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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213595/qualitative-study-of-the-breather-trial-short-cycle-antiretroviral-therapy-is-it-acceptable-to-young-people-living-with-hiv
#1
Sarah Bernays, Sara Paparini, Janet Seeley, Stella Namukwaya Kihika, Diana Gibb, Tim Rhodes
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative study of the BREATHER (PENTA 16) randomised clinical trial, which compared virological control of Short Cycle Therapy (SCT) (5 days on: 2 days off) with continuous efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral therapy (CT) in children and young people (aged 8-24) living with HIV with viral load <50 c/mL to examine adaptation, acceptability and experience of SCT to inform intervention development. SETTING: Paediatric HIV clinics in the UK (2), Ireland (1), the USA (1) and Uganda (1)...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209209/perceived-quality-of-life-among-visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-coinfected-migrant-male-workers-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#2
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin, Abebaw Gebayehu
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data on quality of life as a dimension of treatment outcome among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected patients. This study sought to explore perceived quality of life among Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected male migrant workers in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Twenty Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfected study participants took part in the in-depth interviews at Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV treatment centers. Ten participants were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the remaining 10 have not yet started ART...
February 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205255/effect-of-postnatal-hiv-treatment-on-clinical-mastitis-and-breast-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-breast-feeding-women
#3
Sabrina Zadrozny, Daniel Westreich, Michael G Hudgens, Charles Chasela, Denise J Jamieson, Francis Martinson, Chifundo Zimba, Gerald Tegha, Irving Hoffman, William C Miller, Brian W Pence, Caroline C King, Athena P Kourtis, Wezi Msungama, Charles van der Horst
BACKGROUND: The relationship between mastitis and antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive, breast-feeding women is unclear. METHODS: In the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, conducted in Lilongwe, Malawi, 2369 mother-infant pairs were randomized to a nutritional supplement group and to one of three treatment groups: maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART), infant nevirapine (NVP) or standard of care for 24 weeks of exclusive breast-feeding and 4 weeks of weaning...
February 16, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191538/lipodystrophy-hiv-related-and-fgf21-a-new-marker-to-follow-the-progression-of-lipodystrophy
#4
Stefano Benedini, Livio Luzi
Recently new evidence about fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) highlights the opportunities to use this molecule in new pharmaceutical formulations to combat type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is well known that HIV is per se a condition of insulin resistance and in particular the patient with HIV-related lipodystrophy has a condition strictly related to metabolic syndrome. Lipodystrophy is associated with severe metabolic side effects, including dyslipidemia, hepatic insulin resistance, and lipid oxidation impairment...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182617/statins-in-hiv-infected-patients-potential-beneficial-effects-and-clinical-use
#5
Enrique Bernal, Mar Masiá, Irene Marín, Félix Gutiérrez
Patients living with HIV have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is considered to be the result of an interaction between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and dyslipidemia, and persistent chronic inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV infection, along with side effects of antiretroviral therapy. In the general population, the administration of statins has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease-associated mortality, and these drugs are among the most common class of medication prescribed in high-income countries...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164754/prevalence-of-adverse-drug-reactions-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-among-hiv-positive-patients-in-imam-khomeini-hospital-of-tehran-iran
#6
Raheleh Golrokhy, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Azita Babaii, Alia Pourdast, Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad, Saeed Reza Jamali Moghadam, Reza Rezaei Taheri, Seyed Ahmad SeyedAlinaghi
OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV positive patients referred to Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study regarding side effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in HIV positive patients referred to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran, Iran during a period of the year 2009 to 2010. Two hundred patients under antiretroviral treatment evaluated for the side effects of drug based on available records, face to face interviews and written lab data...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155312/confirmation-of-factors-that-influence-antiretroviral-regimen-change-and-the-subsequent-patient-outcomes-at-a-regional-hospital-in-rural-kwazulu-natal
#7
Vereesha Soorju, Panjasaram Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Treatment failure (TF) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are the main indications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen change. Identification of factors influencing regimen change and subsequent health outcomes of patients after regimen change is essential in providing a sustainable and effective antiretroviral roll-out campaign. AIM: To confirm the factors that influence antiretroviral regimen change and to evaluate patient outcomes post regimen change...
