, caused by imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis in the marrow. Detection of osteoporosis relies on the quantification of BMD with techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. This work aimed to detect bone marrow changes in an experimental model of osteopenia using a low-field tabletop NMR scanner. METHODS: An experiment was performed on 32 female rats, 3 months old, 16 of which were ovariectomized (OVX) and 16 were sham-operated (sham)...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688203/individualized-parcellation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-7t-mri
#18
Birgit R Plantinga, Yasin Temel, Yuval Duchin, Kâmil Uludağ, Rémi Patriat, Alard Roebroeck, Mark Kuijf, Ali Jahanshahi, Bart Ter Haar Romenij, Jerrold Vitek, Noam Harel
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely performed surgical treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. The goal of the surgery is to place an electrode centered in the motor region of the STN while lowering the effects of electrical stimulation on the non-motor regions. However, distinguishing the motor region from the neighboring associative and limbic areas in individual patients using imaging modalities was until recently difficult to obtain in vivo. Here, using ultra-high field MR imaging, we have performed a dissection of the subdivisions of the STN of individual Parkinson's disease patients...
September 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676694/breaching-the-hyaluronan-barrier-with-ph20-fc-facilitates-intratumoral-permeation-and-enhances-antitumor-efficiency-a-comparative-investigation-of-typical-therapeutic-agents-in-different-nanoscales
#19
Shan Liu, Wei Wei, Bo Xie, Hua Yue, Dezhi Ni, Yali Bao, Guanghui Ma, Zhiguo G Su
In contrast to traditional strategies based on external driving forces, an internal path for intratumoral delivery is explored by degrading the tumor microenvironment component hyaluronan. Natural hyaluronidase PH20 and constructed long-acting PH20-Fc have been used to achieve this objective. It has been then evaluated how these agents facilitate the diffusion of the following typical therapeutic agents varying in nanoscales: doxorubicin (≈1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 nm) chemotherapy, trastuzumab (10-15 nm) biotherapy, and gold nanorod (≈100 × 35 nm) thermotherapy...
September 27, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616592/emerging-integrated-nanoclay-facilitated-drug-delivery-system-for-papillary-thyroid-cancer-therapy
#20
Yi Zhang, Mei Long, Peng Huang, Huaming Yang, Shi Chang, Yuehua Hu, Aidong Tang, Linfeng Mao
Nanoclay can be incorporated into emerging dual functional drug delivery systems (DDSs) to promote efficiency in drug delivery and reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) used for thyroid cancer treatment. This paper reports the expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite nanoclay was expanded from 0.72 nm to 0.85 nm, which could provide sufficiently spacious site for hosting doxorubicin molecules and controlling the diffusion rate. A targeted design for papillary thyroid cancer cells was achieved by introducing KI, which is consumed by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)...
2016: Scientific Reports
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