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Hiv treatment side effects

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661866/reciprocal-effects-of-antiretroviral-drugs-used-to-treat-hiv-infection-on-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-%C3%AE-klotho-system
#1
Ricardo Moure, Pere Domingo, Joan Villarroya, Laura Gasa, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Tania Quesada-López, Samantha Morón-Ros, Alberto F Maroto, Gracia M Mateo, Joan C Domingo, Francesc Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Following antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients show increased circulating levels of the antidiabetic hormone fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21). In contrast, expression of the FGF21-obligatory co-receptor β-Klotho (KLB) is reduced in target tissues. This situation is comparable to the FGF21 resistance status observed in obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here, we performed the first systematic study of the effects of distinct members of different antiretroviral drug classes on the FGF21/KLB system in human hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle cells...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656449/regimen-durability-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-initiating-first-line-art-in-a-large-public-sector-hiv-cohort-in-south-africa
#2
Rachael Bonawitz, Alana T Brennan, Lawrence Long, Timothy Heeren, Mhairi Maskew, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
INTRODUCTION: In April 2010 tenofovir and abacavir replaced stavudine in public-sector first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children under 20 years old in South Africa. The association of both abacavir and tenofovir with fewer side-effects and toxicities compared to stavudine could translate to increased durability of tenofovir or abacavir-based regimens. We evaluated changes over time in regimen durability for pediatric patients 3 to 19 years of age at 8 public sector clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623036/the-aging-brain-with-hiv-infection-effects-of-alcoholism-or-hepatitis-c-comorbidity
#3
REVIEW
Natalie M Zahr
As successfully treated individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected age, cognitive and health challenges of normal aging ensue, burdened by HIV, treatment side effects, and high prevalence comorbidities, notably, Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In 2013, people over 55 years old accounted for 26% of the estimated number of people living with HIV (~1.2 million). The aging brain is increasingly vulnerable to endogenous and exogenous insult which, coupled with HIV infection and comorbid risk factors, can lead to additive or synergistic effects on cognitive and motor function...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621948/sinecatechins-10-ointment-for-genital-warts-case-report-of-a-beneficial-reaction-in-an-hiv-positive-woman
#4
Roberta Bilenchi, Marco Campoli, Emanuele Trovato, Elisa Cinotti, Pietro Rubegni, Michele Fimiani
Patients with HIV infection are more likely to develop anogenital warts compared to HIV-negative people and are susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. We report a case of extensive vulvar warts in an HIV-positive woman successfully treated with sinecatechins ointment. After the failure of a combination of cryotherapy and imiquimod 5% cream, we started therapy with sinecatechins 10% ointment. The patient developed an intense local inflammatory reaction after three weeks that induced the discontinuation of the therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616646/morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-togo
#5
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#6
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602851/patient-perspectives-on-the-hiv-continuum-of-care-in-london-a-qualitative-study-of-people-diagnosed-between-1986-and-2014
#7
Jane Bruton, Tanvi Rai, Sophie Day, Helen Ward
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experiences of the HIV treatment cascade of diagnosis, engagement with care and initiation of treatment from the perspective of patients; we explored whether this differed according to the year of their diagnosis, for example, whether they had experienced HIV care in the pretreatment era. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study with framework analysis. SETTING: Two large HIV adult outpatient clinics in central London...
March 30, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595065/protease-inhibitor-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#8
P de Leuw, C Stephan
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has affected an estimated of 80 million individuals worldwide and is a strain on public health. Around 25-30% of patients in Europe and the US who are infected with HIV are coinfected with HCV. Prior to 2013, treatment modalities containing an NS3/4A protease inhibitor in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin improved sustained virological response (SVR) rates. However, rates of severe side effects were high. Nowadays, oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapy offers excellent treatment efficacy, safety and tolerability...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581939/ipt-during-hiv-treatment-in-myanmar-high-rates-of-coverage-completion-and-drug-adherence
#9
J Ousley, K P Soe, N T T Kyaw, R Anicete, P E Mon, H Lwin, T Win, S Cristofani, A Telnov, M Fernandez, I Ciglenecki
Setting: A southern Myanmar district providing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in one of the last countries to formally recommend it as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. Objective: To assess coverage and adherence and the feasibility of IPT scale-up in a routine care setting in Myanmar. Design: A retrospective analysis of people living with HIV (PLHIV) screened for tuberculosis (TB) and enrolled in IPT over a 3-year period (July 2011-June 2014) using clinical databases. Results: Among 3377 patients under HIV care and screened for TB, 2740 (81...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571868/neuromuscular-diseases-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#10
REVIEW
Devin E Prior, Nancy Song, Jeffrey A Cohen
From the most common distal symmetric polyneuropathy (Bilgrami and O'Keefe, 2014) to the rare motor neuron diseases, HIV infection is associated with pathology at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. HIV infection can cause these conditions due to viral exposure itself, the resulting immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections found in untreated patients, and from the therapy used in treatment of the virus. Before the advent of antiretroviral therapy, 5 neuromuscular diseases associated with HIV often resulted from opportunistic infections...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558972/dolutegravir-based-anti-retroviral-therapy-is-effective-and-safe-in-hiv-infected-paediatric-patients
#11
