keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Antiretroviral side effects

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886823/target-molecules-and-delivery-vehicles-for-anti-hiv-drugs-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Azam Bolhassani
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most serious stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The combinatorial anti-retroviral therapy (cART) is widely used in suppressing HIV-1 infection and enhancing life span of infected patients to a significant level. However, delivery of therapeutic molecules is still a major challenge in vivo. The studies showed that the anti-HIV drugs delivered via nano-carriers could be selectively accumulated in infected cells accompanied by low side effects...
June 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871817/content-analysis-of-antiretroviral-adherence-enhancing-interview-reports
#2
Susan Kamal, Paul Nulty, Olivier Bugnon, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with low or high antiretroviral (ARV) adherence through computational text analysis of an adherence enhancing programme interview reports. METHODS: Using text from 8428 interviews with 522 patients, we constructed a term-frequency matrix for each patient, retaining words that occurred at least ten times overall and used in at least six interviews with six different patients. The text included both the pharmacist's and the patient's verbalizations...
May 17, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868159/hiv-and-mental-illness-in-malawi-and-the-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-of-efavirenz
#3
Andrew Drury, Selena Gleadow-Ware, Sheila Gilfillan, Jen Ahrens
Introduction: Little is published about mental disorders in Malawi, specifically in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and it's treatment. Efavirenz is a medication commonly used as part of triple therapy for HIV treatment. Indeed, in 2013, Malawi introduced 5A with Efavirenz as part of it's 1st line treatment for HIV. There exists some literature documenting known psychiatric side effects of Efavirenz, which include anxiety, mood changes, nightmares, psychosis and suicidal ideation...
March 2018: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861644/dietary-diversity-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-positive-adults-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-clinics-at-hiwot-fana-and-dilchora-hospitals-eastern-ethiopia
#4
Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tesfaye Digaffe, Frehiwot Mesfin, Habtamu Mitiku
Background: Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18-65 years old) attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848987/aids-clinical-research-in-spain-large-hiv-population-geniality-of-doctors-and-missing-opportunities
#5
REVIEW
Vicente Soriano, José M Ramos, Pablo Barreiro, Jose V Fernandez-Montero
The first cases of AIDS in Spain were reported in 1982. Since then over 85,000 persons with AIDS have been cumulated, with 60,000 deaths. Current estimates for people living with HIV are of 145,000, of whom 20% are unaware of it. This explains the still high rate of late HIV presenters. Although the HIV epidemic in Spain was originally driven mostly by injection drug users, since the year 2000 men having sex with men (MSM) account for most new incident HIV cases. Currently, MSM represent over 80% of new yearly HIV diagnoses...
May 30, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803539/the-impact-of-illustrated-side-effect-information-on-understanding-and-sustained-retention-of-antiretroviral-side-effect-knowledge
#6
Sara Hope Browne, Kirsty Barford, Thato Ramela, Ros Dowse
BACKGROUND: Prompt management of side effects is critical to supporting adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of presenting side effect information using simple text combined with pictograms on sustained knowledge of ARV side effects over three months. METHOD: Previously designed side effect pictograms, combined with simple text, were incorporated into a side effects panel within an ARV information leaflet...
May 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791798/non-natural-linker-configuration-in-2-6-dipeptidyl-anthraquinones-enhances-the-inhibition-of-tar-rna-binding-annealing-activities-by-hiv-1-nc-and-tat-proteins
#7
Alice Sosic, Irene Saccone, Caterina Carraro, Thomas Kenderdine, Elia Gamba, Giuseppe Caliendo, Angela Corvino, Ferdinando Fiorino, Paola DiVaio, Elisa Magli, Elisa Perissutti, Vincenzo Santagada, Beatrice Severino, Valentina Spada, Daniele Fabris, Francesco Frecentese, Barbara Gatto
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein represents an excellent molecular target for the development of antiretrovirals by virtue of its well-characterized chaperone activities, which play pivotal roles in essential steps of the viral life cycle. Our ongoing search for candidates able to impair NC binding/annealing activities led to the identification of peptidyl-anthraquinones as a promising class of nucleic acid ligands. Seeking to elucidate the inhibition determinants and increase the potency of this class of compounds, we have now explored the effects of chirality in the linker connecting the planar nucleus to the basic side chains...
May 23, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789664/the-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor-apabetalone-induces-apoptosis-of-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-cells-following-viral-reactivation
#8
Xuan-Xuan Zhang, Jian Lin, Tai-Zhen Liang, Heng Duan, Xing-Hua Tan, Bao-Min Xi, Lin Li, Shu-Wen Liu
The persistence of latent HIV-1 reservoirs throughout combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is a major barrier on the path to achieving a cure for AIDS. It has been shown that bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors could reactivate HIV-1 latency, but restrained from clinical application due to their toxicity and side effects. Thus, identifying a new type of BET inhibitor with high degrees of selectivity and safety is urgently needed. Apabetalone is a small-molecule selective BET inhibitor specific for second bromodomains, and has been evaluated in phase III clinical trials that enrolled patients with high-risk cardiovascular disorders, dyslipidemia, and low HDL cholesterol...
