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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793316/knowledge-of-hiv-related-disabilities-and-challenges-in-accessing-care-qualitative-research-from-zimbabwe
#1
Lena Morgon Banks, Maria Zuurmond, Rashida Ferrand, Hannah Kuper
INTRODUCTION: While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790862/hyperbilirubinemia-in-atazanavir-treated-hiv-infected-patients-the-impact-of-the-ugt1a1-28-allele
#2
REVIEW
Periklis Panagopoulos, Efstathios Maltezos, Angelos Hatzakis, Dimitrios Paraskevis
Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly improved the life expectancy of people living with HIV. The life-long nature of cART increases the risk of side effects, which in some cases may have been caused by specific genetic characteristics. Patients treated with atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (rit), which is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV, present with elevated bilirubin levels, at high proportions. ATV/rit-related hyperbilirubinemia has been previously associated with genetic characteristics in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779949/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-hiv
#3
REVIEW
Flavia Ballocca, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Sebastiano Gili, Walter Grosso Marra, Fiorenzo Gaita
With the progressive increase in life expectancy of HIV-positive patient, thanks to "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART), new comorbidities, and especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are emerging as an important concern. An increased risk of coronary artery disease, often in a younger age, has been observed in this population. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and partially still unclear, with the interaction of viral infection-and systemic inflammation-antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764563/patient-profiles-as-organizing-hiv-clinicians-art-adherence-management-a-qualitative-analysis
#4
Isabelle Toupin, Kim Engler, David Lessard, Leo Wong, Andràs Lènàrt, Francois Raffi, Bruno Spire, Bertrand Lebouché
The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) depends on optimal clinical management and patient adherence. Little is known about patient characteristics that clinicians consider in the management of ART adherence. Exploring this issue, five focus groups were conducted with 31 HIV-clinicians from across France. A qualitative typological analysis suggests that clinician management of patient adherence is based on characteristics that coalesce into seven patient profiles. For the "passive" patient, described as taking ART exactly as prescribed without questioning their doctor's expertise, a directive and simple management style was preferred...
August 1, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755872/new-approaches-for-the-enhancement-of-chimeric-antigen-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-hiv
#5
REVIEW
Mayra A Carrillo, Anjie Zhen, Jerome A Zack, Scott G Kitchen
HIV infection continues to be a life-long chronic disease in spite of the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling viral replication and preventing disease progression. However, because of the high cost of treatment, severe side effects, and inefficiency in curing the disease with ART, there is a call for alternative therapies that will provide a functional cure for HIV. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the control and clearance of viral infections and therefore immune-based therapies have attempted to engineer HIV-specific CTLs that would be able to clear the infection from the body...
July 14, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743251/acceptability-of-lifelong-treatment-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-option-b-in-selected-health-facilities-in-zimbabwe-a-qualitative-study
#6
Addmore Chadambuka, Leila Katirayi, Auxilia Muchedzi, Esther Tumbare, Reuben Musarandega, Agnes I Mahomva, Godfrey Woelk
BACKGROUND: Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) adopted 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommending initiation of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (PPBW) on lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of clinical stage (Option B+). Option B+ was officially launched in Zimbabwe in November 2013; however the acceptability of life-long ART and its potential uptake among women was not known...
July 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736390/-side-effects-are-central-effects-that-challenge-retention-in-hiv-treatment-programmes-in-six-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-multicountry-qualitative-study
#7
Jenny Renju, Mosa Moshabela, Estelle McLean, William Ddaaki, Morten Skovdal, Fred Odongo, Dominic Bukenya, Joyce Wamoyi, Oliver Bonnington, Janet Seeley, Basia Zaba, Alison Wringe
OBJECTIVES: To explore the bodily and relational experience of taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the subsequent effect on retention in HIV care in six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 130 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who had initiated ART, 38 PLHIV who were lost to follow-up and 53 healthcare workers (HCWs) in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. PLHIV were purposely selected to include a range of HIV treatment histories...
