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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910750/antiretroviral-agents-looking-for-the-best-possible-chemotherapeutic-options-to-conquer-hiv
#1
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906007/what-happens-to-cardiovascular-system-behind-the-undetectable-level-of-hiv-viremia
#2
REVIEW
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Paolo Pavone, Pietro Vittozzi, Gabriella De Girolamo, Ivan Schietroma, Sara Serafino, Noemi Giustini, Vincenzo Vullo
Despite the combined antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life of HIV infected patients, the survival of these patients is always decreased compared with the general population. This is the consequence of non-infectious illnesses including cardio vascular diseases. In fact large studies have indicated an increased risk of coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction even in HIV patients on cART. In HIV infected patients several factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular problems: life-style, metabolic parameters, genetic predisposition, viral factors, immune activation, chronic inflammation and side effects of antiretroviral therapy...
April 27, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#3
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904105/evaluation-of-the-lipid-concentrations-after-switching-from-antiretroviral-drug-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-to-abacavir-sulfate-lamivudine-in-virologically-suppressed-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#4
Hirotaka Arae, Masao Tateyama, Hideta Nakamura, Daisuke Tasato, Kaoru Kami, Kyoko Miyagi, Saori Maeda, Hitoshi Uehara, Makiko Moromi, Katsunori Nakamura, Jiro Fujita
Objective Recently, tenofovir disoproxil fumatate (TDF)-related side effects, such as renal nephrotoxicity and reduction of bone mineral density, have been reported. Consequently, increased switching from fixed-dose tablet TDF and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) to abacavir and lamivudine (ABC/3TC) has occurred. Interestingly, while TDF has a lipid-lowering property, one of the ABC-related side effects is hyperlipidemia. Therefore, such switching could cause lipid elevation. To evaluate the change in lipid levels associated with switching from TDF/FTC to ABC/3TC in virologically-suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900502/values-and-preferences-on-the-use-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-among-multiple-populations-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
Florence M Koechlin, Virginia A Fonner, Sarah L Dalglish, Kevin R O'Reilly, Rachel Baggaley, Robert M Grant, Michelle Rodolph, Ioannis Hodges-Mameletzis, Caitlin E Kennedy
Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV infection. WHO released new guidelines in 2015 recommending PrEP for all populations at substantial risk of HIV infection. To prepare these guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of values and preferences among populations that might benefit from PrEP, women, heterosexual men, young women and adolescent girls, female sex workers, serodiscordant couples, transgender people and people who inject drugs, and among healthcare providers who may prescribe PrEP...
November 29, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898736/long-term-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-adults-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#6
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Cissy Kityo, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Maria Roura
BACKGROUND: Long-term success of HIV antiretroviral therapy requires near-perfect adherence, maintained throughout one's lifetime. However, perceptions towards ART and patterns of adherence may change during the life course. We assessed challenges to long-term adherence in adolescents and adults in three regional HIV treatment centers in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with a total of 33 health-care providers and expert clients (HIV patients on long-term ART who assist with adherence support of fellow patients)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869733/antiviral-therapy-by-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-and-inhibitory-antibodies
#7
REVIEW
Zhiqing Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ying Gu, Ningshao Xia
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867446/-so-far-it-s-been-choosing-which-side-effects-i-want-or-i-can-deal-with-a-grounded-theory-of-hiv-treatment-side-effects-among-people-living-with-hiv
#8
Marilou Gagnon, Dave Holmes
Despite the availability of new antiretroviral drugs and the simplification of treatment options, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. In this paper, we present the findings of a grounded theory study designed to gain a critical understanding of the experience of side effects. Three main categories emerged from the data: the side effects, the experience, and the connections. The first category suggests that we need to change how we think about side effects in order to take into account the context in which they are experienced as well as the types and nature of side effects...
January 1, 2016: Aporia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829986/oxidative-stress-during-hiv-infection-mechanisms-and-consequences
#9
REVIEW
Alexander V Ivanov, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Birke Bartosch, Maria G Isaguliants
It is generally acknowledged that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in a variety of natural processes in cells. If increased to levels which cannot be neutralized by the defense mechanisms, they damage biological molecules, alter their functions, and also act as signaling molecules thus generating a spectrum of pathologies. In this review, we summarize current data on oxidative stress markers associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, analyze mechanisms by which this virus triggers massive ROS production, and describe the status of various defense mechanisms of the infected host cell...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826447/experience-of-dolutegravir-in-hiv-infected-treatment-naive-patients-from-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-ireland
#10
Sarmad Waqas, Mairead O'Connor, Ciara Levey, Paddy Mallon, Gerard Sheehan, Anjali Patel, Gordana Avramovic, John S Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Dolutegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor, is a relatively new treatment option. To assess the tolerability, side effects, and time to viral decline to non-detectable in patients newly started on dolutegravir. METHODS: Retrospective health care record of 61 consecutive HIV treatment-naive patients started on dolutegravir was reviewed and analysed on SPSS. RESULTS: The mean initial viral load was 160826.05 copies/mL (range, 79-1,126,617 copies/mL)...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809711/systematic-review-of-renal-and-bone-safety-of-the-antiretroviral-regimen-efavirenz-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-patients-with-hiv-infection
#11
Roger Bedimo, Lisa Rosenblatt, Joel Myers
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a component of many combinations of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Although potent and generally well tolerated, TDF may cause renal and bone toxicity. The magnitude of off-target side effects is proposed to be related to tenofovir plasma concentrations, which are affected by food and drug-drug interactions with concomitant antiretrovirals. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic literature review and qualitatively report on renal and bone safety outcomes associated with efavirenz (EFV), emtricitabine (FTC), and TDF (EFV+FTC+TDF) ART...
