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Hiv treatment side effects

Frances M Cowan, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Eduard J Sanders, Nelly R Mugo, Fernand A Guedou, Michel Alary, Luc Behanzin, Owen Mugurungi, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Sa Liu, Yulong Chen, Shiping Xie, Qianlei Xu, Jianshe Chen, Changhai Wang, Zhao Wang, Suna Ma, Xingwei Wu, Ning Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. DESIGN: This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
Clara De Simone, Francesca Perino, Giacomo Caldarola, Magda D'Agostino, Ketty Peris
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α blocking agents have revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Concerns remain about increased susceptibility to infection and onset of malignancies, and the use of TNF-α agents in patients with HIV infection or undergoing immunosuppressant treatment is debated. We report cases of severe plaque psoriasis in a patient with HIV infection and in a liver transplant recipient who were successfully treated with etanercept, an anti-TNF-α agent, without notable side-effects...
September 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Juliana Ferreira Barbosa, Sônia Maria de Figueiredo, Sandra Lyon, Rachel Basques Caligiorne
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is azooanthroponosis affecting both rural and peri-urban areas, and can also spread into urban areas. Although more than 90% of new cases are reported from six countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and Sudan, VL has emerged in many countries in the world, presenting new cases in new countries of occurrence. Thus, studies concerning epidemiological aspects in different world regions are very meaningful.In this purpose, this study aimed analyze 89 cases of VL, treated between June 2006 and June 2014 at Eduardo de Menezes Hospital (HEM), a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases situated in Belo Horizonte, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil...
September 21, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Andrea Calcagno, Jessica Cusato, Antonio D'Avolio, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment is highly effective in enhancing HIV-positive patients' survival and quality of life. Despite an increased tolerability in recent years, a substantial amount of patients experience side effects. Antiretrovirals' efficacy and tolerability have been associated with plasma concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in selected genes involved in drug disposition. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the current knowledge in genetic polymorphisms affecting plasma, intracellular or compartmental concentrations of antiretrovirals...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
M Martinello, E Gane, M Hellard, J Sasadeusz, D Shaw, K Petoumenos, T Applegate, J Grebely, L Maire, P Marks, G J Dore, G V Matthews
: While interferon-based therapy has excellent efficacy in acute and recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the side effect profile limits implementation. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 12-24 weeks is safe and well tolerated in chronic HCV with efficacy dependent on genotype and disease stage. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for six weeks in individuals with recent HCV infection. In this open-label study conducted in Australia and New Zealand, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection <12 months) received sofosbuvir 400mg daily and weight-based ribavirin (<75kg: 1000mg/day; ≥75kg: 1200mg/day) for six weeks...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Adrian Curran, Jhon Rojas, Alfonso Cabello, Jesús Troya, Arkaitz Imaz, Pere Domingo, Esteban Martinez, Pablo Ryan, Miguel Górgolas, Daniel Podzamczer, Hernando Knobel, Félix Gutiérrez, Esteban Ribera
OBJECTIVES: To describe the effectiveness and safety of an abacavir/lamivudine + rilpivirine regimen in naive HIV-1-infected patients, as there is a lack of data with this combination. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, multicentre study in eight Spanish hospitals. All antiretroviral-naive patients ≥18 years old and starting abacavir/lamivudine + rilpivirine were included. Effectiveness (ITT and on-treatment) and safety (adverse events and laboratory parameters) were assessed during follow-up...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A Bechini, M Levi, A Falla, A Ahmad, I Veldhuijzen, E Tiscione, P Bonanni
INTRODUCTION: Chronic viral hepatitis is still a major public health concern in the EU. In order to halt the progression of the disease and to prevent onward transmission, timely recognition and accurate clinical management are crucial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the general practitioner (GP) in the screening of persons at risk and in the clinical management of chronic viral hepatitis patients in six EU countries. METHODS: An online survey among GPs and secondary-care specialists was conducted in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Hungary, Italy and Spain...
2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Ling Ye, Chuqi Hou, Shuwen Liu
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the use of antiretroviral drugs. A combination of at least three drugs that suppreses HIV replication is used as standard treatment, and this is often called "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART). Virus resistance is less likely when three or more drugs are used. A complication of anti-HIV drugs has a complex pharmacokinetic profile which is involved with extensive metabolism and transport by drug metabolizing enzymes (e...
