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Antiretroviral side effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033481/adverse-drug-reaction-monitoring-in-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-eastern-india
#1
Shatavisa Mukherjee, Nikhil Era, Bibhuti Saha, Santanu Kumar Tripathi
BACKGROUND: Besides unparalleled benefits, highly active antiretroviral therapy is also associated with wide range of potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs), which hinders treatment adherence. The present study was thus designed to monitor and explore the pattern of occurrence of ADRs to various antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in a tertiary care ART setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational clinical study was carried out in the outpatient setting of nodal ART center of Eastern India...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027607/developing-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-hiv-care-on-perceived-barriers-to-antiretroviral-adherence-assessing-the-needs-of-hiv-clinicians-through-qualitative-analysis
#2
Isabelle Toupin, Kim Engler, David Lessard, Leo Wong, Andràs Lènàrt, Bruno Spire, François Raffi, Bertrand Lebouché
PURPOSE: To identify HIV clinicians' needs for the clinical use of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PRO) on barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. METHODS: In 2015, five focus groups with 31 clinicians from France were transcribed, coded with Atlas.ti, and submitted to a typological analysis. RESULTS: The analysis identified seven patient profiles, each tied to distinct barriers to adherence and to specific needs for the PRO's content, data collection and transmission...
October 13, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994660/pharmacokinetics-of-rilpivirine-and-24-week-outcomes-after-switching-from-efavirenz-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-adolescents
#3
Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Naruporn Kasipong, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Torsak Bunupuradah, Tim R Cressey, Angela Colbers, David M Burger, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Chitsanu Pancharoen
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favorable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12-18 years on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) were switched from EFV to RPV (25 mg, once daily)...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994443/role-of-raltegravir-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hcv-in-the-era-of-direct-antiviral-agents
#4
Lucia Taramasso, Giovanni Cenderello, Niccolò Riccardi, Simone Tunesi, Antonio Di Biagio
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the preferred third agent in first-line antiretroviral therapies. Raltegravir (RAL) was the first INSTI to be approved and used in naïve and experienced patients. Due to its good tolerability and low side effects, RAL has been largely used also in hepatitis co-infected patients. Many years of experience in RAL use now allow literature evidence to be gathered on its safety in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients pre, during and post direct acting agents (DAA) treatment, at all possible stages...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993180/efficacy-and-safety-of-switching-from-boosted-protease-inhibitors-plus-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-regimens-to-single-tablet-darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-alafenamide-at-48-weeks-in-adults-with-virologically-suppressed
#5
Chloe Orkin, Jean-Michel Molina, Eugenia Negredo, José R Arribas, Joseph Gathe, Joseph J Eron, Erika Van Landuyt, Erkki Lathouwers, Veerle Hufkens, Romana Petrovic, Simon Vanveggel, Magda Opsomer
BACKGROUND: Simplified regimens with reduced pill burden and fewer side-effects are desirable for people living with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching to a single-tablet regimen of darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing a regimen of boosted protease inhibitor, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: EMERALD was a phase-3, randomised, active-controlled, open-label, international, multicentre trial, done at 106 sites across nine countries in North America and Europe...
October 5, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969567/long-term-treatment-with-raltegravir-is-associated-with-lowering-triglycerides-and-platelets-count-in-the-older-hiv-population-results-from-the-ral-age-study
#6
Paolo Pavone, Noemi Giustini, Caterina Fimiani, Francesca Paoletti, Mario Falciano, Alessandra Salotti, Fiorella Di Sora, Samir Al Moghazi, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella D'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RAL) is considered one of the better-tolerated antiretroviral medications, due to limited side effects and minimal drug-drug interactions. Matherials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 96 HIV+, over 60 years old, experienced patients who had switched from any antiretroviral drug to raltegravir-based nuc-sparing or standard nucleoside-backbone regimens. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 66 years (IQR 10.5) (77 M, 19 F); the median time horizon of follow-up was 4 years (IQR 5)...
