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Antiretroviral side effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643572/distinctive-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-botswana
#1
Elizabeth Yang, Seipone Mphele, Neo Moshashane, Boineelo Bula, Jennifer Chapman, Harriet Okatch, Ed Pettitt, Ontibile Tshume, Tafireyi Marukutira, Gabriel Anabwani, Elizabeth Lowenthal
Levels of adherence to HIV treatment are lower among adolescents compared with older and younger individuals receiving similar therapies. We purposely sampled the most and least adherent adolescents from a 300-adolescent longitudinal HIV treatment adherence study in Gaborone, Botswana. Multiple objective and subjective measures of adherence were available and study participants were selected based on sustained patterns of either excellent or poor adherence over a one-year period. Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with the adolescents and a subset of their caregivers with the goal of revealing barriers and facilitators of adherence...
June 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642818/nivolumab-as-salvage-treatment-in-a-patient-with-hiv-related-relapsed-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-liver-failure-with-encephalopathy
#2
Jose D Sandoval-Sus, Francis Mogollon-Duffo, Ankita Patel, Nathan Visweshwar, Damian A Laber, Richard Kim, Michael V Jagal
BACKGROUND: We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient with relapsed/refractory classical hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy along with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection, successfully treated with nivolumab without major side effects and encouraging prolonged disease control. CASE PRESENTATION: In December 2015, at the time of the patient's progression from his Hodgkin lymphoma after fourth line treatment, he developed persistent fevers, abdominal distension, jaundice and worsening of his liver function tests...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621159/dual-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection
#3
Vicente Soriano
For two decades' triple combinations of antiretrovirals have been the standard treatment for HIV infection. The challenges of such lifelong therapy include long-term side effects, high costs and reduced drug adherence. The recent advent of more potent and safer antiretrovirals has renewed the interest for simpler HIV regimens. Areas covered: We discuss the pros and cons of dual antiretroviral therapies in both drug-naïve and in treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression (switch strategy). Expert Opinion: Some dual antiretroviral regimens are safe and efficacious, particularly as maintenance therapy...
June 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614778/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv1-protease-inhibitor-sanquinavir-activates-autophagy-and-removes-lipids-deposited-in-lipid-droplets
#4
A Polus, M Bociaga-Jasik, U Czech, J Goralska, U Cialowicz, M Chojnacka, M Polus, K Jurowski, A Dembinska-Kiec
Reduction in mortality and increased average life span of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with the risk of unwanted effects, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with cardiovascular complications. Antiretroviral therapy may also be associated with lipodystrophy characterized as peripheral lipoatrophy with central fat accumulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipodystrophy caused by ART is important for therapeutic strategy and the prediction of side-effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610599/reversible-diabetes-mellitus-induced-by-use-of-and-improved-after-discontinuation-of-the-antiretroviral-medication-zidovudine-a-case-report
#5
Kentaro Iwata, Wataru Ogawa
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection became more like that of other chronic diseases. Diabetes mellitus can also occur as one of the chronic illnesses affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. We report a case of newly developed diabetes mellitus in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection, most likely caused by the nucleoside analogue zidovudine, and its improvement after discontinuation of zidovudine...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604824/decline-in-cd4-t-lymphocytes-with-monotherapy-bridging-strategy-for-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-infection-results-of-the-impaact-p1094-randomized-trial
#6
Allison L Agwu, Meredith G Warshaw, Elizabeth J McFarland, George K Siberry, Ann J Melvin, Andrew A Wiznia, Lee Fairlie, Sandra Boyd, Paul Harding, Hans M L Spiegel, Elaine J Abrams, Vincent J Carey
INTRODUCTION: Management of persistently non-adherent youth living with HIV (YLHIV) with virologic failure (VF) on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains challenging. One strategy has been using 3TC/ FTC monotherapy (3TC/FTC), which in the presence of the M184V resistance mutation, does not suppress viral replication nor select for additional drug resistance mutations, and reduces viral fitness with limited side effects. P1094 compared the immunologic outcome of continuing failing cART vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557181/-i-don-t-want-to-look-like-an-aids-victim-a-new-zealand-case-study-of-facial-lipoatrophy
#7
Gillian Abel, Lee Thompson
The development of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to treat HIV has turned what was once a death sentence into a chronic disorder. However, a focus on absence of disease in the form of an undetectable viral load and the dismissal of the so-called "cosmetic" complications of the disease ignores perceptions of health and well-being of those living with HIV. Facial lipoatrophy is a stigmatising side effect of treatment for HIV as it betrays the presence of the virus within the body. The study took a longitudinal qualitative approach, interviewing 11 people twice over a period of 1 year on their experience of living with HIV...