July 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727818/prep-in-italy-the-time-may-be-ripe-but-who-s-paying-the-bill-a-nationwide-survey-on-physicians-attitudes-towards-using-antiretrovirals-to-prevent-hiv-infection
#8
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Alessio Signori, Renato Maserati, Silvia Nozza, Andrea Gori, Stefano Bonora, Marco Borderi, Diego Ripamonti, Maria Cristina Rossi, Giancarlo Orofino, Tiziana Quirino, Giuseppe Nunnari, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Salvatore Martini, Caterina Sagnelli, Giovanni Mazzola, Pietro Colletti, Dario Bartolozzi, Teresa Bini, Nicoletta Ladisa, Filippo Castelnuovo, Annalisa Saracino, Sergio Lo Caputo
Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) on preventing HIV-negative partners of HIV infected patients to become infected through sexual contacts. PrEP is already available in the United States and now is approved by European Medicine Agency. In this setting we would like to gauge physicians' knowledge, acquaintance with and attitude to include PrEP in their clinical practice. A cross sectional survey was conducted among Italian physicians expert on antiretroviral therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712302/overcoming-the-hydrolytic-lability-of-a-reaction-intermediate-in-production-of-protein-drug-conjugates-conjugation-of-an-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonate-to-a-model-carrier-protein
#9
Shengsheng Xu, Igor A Kaltashov
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains one of the most serious public health challenges and a significant cause of mortality for certain populations. Despite the large number of antiretrovirals developed in the past two decades, the inability of small molecule therapeutics to target HIV reservoirs directly creates a significant obstacle to their effective utilization. Indeed, achieving the desired therapeutic outcome in the absence of an effective means of targeted delivery must rely on dosage escalation, which frequently causes severe toxicity...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705213/the-therapeutic-landscape-of-hiv-1-via-genome-editing
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Kwarteng, Samuel Terkper Ahuno, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako
Current treatment for HIV-1 largely relies on chemotherapy through the administration of antiretroviral drugs. While the search for anti-HIV-1 vaccine remain elusive, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) have been far-reaching and has changed HIV-1 into a manageable chronic infection. There is compelling evidence, including several side-effects of ARTs, suggesting that eradication of HIV-1 cannot depend solely on antiretrovirals. Gene therapy, an expanding treatment strategy, using RNA interference (RNAi) and programmable nucleases such as meganuclease, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas9) are transforming the therapeutic landscape of HIV-1...
July 14, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696345/optimal-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-regimen-completion-with-single-tablet-daily-elvitegravir-cobicistat-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-compared-with-more-frequent-dosing-regimens
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kenneth H Mayer, Daniel Jones, Catherine Oldenburg, Sachin Jain, Marcy Gelman, Shayne Zaslow, Chris Grasso, Matthew J Mimiaga
STRUCTURE: The study evaluated elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) ("Quad pill") for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed individuals may benefit from PEP, but completion rates have been suboptimal because of regimen complexity and side effects. Newer antiretroviral combinations coformulated as single daily pills may optimize PEP adherence. SETTING: One hundred HIV-uninfected individuals who presented to a Boston community health center after an acute HIV sexual exposure were enrolled and initiated PEP with the daily, single-pill combination Quad pill for a 28-day course...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692581/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-suppresses-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-by-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#12
Joseph E Henriquez, Michael D Rizzo, Matthias A Schulz, Robert B Crawford, Peter Gulick, Norbert E Kaminski
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a crucial role in host antiviral immune response through secretion of type I interferon. Interferon alpha (IFNα), a type I IFN, is critical for mounting the initial response to viral pathogens. A consequence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection is a decrease in both pDC number and function, but prolonged pDC activity has been linked with progression from HIV infection to the development of AIDS. Patients with HIV in the United States routinely use cannabinoid-based therapies to combat the side effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692533/adverse-events-of-raltegravir-and-dolutegravir
#13
Luigia Elzi, Stefan Erb, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Cavassini, Alexandra Calmy, Pietro Vernazza, Huldrych Günthard, Enos Bernasconi, Manuel Battegay
OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency and risk factors of toxicity-related treatment discontinuations between raltegravir and dolutegravir. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: All antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve and ART-experienced HIV-infected individuals from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study who initiated raltegravir or dolutegravir between 2006 and 2015 were investigated concerning treatment modification within the first year. RESULTS: Of 4041 patients initiating ART containing raltegravir (n = 2091) or dolutegravir (n = 1950), 568 patients discontinued ART during the first year, corresponding to a rate of 15...