November 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808347/clinical-efficacy-of-melittin-in-the-treatment-of-cats-infected-with-the-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#12
Anja D Hartmann, Natalie Wilhelm, Volker Erfle, Katrin Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: The bee venom melittin shows an antiviral efficacy against the human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture. It was shown to be non-toxic for cats. Aim of this pilot study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and side-effects of melittin in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed as a prospective, placebo-controlled double-blinded trial. Twenty cats were included, of which 10 cats each were treated with either melittin (500 µg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (placebo) subcutaneously twice per week...
November 3, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806411/anal-chromoendoscopy-using-gastroenterological-video-endoscopes-a-new-method-to-perform-high-resolution-anoscopy-for-diagnosing-intraepithelial-neoplasia-and-anal-carcinoma-in-hiv-infected-patients
#13
M Oette, U Wieland, M Schünemann, J Haes, S Reuter, B Jensen, A Sagir, H Pfister, D Häussinger
Introduction: Anal carcinoma represents an increasing problem in HIV-infected patients. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), the precursor lesion, is currently diagnosed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) using optical magnification derived from gynecological colposcopy. This prospective study evaluates anal chromoendoscopy (ACE) using standard gastroenterological video-endoscopes in diagnosing AIN. Methods: After clinical examination, proctoscopy and surface staining with acetic acid followed by Lugol's solution, ACE was performed with a mucosectomy cap on the tip of the endoscope...
November 2, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784997/expectation-and-satisfaction-of-hiv-aids-patients-toward-the-pharmaceutical-care-provided-at-gondar-university-referral-hospital-northwestern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Kaleab Taye Haile, Abebe Basazn Mekuria
PURPOSE: Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients' expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781102/cytomegalovirus-and-paediatric-hiv-infection
#15
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Slyker
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was among the most common AIDS-defining illnesses prior to the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the ART era, CMV disease remains a significant public health threat among HIV-infected adults and children with delayed HIV diagnosis. CMV co-infection may additionally contribute to accelerated HIV progression, development of inflammation-related comorbidities, immune senescence and developmental deficits. Elimination of CMV would have tremendous public health significance and is an important priority; however, current vaccine strategies are not targeted at HIV-infected individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776495/lessons-learned-from-the-pmtct-program-in-swaziland-challenges-with-accepting-lifelong-art-for-pregnant-and-lactating-women-a-qualitative-study
#16
Leila Katirayi, Caspian Chouraya, Kwashie Kudiabor, Mohammed Ali Mahdi, Mary Pat Kieffer, Karen Marie Moland, Thorkild Tylleskar
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, 26 % of the adult population is infected with HIV. The prevalence is highest among pregnant women, at 41.1 %. According to Swaziland's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines, approximately 50 % of pregnant women are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) by CD4 criteria (<350 cells/ml). Studies have shown that most mother-to-child transmission and postnatal deaths occur among women who are eligible for ART...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771206/how-food-insecurity-contributes-to-poor-hiv-health-outcomes-qualitative-evidence-from-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#17
Henry J Whittle, Kartika Palar, Hilary K Seligman, Tessa Napoles, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
RATIONALE: Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods...
October 4, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760126/self-reported-side-effects-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-under-option-b-a-prospective-study
#18
Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684827/motives-of-dutch-men-who-have-sex-with-men-for-daily-and-intermittent-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-usage-and-preferences-for-implementation-a-qualitative-study
#19
Janneke P Bil, Wendy M van der Veldt, Maria Prins, Ineke G Stolte, Udi Davidovich
Although PrEP is not yet registered in Europe, including the Netherlands, its approval and implementation are expected in the near future. To inform future pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation, this study aimed to gain insight into motives and preferences for daily or intermittent PrEP use among Dutch HIV-negative men having sex with men (MSM).Between February and December 2013, semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached (N = 20). Interviews were analyzed using the Grounded Theory approach...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670133/selexipag-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-most-updated-evidence-from-recent-preclinical-and-clinical-studies
#20
Raktim K Ghosh, Somedeb Ball, Avash Das, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Samhati Mondal, Debjit Saha, Anjan Gupta
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a relatively rare disease which due to its chronic nature has always been difficult to treat effectively. Selexipag is an oral prostacyclin (PGI2) agonist, which was approved by US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) in December 2015 for the treatment of PAH. After its success in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials regarding the convenient oral twice daily dosing and low side-effect profile, selexipag raised the hope of controlling the disease progression in PAH patients...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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