May 29, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550962/hiv-and-mycobacteria
#8
REVIEW
Gary W Procop
The importance of mycobacteria as opportunistic pathogens, particularly members of the M. avium complex (MAC), in patients with progressive HIV infection was recognized early in the AIDS epidemic. It took longer to appreciate the global impact and devastation that would result from the deadly synergy that exists between HIV and M. tuberculosis. This HIV/M. tuberculosis co-pandemic is ongoing and claiming millions of lives every year. In addition to MAC, a number of other non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens in HIV-infected individuals; some of these are more commonly encountered (e...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532715/caretakers-barriers-to-pediatric-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-study
#9
C T Tran, T H Pham, K T Tran, T K C Nguyen, M Larsson
BACKGROUND: Poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence leads to drug resistance and treatment failures. The options for second and third line ART regimens, particularly for pediatric patients, are very limited in low and middle-income countries. HIV-infected children are mostly passive drug-takers, thus caretakers play a very important role in assuring ART adherence. Pediatric ART adherence is still a challenging problem in Vietnam since non-adherence is the major risk factor for treatment failure...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509998/influence-of-side-effects-on-art-adherence-among-plwh-in-china-the-moderator-role-of-art-related-knowledge
#10
Guangyu Zhou, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Zhiyong Shen, Yuejiao Zhou
Despite the medical advancements in HIV treatment, realities of side effects are faced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mixed findings have been reported on the association between side effects and ART adherence. However, few studies have explored the combined side effects and behavior-related information on medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine moderator role of ART-related knowledge between side effects and ART adherence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2987 PLWH from October 2012 to August 2013 in China...
May 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508665/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-depressive-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-in-wuhan-china-a-short-report
#11
Hu Rong, Xie Nianhua, Xu Jun, Ruan Lianguo, Wu Si, Wei Sheng, Guo Heng, Wang Xia
We aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for depressive symptoms (DS) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Wuhan, Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study evaluating adult PLWHA receiving ART in nine designated clinical hospitals was conducted from October to December 2015. The validated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess DS in eligible participants. Socio-demographical, epidemiological and clinical data were directly extracted from the case reporting database of the China HIV/AIDS Information Network...
May 16, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492729/cyp2b6-516-g-t-polymorphism-and-side-effects-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-hiv-positive-individuals-under-efavirenz-treatment-study-of-a-sample-from-southern-brazil
#12
Talise E Müller, Joel H Ellwanger, Rafael T Michita, Maria Cristina C Matte, Jane D P Renner
This study aimed to identify the 516 G>T polymorphism of the CYP2B6 gene and evaluate its influence on central nervous system (CNS) side effect development in HIV-positive individuals undergoing Efavirenz (EFV) treatment in a population from southern Brazil. Additionally, we performed a survey on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of our sample. In addition to medical records evaluation, whole blood of 89 individuals was analyzed for viral load, T lymphocyte count (CD4+ and CD8+), and the polymorphism...