October 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151951/comorbidities-of-hiv-infection-and-health-care-seeking-behavior-among-hiv-infected-patients-attending-public-sector-healthcare-facilities-in-kwazulu-natal-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Manimbulu Nlooto
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected people may present with co-infections, comorbidities, and side effects associated with antiretroviral therapy. This study explored the prevalence of comorbid health problems and determined the extent of the use of traditional medicine for treatment of co-infections, comorbidities of HIV infection and side effects. METHODS: A cross sectional study, using researcher-administered questionnaires, was carried out among HIV-infected patients in eight public sector healthcare facilities in KwaZulu-Natal between April and October 1024...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141867/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-association-with-opportunistic-infections-depression-art-regimen-and-side-effects
#9
Julius Y Fonsah, Alfred K Njamnshi, Charles Kouanfack, Fang Qiu, Dora M Njamnshi, Claude T Tagny, Emilienne Nchindap, Léopoldine Kenmogne, Dora Mbanya, Robert Heaton, Georgette D Kanmogne
Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in Sub-Saharan Africa, ART coverage among HIV-infected Cameroonians increased from 0% in 2003 to 22% in 2014. However, the success of current HIV treatment programs depends not only on access to ART, but also on retention in care and good treatment adherence. This is necessary to achieve viral suppression, prevent virologic failure, and reduce viral transmission and HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Previous studies in Cameroon showed poor adherence, treatment interruption, and loss to follow-up among HIV+ subjects on ART, but the factors that influence ART adherence are not well known...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141592/exposure-incidents-among-medical-students-in-a-high-prevalence-hiv-setting
#10
Theresa Marié Rossouw, Marietjie Van Rooyen, Karin Louise Richter
INTRODUCTION: Occupational injuries in medical students are concerning, especially in countries with a high prevalence of bloodborne infections. With more HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) depends on knowledge of source patients' infection status and treatment response. This study determined the number and type of exposure incidents, reporting practices, and PEP use among medical students at the University of Pretoria, South Africa...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134712/diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-hiv-programmes-to-support-treatment-initiation-and-follow-up-and-improve-programme-quality
#11
Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Nathan Ford, Marco Vitoria, Wendy Stevens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The HIV 'cascade of care' breaks down at several points, with delayed HIV diagnosis, late treatment initiation, or interruption, leading to new morbidity and mortality and loss of prevention effects. New approaches are needed at each step. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV testing is still not reaching certain communities, resulting in late presentation. Creative ways to reach these communities is being explored, including with self-testing. HIV misdiagnosis is increasingly recognized as undermining testing programmes, highlighting the need for better quality control...
March 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121707/patient-reported-barriers-and-facilitators-to-antiretroviral-adherence-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#12
Natasha Croome, Monisha Ahluwalia, Lyndsay D Hughes, Melanie Abas
OBJECTIVE: To identify the range and frequency of patient-reported barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). DESIGN: Studies from 2005-2016 were identified by searching 10 electronic databases and through additional hand and web-searching. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: HIV positive adults taking ART based in any SSA country, qualitative study or quantitative survey and included at least one patient-reported barrier or facilitator to ART adherence...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118801/early-clinical-experience-of-dolutegravir-in-an-hiv-cohort-in-a-larger-teaching-hospital
#13
Sej Todd, P Rafferty, E Walker, M Hunter, W W Dinsmore, C M Donnelly, E J McCarty, S P Quah, C R Emerson
Dolutegravir (DTG) is the third HIV integrase inhibitor (INI) available for prescription in Belfast since July 2014. It has shown high virological efficacy in both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. We carried out a retrospective case chart analysis of HIV-1-positive adults commenced on DTG between July 2014 and September 2015. Patients were identified from records as either treatment-naïve or antiretroviral therapy (ART) experienced. Outcomes included: (1) virological response (HIV-1 RNA viral load at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks), (2) immunological response (CD4+ cell count at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks) and (3) tolerability (side effects and discontinuation)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110176/the-management-of-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-10-year-experience
#14
Sonia F Raffe, Charlotte Savage, Louisa A Perry, Amie Patel, Tricia Keith, Richard Howell, Robert Bradley, Rob Bomont, Katy Fidler, Yvonne Gilleece