Eugenia Bruzzese, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Andrea Smarrazzo, Orsola Tambaro, Giulia Palmiero, Giovanni Bonadies, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV infection in adolescents is challenging due to long duration of therapy and poor adherence. Recently, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has been approved for the use in adolescents with HIV, but evidence in clinical practice is very limited. METHODS: We describe six cases of HIV-infected children/adolescents successfully treated with DTG-based regimen. Data relative to children/adolescents managed at the Referral Center for Pediatric HIV/AIDS of the University of Naples were reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539274/antifungal-combinations-for-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-africa
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Síle F Molloy, Cecilia Kanyama, Robert S Heyderman, Angela Loyse, Charles Kouanfack, Duncan Chanda, Sayoki Mfinanga, Elvis Temfack, Shabir Lakhi, Sokoine Lesikari, Adrienne K Chan, Neil Stone, Newton Kalata, Natasha Karunaharan, Kate Gaskell, Mary Peirse, Jayne Ellis, Chimwemwe Chawinga, Sandrine Lontsi, Jean-Gilbert Ndong, Philip Bright, Duncan Lupiya, Tao Chen, John Bradley, Jack Adams, Charles van der Horst, Joep J van Oosterhout, Victor Sini, Yacouba N Mapoure, Peter Mwaba, Tihana Bicanic, David G Lalloo, Duolao Wang, Mina C Hosseinipour, Olivier Lortholary, Shabbar Jaffar, Thomas S Harrison
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for more than 100,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related deaths per year. We tested two treatment strategies that could be more sustainable in Africa than the standard of 2 weeks of amphotericin B plus flucytosine and more effective than the widely used fluconazole monotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis to receive an oral regimen (fluconazole [1200 mg per day] plus flucytosine [100 mg per kilogram of body weight per day] for 2 weeks), 1 week of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day), or 2 weeks of amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram per day)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534693/severe-eye-complications-from-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-following-initiation-of-nevirapine-based-haart-regimen-in-a-child-with-hiv-infection-a-case-from-cameroon
#13
Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533918/intentional-overdose-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-triumeq-in-a-26-year-old-man
#14
Paul Mel van Dam, Mark Wl van Geffen, Thomas Ra Havenith, Dirk Posthouwer
Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. An intoxication with Triumeq can lead to several side effects. An overdose of abacavir and lamivudine can cause mitochondrial toxicity and lactic acidosis. An intoxication with dolutegravir appears to be relatively harmless...
March 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529501/polypharmacology-in-hiv-inhibition-can-a-drug-with-simultaneous-action-against-two-relevant-targets-be-an-alternative-to-combination-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Sonia de Castro, María-José Camarasa
HIV infection still has a serious health and socio-economical impact and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. Patient compliance is another serious drawback. Nowadays, HAART is the treatment of choice although it is not the panacea. Despite the fact that it suppresses viral replication at undetectable viral loads and prevents progression of HIV infection into AIDS HAART has several pitfalls, namely, long-term side-effects, drug resistance development, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, low compliance and the intolerance of some patients to these drugs...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526113/-there-is-a-chain-of-connections-using-syndemics-theory-to-understand-hiv-treatment-side-effects
#16
Marilou Gagnon
Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects...
March 12, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520099/comparative-proteomic-profiling-and-biomarker-identification-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-hiv-aids-syndromes
#17
Li Wen, Ye-Fang Liu, Cen Jiang, Shao-Qian Zeng, Yue Su, Wen-Jun Wu, Xi-Yang Liu, Jian Wang, Ying Liu, Chen Su, Bai-Xue Li, Quan-Sheng Feng
Given the challenges in exploring lifelong therapy with little side effect for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) cases, there is increasing interest in developing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments based on specific TCM syndrome. However, there are few objective and biological evidences for classification and diagnosis of HIV/AIDS TCM syndromes to date. In this study, iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS coupled with bioinformatics were firstly employed for comparative proteomic profiling of top popular TCM syndromes of HIV/AIDS: accumulation of heat-toxicity (AHT) and Yang deficiency of spleen and kidney (YDSK)...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500080/-nephrotoxicity-of-antiretrovirals-other-than-tenofovir
#18
Christopher Loens, Sabine Amet, Corinne Isnard-Bagnis, Gilbert Deray, Jérôme Tourret
The remarkable improvement of the outcome of HIV infection came with the price of substantial toxicity of some antiretrovirals. The first molecules used to treat HIV included an important nephrotoxicity. Zalcitabine, stavudine and didanosine can induce severe lactic acidosis. Lactate production is enhanced and the renal capacity to regulate pH is overwhelmed. However, this side effect is not due to a direct dysfunction of the kidneys. Zalcitabine was withdrawn from the market because of this risk. Indinavir, a protease inhibitor, is soluble only in very acidic solutions...
February 27, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498742/potential-associations-between-atazanavir-exposure-and-clinical-outcome-a-pharmacokinetic-sub-study-from-the-modat-randomized-trial
#19
Elisa Colella, Dario Cattaneo, Laura Galli, Sara Baldelli, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna, Stefano Rusconi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo
The 96-week results of the Monotherapy Once a Day with Atazanavir/r (MODAt) study [NCT01511809] showed an inferior virological efficacy of atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy, which was promptly retrieved by the reintroduction of nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase [N(n)RTIs]. We aimed to identify potential relationships between ATV exposure and clinical outcome in HIV-1 subjects treated with ATV/ritonavir monotherapy [ATV/r 300/100mg] versus ATV/ritonavir triple therapy [ATV/r 300/100mg+2NRTIs]...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471904/completion-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-adults-in-urban-malawi
#20
D Thindwa, P MacPherson, A T Choko, M Khundi, R Sambakunsi, L G Ngwira, T Kalua, E L Webb, E L Corbett
SETTING: Despite worldwide scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care services, relatively few countries have implemented isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Among other programmatic concerns, IPT completion tends to be low, especially when not fully integrated into HIV care clinics. OBJECTIVE: To estimate non-completion of 6-month IPT and its predictors among HIV-positive adults aged 16 years. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of TB prevention was conducted between February 2012 and June 2014...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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