May 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778137/deciphering-natural-control-of-hiv-1-a-valuable-strategy-to-achieve-antiretroviral-therapy-termination
#9
REVIEW
Hamza Loucif, Steven Gouard, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Armstrong Murira, Simona Stäger, Cécile Tremblay, Julien Van Grevenynghe
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality, and has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable chronic condition by suppressing viral replication. However, despite recent patient care improvements, ART still fails to cure HIV-1 infection due to the inability to counteract immune defects and metabolic disturbances that are associated with residual inflammation alongside viral persistence. Life-long drug administration also results in multiple side-effects in patients including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#10
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769116/efficacies-of-cabotegravir-and-bictegravir-against-drug-resistant-hiv-1-integrase-mutants
#11
Steven J Smith, Xue Zhi Zhao, Terrence R Burke, Stephen H Hughes
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the class of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs most recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. INSTIs block the strand transfer reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 integrase (IN) and have been shown to potently inhibit infection by wild-type HIV-1. Of the three current FDA-approved INSTIs, Dolutegravir (DTG), has been the most effective, in part because treatment does not readily select for resistant mutants. However, recent studies showed that when INSTI-experienced patients are put on a DTG-salvage therapy, they have reduced response rates...
May 16, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767681/drug-side-effects-and-retention-on-hiv-treatment-a-regression-discontinuity-study-of-tenofovir-implementation-in-south-africa-and-zambia
#12
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Gilles Wandeler, Hans Prozesky, Geoffrey Fatti, Robin Wood, Kathryn Stinson, Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Arianna Zanolini, Matthew P Fox
Tenofovir is less toxic than other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may improve retention of HIV-infected patients on ART. We assessed the impact of national guideline changes in South Africa (2010) and Zambia (2007) recommending tenofovir in first-line ART. We applied regression discontinuity in a prospective cohort of 52,294 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART within ±12-months of each guideline change. We compared outcomes in patients presenting just before/after the guideline changes using local linear regression and estimated intention-to-treat effects on initiation of tenofovir, retention in care, and other treatment outcomes at 24-months...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737220/emerging-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-infection
#13
Mohammad A Rai, Sam Pannek, Carl J Fichtenbaum
There are 36.7 million people living with HIV with 20.9 million having access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) remain the 'backbone' of ART. However, the currently available nine NRTIs and five non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have significant side effects and resistance profiles. Areas covered: We summarize the mechanisms of resistance and other limitations of the existing NRTIs/NNRTIs. GS-9131, MK-8591, Elsulfavirine and Doravirine are four new agents that are furthest along in development...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720521/short-term-pifn-%C3%AE-2a-treatment-does-not-significantly-reduce-the-viral-reservoir-of-siv-infected-art-treated-rhesus-macaques
#14
David Palesch, Steven E Bosinger, Maud Mavigner, James M Billingsley, Cameron Mattingly, Diane Carnathan, Mirko Paiardini, Ann Chahroudi, Thomas Vanderford, Guido Silvestri
The major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication is a reservoir of latently infected cells that persists despite long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and causes rapid viral rebound if treatment is interrupted. Type I interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that induce antiviral factors and have been evaluated for the treatment of HIV-infected individuals, resulting in moderate reduction of viremia and inconclusive data about their effect on reservoir size. Here, we assessed the potential of pegylated IFN-α2a (pIFN-α2a) to reduce the viral reservoir in SIV-infected, ART-treated rhesus macaques (RMs)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683840/enhancing-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-practices-via-an-educational-intervention
#15
Rebecca Newman, Tasleem Katchi, Michael Karass, Melissa Gennarelli, Jason Goutis, Alina Kifayat, Shantanu Solanki, Srikanth Yandrapalli, Leanne Forman, Christopher Nabors
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV involves using antiretroviral drugs to prevent individuals at high risk from acquiring HIV infection. Most practicing primary care providers believe PrEP to be safe and effective, but less than half have prescribed or referred for PrEP. Attitudes and prescribing patterns among house officers have not been well described previously. STUDY QUESTION: Can an educational intervention enhance HIV PrEP practices among internal medicine house officers? STUDY DESIGN: This study relied on a pretest/posttest design...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678735/recent-developments-of-nanotherapeutics-for-targeted-and-long-acting-combination-hiv-chemotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Yu Gao, John C Kraft, Danni Yu, Rodney J Y Ho
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) given orally has transformed HIV from a terminal illness to a manageable chronic disease. Yet despite the recent development of newer and more potent drugs for cART and suppression of virus in blood to undetectable levels, residual virus remains in tissues. Upon stopping cART, virus rebounds and progresses to AIDS. Current oral cART regimens have several drawbacks including (1) challenges in patient adherence due to pill fatigue or side-effects, (2) the requirement of life-long daily drug intake, and (3) limited penetration and retention in cells within lymph nodes...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#17
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In contrast, the expression of the FGF21-obligatory coreceptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
June 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656449/regimen-durability-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-initiating-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-large-public-sector-hiv-cohort-in-south-africa
#18
Rachael Bonawitz, Alana T Brennan, Lawrence Long, Timothy Heeren, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
INTRODUCTION: In April 2010, tenofovir and abacavir replaced stavudine in public sector first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children under 20 years old in South Africa. The association of both abacavir and tenofovir with fewer side effects and toxicities compared to stavudine could translate to increased durability of tenofovir or abacavir-based regimens. We evaluated changes over time in regimen durability for paediatric patients 3-19 years of age at eight public sector clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa...
June 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616646/morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-togo
#19
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#20
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
keyword
keyword
80811
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"