September 27, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929260/preferences-for-injectable-prep-among-young-u-s-cisgender-men-and-transgender-women-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Katie B Biello, Sybil Hosek, Morgan T Drucker, Marvin Belzer, Matthew J Mimiaga, Elliot Marrow, Julia Coffey-Esquivel, Jennifer Brothers, Kenneth H Mayer
Young men who have sex with men account for approximately 20% of incident HIV infections in the U.S. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) administered as a daily pill has been shown to decrease HIV acquisition in at-risk individuals. New modalities for PrEP are being developed and tested, including injectable PrEP; however, acceptability of these emerging modalities has not yet been examined in youth. We conducted six focus groups with 36 young men and transgender men and women who have sex with men in Boston, Chicago, and Los Angeles in 2016 to assess interest in and preference for different PrEP modalities...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922979/a-review-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-older-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Aarthi Chary, Nancy N Nguyen, Kimberly Maiton, Mark Holodniy
The number of older HIV-infected people is growing due to increasing life expectancies resulting from the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both HIV and aging increase the risk of other comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and some malignancies, leading to greater challenges in managing HIV with other conditions. This results in complex medication regimens with the potential for significant drug-drug interactions and increased morbidity and mortality. Area covered: We review the metabolic pathways of ART and other medications used to treat medical co-morbidities, highlight potential areas of concern for drug-drug interactions, and where feasible, suggest alternative approaches for treating these conditions as suggested from national guidelines or articles published in the English language...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904745/genome-editing-of-the-hiv-co-receptors-ccr5-and-cxcr4-by-crispr-cas9-protects-cd4-t-cells-from-hiv-1-infection
#9
Zhepeng Liu, Shuliang Chen, Xu Jin, Qiankun Wang, Kongxiang Yang, Chenlin Li, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Panpan Hou, Shuai Liu, Shaoshuai Wu, Wei Hou, Yong Xiong, Chunyan Kong, Xixian Zhao, Li Wu, Chunmei Li, Guihong Sun, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: The main approach to treat HIV-1 infection is combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although cART is effective in reducing HIV-1 viral load and controlling disease progression, it has many side effects, and is expensive for HIV-1 infected patients who must remain on lifetime treatment. HIV-1 gene therapy has drawn much attention as studies of genome editing tools have progressed. For example, zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 have been utilized to successfully disrupt the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 or CXCR4, thereby restricting HIV-1 infection...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893759/values-and-preferences-of-women-living-with-hiv-who-are-pregnant-postpartum-or-considering-pregnancy-on-choice-of-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy
#10
Lyubov Lytvyn, Reed A Siemieniuk, Sophie Dilmitis, Allyson Ion, Yaping Chang, Malgorzata M Bala, Veena Manja, Reza Mirza, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Hassan Mir, Laura Banfield, Per Olav Vandvik, Susan Bewley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate women's values and preferences regarding antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy to inform a BMJ Rapid Recommendation. SETTING: Primary studies reporting patient-reported outcomes relevant to decision-making regarding ART in any clinical and geographical setting. PARTICIPANTS: Women living with HIV who are pregnant, postpartum or considering pregnancy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative measurements and qualitative descriptions of values and preferences in relation to ART during pregnancy...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876170/transgender-women-living-with-hiv-frequently-take-antiretroviral-therapy-and-or-feminizing-hormone-therapy-differently-than-prescribed-due-to-drug-drug-interaction-concerns
#11
Hannan M Braun, Jury Candelario, Courtney L Hanlon, Eddy R Segura, Jesse L Clark, Judith S Currier, Jordan E Lake
PURPOSE: Both hormone therapy (HT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) can be lifesaving for transgender women (TW) living with HIV, but each has side effects and potential drug-drug interactions (DDI). We assessed how concerns about HT-ART interactions affect treatment adherence. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional survey of TW (n = 87) in Los Angeles, CA. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent were living with HIV; 64% used HT. Only 49% of TW living with HIV discussed ART-HT DDI with their provider; 40% reported not taking ART (12%), HT (12%), or both (16%) as directed due to DDI concerns...
September 6, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865281/design-strategies-in-the-prodrugs-of-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-to-improve-the-pharmaceutical-properties
#12
REVIEW
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah, Nicholas A Meanwell, John F Kadow
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is currently the most effective treatment for HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are an important component of some regimens of cART. However, PIs are known for sub-optimal ADME properties, resulting in poor oral bioavailability. This often necessitates high drug doses, combination with pharmacokinetic enhancers and/or special formulations in order to effectively deliver PIs, which may lead to a high pill burden and reduced patient compliance. As a remedy, improving the ADME properties of existing drugs via prodrug and other approaches has been pursued in addition to the development of next generation PIs with improved pharmacokinetic, resistance and side effect profiles...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853677/reasons-for-switching-art-comparison-of-data-collected-in-2012-2013-and-2014-2015-in-florence-italy
#13
Francesco Maria Fusco, Maria Chiara Burla, Anna Degli Esposti, Piera Pierotti, Loredana Rabatti, Francesca Vichi
Persons living with HIV should remain on antiretroviral therapy (ART) indefinitely; however, a switch in the drug regimen is often necessary. In order to investigate if reasons for switching ART changed over time, we retrospectively analyzed reasons for switching and characteristics of switches among patients at Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital (OSMA), Florence area, Tuscany, Italy, over two periods (November 2012-October 2013 and November 2014-October 2015). The reasons for switching were classified as: simplification; virologic failure; occurrence of co-morbidities; and drug tolerability/toxicity issues...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845463/contraceptive-vaginal-ring-experiences-among-women-and-men-in-kisumu-kenya-a-qualitative-study
#14
E McLellan-Lemal, K Ondeng'e, D A Gust, M Desai, F O Otieno, P A Madiega, B Nyagol, E M Makanga
BACKGROUND: Future HIV prevention options for women will likely include Antiretroviral (ARV)-based intravaginal rings. Valuable insights may be gained by examining user experiences with a similar licensed technology, a contraceptive ring, especially in settings where this technology may not be currently available. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 24 females enrolled in a trial assessing acceptability and use of a contraceptive ring, and 20 male sexual partners were conducted September 2014-April 2015...