May 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489729/trends-in-art-prescription-and-viral-suppression-among-hiv-positive-young-adults-in-care-in-the-united-states-2009-2013
#13
Linda Beer, Christine L Mattson, Heather Bradley, R Luke Shouse
BACKGROUND: Only 13% of HIV-positive young adults are estimated to be virally suppressed and, even among those receiving medical care, HIV-positive young adults are less likely than older adults to take antiretroviral therapy (ART), be adherent, and be virally suppressed. We sought to examine trends in treatment and health outcomes from 2009 to 2013 among HIV-positive young adults (ages 18-24) in care. SETTING: The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a complex sample survey of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479956/a-single-zidovudine-azt-administration-delays-hepatic-cell-proliferation-by-altering-oxidative-state-in-the-regenerating-rat-liver
#14
Armando Butanda-Ochoa, Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa, Marisela Olguín-Martínez, Lourdes Sánchez-Sevilla, Mario R Rodríguez, Benito Chávez-Rentería, Alberto Aranda-Fraustro, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
The 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine or Zidovudine (AZT) was the first antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of HIV patients, which has good effectiveness but also hepatotoxic side effects that include cell cycle arrest and oxidative/nitrative mitochondrial damage. Whether such an oxidative damage may affect the proliferative-regenerative capacity of liver remains to be clearly specified at doses commonly used in the clinical practice. In this study, we described the oxidative-proliferative effect of AZT administered at a common clinical dose in rat liver submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465838/a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-concerning-the-hiv-latency-reversing-effect-of-disulfiram-the-possible-explanations-for-its-inability-to-reduce-the-size-of-the-latent-reservoir-in-vivo-and-the-caveats-associated-with-its-use-in-practice
#15
REVIEW
Harry D J Knights
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), improves immune function, and decreases the morbidity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, it is unable to eradicate the virus because it does not eliminate latently infected cells. The latent reservoir poses the major barrier to an HIV-1 cure. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to reactivate the virus and destroy latently infected cells. Many latency reversing agents (LRAs) reactivate HIV in vitro, but the absence of damaging side-effects and efficacy in vivo make disulfiram particularly promising...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442803/effects-of-fitness-training-on-physical-fitness-parameters-and-quality-of-life-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-indian-females
#16
Renuka Patil, Apurv Shimpi, Savita Rairikar, Ashok Shyam, Parag Sancheti
PURPOSE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly extended survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. These drugs suppress replication of HIV but at the same time, have many physical and mental side effects which may affect daily activities of the patients. The present study assessed if moderate intensity exercise program helped in enhancing the physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in HIV positive females which may reduce the comorbidities associated with the disease and medications...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441147/can-the-generic-antiretroviral-industry-support-access-to-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen
#17
Carolyn D Amole, Caroline Middlecote, Vineet R Prabhu, N Kumarasamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The generic antiretroviral (ARV) industry played a critical role in the massive scale-up of HIV treatment in low-income and middle-income countries since 2000. As the global community looks ahead to a universal antiretroviral regimen, this article considers the industry's role in supporting universal access to affordable, simpler, more durable, and tolerable HIV treatment regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Generic manufacturers made treatment scale-up in low-income and middle-income countries possible through reducing prices, combining molecules from different originator companies to develop optimal fixed-dose combinations, and investing in production capacity to meet escalating demand...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435232/self-reported-adherence-and-associated-factors-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-at-health-centers-in-gondar-town-north-west-ethiopia
#18
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Seyfe Asrade Atnafie, Demis Driba Balcha, Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal, Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis, Mulgeta Melaku Wotte, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410374/factors-influencing-postnatal-option-b-participation-and-breastfeeding-duration-among-hiv-positive-women-in-lilongwe-district-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#19
Valerie L Flax, Gloria Hamela, Innocent Mofolo, Mina C Hosseinipour, Irving F Hoffman, Suzanne Maman
To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi's Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399969/implementing-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-a-tuberculosis-treatment-experienced-cohort-on-art
#20
B Maharaj, T N Gengiah, N Yende-Zuma, S Gengiah, A Naidoo, K Naidoo
SETTING: Urban clinical research site in Durban, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes associated with the implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in a cohort of tuberculosis (TB) treatment-experienced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected between October 2009 and October 2013 from patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study conducted in Durban, South Africa...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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