August 29, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Anders Boyd, Patrick Miailhes, Caroline Lascoux-Combe, Hayette Rougier, Pierre-Marie Girard, Emmanuelle Plaisier, Karine Lacombe
BACKGROUND: Renal toxicity is a common side-effect during tenofovir (TDF)-use in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, but not necessarily hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected, patients. Nevertheless, little is known regarding TDF-use on renal impairment during HIV-HBV co-infection. We aimed to evaluate the progression and determinants of renal impairment in co-infected patients undergoing TDF. METHODS: 175 co-infected patients initiating TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) were prospectively followed...
August 24, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
J Nadel, C J Holloway
HIV infection is now considered a chronic, treatable disease, although treatment is associated with increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). Increased risk of CAD in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the inflammatory sequelae of the infection as well as the greater prevalence of cardiac risk factors in HIV-positive populations and the side effects of life-prolonging antiretroviral therapies. Patients with HIV infection now have a 1.5 to 2-fold greater risk of developing CAD compared with noninfected individuals, raising the independent risk of CAD in HIV infection to levels similar to those in diabetes...
August 24, 2016: HIV Medicine
Eric M Maiese, Phaedra T Johnson, Tim Bancroft, Alyssa Goolsby Hunter, Albert W Wu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among HIV patients following switch from a first- to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational study of adult HIV patients in the US at 35 academic and community health centers. Patients were required to be switching an antiretroviral regimen for the first time at the enrollment visit. Patients were assigned to a study cohort based on whether the switch was due to treatment-related side effects or for any other reason as reported by their physician...
August 23, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Shannon A McMahon, Caitlin E Kennedy, Peter J Winch, Miriam Kombe, Japhet Killewo, Charles Kilewo
Millions of children are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and the primary mode of these childhood infections is mother-to-child transmission. While existing interventions can virtually eliminate such transmission, in low- and middle-income settings, only 63 % of pregnant women living with HIV accessed medicines necessary to prevent transmission. In Tanzania, HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 3.2 %. Understanding why HIV-positive women disengage from care during and after pregnancy can inform efforts to reduce the impact of HIV on mothers and young children...
August 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Frederick M Wekesah, Chidozie E Mbada, Adamson S Muula, Caroline W Kabiru, Stella K Muthuri, Chimaraoke O Izugbara
BACKGROUND: Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence on non-drug interventions that reported effectiveness in improving outcomes and quality of care in maternal health in SSA. METHODS: African Journals Online, Bioline, MEDLINE, Ovid, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published in English between 2000 and 2015 and reporting on the effectiveness of interventions to improve quality and outcomes of maternal health care in SSA...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Luc Bertrand, Madhavan Nair, Michal Toborek
Recent decades mark a great progress in the treatment of HIV infection. What was once a deadly disease is now a chronic infection. However, HIV-infected patients are prone to develop comorbidities, which severely affect their daily functions. For example, a large population of patients develop a variety of neurological and cognitive complications, called HIV associated neurological disorders (HAND). Despite efficient repression of viral replication in the periphery, evidence shows that the virus can remain active in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Victoria I Dudina, Darja I Judina, Elizabeth J King
The purpose of this research was to identify different types of fear related to starting and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Russia. Data were collected from the Russian-language internet forum for PLHIV ( Qualitative data analysis focused on the sections of the forum where users discussed health-related issues in order to identify fears related to HIV treatment. The following types of fear were revealed: fear of the illness, fear to learn negative information about one's health, fear of side effects, fear of therapy to be ineffective, fear that the appropriate medications will become unavailable, fear of lifestyle changes, and fear for the well-being of significant others...
July 22, 2016: AIDS Care
Marilou Gagnon, Dave Holmes
Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV...
October 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Guannan Geng, Bingfeng Liu, Cancan Chen, Kang Wu, Jun Liu, Yijun Zhang, Ting Pan, Jun Li, Yue Yin, Junsong Zhang, Feng Huang, Fei Yu, Jingliang Chen, Xiancai Ma, Jie Zhou, Ersheng Kuang, Chao Liu, Weiping Cai, Hui Zhang
Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) successfully decreases plasma viremia to undetectable levels, the complete eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains impractical because of the existence of a viral reservoir, mainly in resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Various cytokines, protein kinase C activators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been used as latency-reversing agents (LRAs), but their unacceptable side effects or low efficiencies limit their clinical use...
September 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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