OBJECTIVE: The package of care to reduce HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) has evolved significantly since trials of ante and intrapartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1994. In the UK MTCT rate has fallen from 25.6% in the 1990s to 0.46%. We review the management of HIV in pregnancy in Brighton in the context of evolving guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: HIV, obstetric and neonatal notes of all HIV positive women, pregnant between 2003 and 2014, were reviewed. RESULTS: 97 pregnancies in 75 women were identified, resulting in 79 live births...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107484/resveratrol-co-treatment-attenuates-the-effects-of-hiv-protease-inhibitors-on-rat-body-weight-and-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-respiration
#15
Burger Symington, Rudo F Mapanga, Gavin R Norton, M Faadiel Essop
Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV), aspirin (ASP) or vitamin C (VitC) co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028587/safety-of-zidovudine-lamivudine-scored-tablets-in-children-with-hiv-infection-in-europe-and-thailand
#16
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Zidovudine (ZDV) has been associated with risk of haematological toxicity. Safety data from clinical trials is generally limited to 48 weeks. We assessed the short- and mid-term toxicity of ZDV/lamivudine (3TC) fixed-dose combination scored tablets in HIV-infected children followed in the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) network. METHODS: Fourteen cohorts provided data on patients <18 years of age taking ZDV/3TC scored tablets between 2008 and 2012...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008980/antiretroviral-treatment-with-efavirenz-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-stroke-severity
#17
Luc Bertrand, Levi Dygert, Michal Toborek
The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARVd) changed the prognosis of HIV infection from a deadly disease to a chronic disease. However, even with undetectable viral loads, patients still develop a wide range of pathologies, including cerebrovascular complications and stroke. It is hypothesized that toxic side effects of ARVd may contribute to these effects. To address this notion, we evaluated the impact of several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; Efavirenz, Etravirine, Rilpivirine and Nevirapine) on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and their impact on severity of stroke...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006001/detectable-viral-load-in-late-pregnancy-among-women-in-the-rwanda-option-b-pmtct-program-enrollment-results-from-the-kabeho-study
#18
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Emily A Bobrow, Placidie Mugwaneza, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Cyprien Baribwira, Laura Guay, Anita Asiimwe
There are limited viral load (VL) data available from programs implementing "Option B+," lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women, in resource-limited settings. Extent of viral suppression from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in Rwanda was assessed among women enrolled in the Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) Study. ARV drug resistance testing was conducted on women with VL>2000 copies/ml...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993121/trimethyl-chitosan-improves-anti-hiv-effects-of-atripla-as-a-new-nano-formulated-drug
#19
Sepideh Shohani, Asghar Abdoli, Behzad Khansarinejad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Mohammad Salimi-Asl, Maryam Ghanbari, Mehrdad Sadeghi Haj, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mahdieh Mondanizadeh
Background; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been commonly used for HIV treatment. Its main drawbacks like drug resistance and side effects raised researcher's interest to find new approaches for its treatment. Trimethyl chitosan is one of the drug carriers which was introduced recently. Materials and Methods; the conjugated atripla-trimethyl chitosan was designed and characterized by zetasizer, AFM and FTIR techniques. The drug conjugation with trimethyl chitosan and cellular uptake of nano-conjugate were determined by spectrophotometry...
December 16, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964776/-since-both-of-us-are-using-antiretrovirals-we-have-been-supportive-to-each-other-facilitators-and-barriers-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-heterosexual-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kisumu-kenya
#20
Rena C Patel, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Josephine Odoyo, Maria Pyra, Imeldah Wakhungu, Keerthana Anand, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
INTRODUCTION: Since 2015, the World Health Organization recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for all persons at substantial risk for HIV, including HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant relationships in resource-limited settings. As PrEP moves from clinical trials to real-world use, understanding facilitators of and barriers to PrEP initiation and adherence is critical to successful PrEP implementation and rollout. METHODS: We conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (30 without HIV and 33 with HIV) enrolled in the Partners Demonstration Project in Kisumu, Kenya, between August and September 2014...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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