August 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690189/efavirenz-what-is-known-about-the-cellular-mechanisms-responsible-for-its-adverse-effects
#14
REVIEW
Nadezda Apostolova, Ana Blas-Garcia, Maria J Galindo, Juan V Esplugues
The HIV infection remains an important health problem worldwide. However, due to the efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), it has ceased to be a mortal condition, becoming a chronic disease instead. Efavirenz, the most prescribed non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been a key component of cART since its commercialization in 1998. Though still a drug of choice in many countries, its primacy has been challenged by the arrival of newer antiretroviral agents with better toxicity profiles and treatment adherence...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650246/economic-outcomes-of-first-line-regimen-switching-among-stable-patients-with-hiv
#15
Lisa Rosenblatt, Ami R Buikema, Jerry Seare, Lindsay G S Bengtson, Jonathan Johnson, Feng Cao, Angelina Villasis-Keever
BACKGROUND: Although switching of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a valid approach for addressing treatment failure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ART changes among those who are well maintained on their current regimens may lead to the development of new side effects or resistance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of first-line regimen switching on subsequent health care utilization and cost among stable HIV patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims data study of adult patients with HIV who initiated ART between 2007 and 2013 and had been treated with their initial regimens for at least 6 continuous months...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643572/distinctive-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-non-adherent-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-botswana
#16
Elizabeth Yang, Seipone Mphele, Neo Moshashane, Boineelo Bula, Jennifer Chapman, Harriet Okatch, Ed Pettitt, Ontibile Tshume, Tafireyi Marukutira, Gabriel Anabwani, Elizabeth Lowenthal
Levels of adherence to HIV treatment are lower among adolescents compared with older and younger individuals receiving similar therapies. We purposely sampled the most and least adherent adolescents from a 300-adolescent longitudinal HIV treatment adherence study in Gaborone, Botswana. Multiple objective and subjective measures of adherence were available and study participants were selected based on sustained patterns of either excellent or poor adherence over a one-year period. Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with the adolescents and a subset of their caregivers with the goal of revealing barriers and facilitators of adherence...
June 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642818/nivolumab-as-salvage-treatment-in-a-patient-with-hiv-related-relapsed-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-and-liver-failure-with-encephalopathy
#17
Jose D Sandoval-Sus, Francis Mogollon-Duffo, Ankita Patel, Nathan Visweshwar, Damian A Laber, Richard Kim, Michael V Jagal
BACKGROUND: We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient with relapsed/refractory classical hodgkin lymphoma and liver failure with encephalopathy along with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection, successfully treated with nivolumab without major side effects and encouraging prolonged disease control. CASE PRESENTATION: In December 2015, at the time of the patient's progression from his Hodgkin lymphoma after fourth line treatment, he developed persistent fevers, abdominal distension, jaundice and worsening of his liver function tests...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621159/dual-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infection
#18
REVIEW
Vicente Soriano, Jose Vicente Fernandez-Montero, Laura Benitez-Gutierrez, Carmen de Mendoza, Ana Arias, Pablo Barreiro, José M Peña, Pablo Labarga
For two decades, triple combinations of antiretrovirals have been the standard treatment for HIV infection. The challenges of such lifelong therapy include long-term side effects, high costs and reduced drug adherence. The recent advent of more potent and safer antiretrovirals has renewed the interest for simpler HIV regimens. Areas covered: We discuss the pros and cons of dual antiretroviral therapies in both drug-naïve and in treatment-experienced patients with viral suppression (switch strategy). Expert opinion: Some dual antiretroviral regimens are safe and efficacious, particularly as maintenance therapy...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614778/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv1-protease-inhibitor-sanquinavir-activates-autophagy-and-removes-lipids-deposited-in-lipid-droplets
#19
A Polus, M Bociaga-Jasik, U Czech, J Goralska, U Cialowicz, M Chojnacka, M Polus, K Jurowski, A Dembinska-Kiec
Reduction in mortality and increased average life span of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with the risk of unwanted effects, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with cardiovascular complications. Antiretroviral therapy may also be associated with lipodystrophy characterized as peripheral lipoatrophy with central fat accumulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipodystrophy caused by ART is important for therapeutic strategy and the prediction of side-effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610599/reversible-diabetes-mellitus-induced-by-use-of-and-improved-after-discontinuation-of-the-antiretroviral-medication-zidovudine-a-case-report
#20
Kentaro Iwata, Wataru Ogawa
BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, the care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection became more like that of other chronic diseases. Diabetes mellitus can also occur as one of the chronic illnesses affecting patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. We report a case of newly developed diabetes mellitus in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection, most likely caused by the nucleoside analogue zidovudine, and its improvement after discontinuation of zidovudine...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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