March 2017: Frontiers in Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842284/penetration-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-loaded-with-an-hiv-1-inhibitor-peptide-derived-from-gb-virus-c-in-a-vaginal-mucosa-model
#15
Martha Ariza-Sáenz, Marta Espina, Nuria Bolaños, Ana Cristina Calpena, María José Gomara, Isabel Haro, María Luisa García
Despite the great effort to decrease the HIV infectivity rate, current antiretroviral therapy has several weaknesses; poor bioavailability, development of drug resistance and poor ability to access tissues. However, molecules such as peptides have emerged asa new expectative to HIV eradication. The vaginal mucosa is the main spreading point of HIV. There are natural barriers such as the vaginal fluid which protects the vaginal epithelium from any foreign agents reaching it. This work has developed and characterized Nanoparticles (NPs) coated with glycol chitosan (GC), loaded with an HIV-1 inhibitor peptide (E2)...
November 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828875/factors-contributing-to-antiretroviral-drug-adherence-among-adults-living-with-hiv-or-aids-in-a-kenyan-rural-community
#16
Mary T Kioko, Anne M Pertet
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) adherence of ≥ 95% is recommended for suppressing HIV. However, studies have shown that the ≥ 95% recommended level is rarely achieved. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional community-based study sought to assess factors contributing to ARV drug adherence among adults living with HIV or AIDS. SETTING: The study was conducted in a rural community in Machakos County, Kenya. METHODS: The questions used for the study were adapted from the Patient Medicine Adherence Questionnaire (PMAQ), a tool grounded in the Health Belief Model...
July 31, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826230/optimism-alongside-new-challenges-using-a-rehabilitation-framework-to-explore-experiences-of-a-qualitative-longitudinal-cohort-of-people-living-with-hiv-on-antiretroviral-treatment-in-lusaka-zambia
#17
Stephanie A Nixon, Virginia Bond, Patricia Solomon, Cathy Cameron, Chanda Mwamba, Jill Hanass-Hancock, Margaret C Maimbolwa, J Anitha Menon, Phillimon Simwaba, Robert Sinyinza, Margaret Siwale, Stephen Tattle, Tammy Yates
Previous research has demonstrated increased comorbidities related to the chronic effects of HIV. Rehabilitation science offers a useful approach for studying chronic illness. This longitudinal qualitative study used a rehabilitation science approach to explore the experiences over time of women and men living with HIV and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the high HIV-prevalence setting of Lusaka, Zambia. Thirty-five participants participated in a total of 99 in-depth interviews from 2012 to 2015. The central pattern that emerged across the participants' narratives was the paradoxical experience of profound optimism alongside significant new challenges...
August 21, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793316/knowledge-of-hiv-related-disabilities-and-challenges-in-accessing-care-qualitative-research-from-zimbabwe
#18
Lena Morgon Banks, Maria Zuurmond, Rashida Ferrand, Hannah Kuper
INTRODUCTION: While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790862/hyperbilirubinemia-in-atazanavir-treated-hiv-infected-patients-the-impact-of-the-ugt1a1-28-allele
#19
REVIEW
Periklis Panagopoulos, Efstathios Maltezos, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly improved the life expectancy of people living with HIV. The life-long nature of cART increases the risk of side effects, which in some cases may have been caused by specific genetic characteristics. Patients treated with atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (rit), which is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV, present with elevated bilirubin levels, at high proportions. ATV/rit-related hyperbilirubinemia has been previously associated with genetic characteristics in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779949/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Flavia Ballocca, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Sebastiano Gili, Walter Grosso Marra, Fiorenzo Gaita
With the progressive increase in life expectancy of HIV-positive patient, thanks to "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART), new comorbidities, and especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are emerging as an important concern. An increased risk of coronary artery disease, often in a younger age, has been observed in this population. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and partially still unclear, with the interaction of viral infection-and systemic inflammation-antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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