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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237833/neutralizing-activity-of-broadly-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-antibodies-against-clade-b-clinical-isolates-produced-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#1
Yehuda Z Cohen, Julio C C Lorenzi, Michael S Seaman, Lilian Nogueira, Till Schoofs, Lisa Krassnig, Allison Butler, Katrina Millard, Tomas Fitzsimons, Xiaoju Daniell, Juan P Dizon, Irina Shimeliovich, David C Montefiori, Marina Caskey, Michel C Nussenzweig
Recently discovered broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) demonstrate extensive breadth and potency against diverse HIV-1 strains, and represent a promising approach for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. The breadth and potency of these antibodies have primarily been evaluated using panels of HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in 293T cells expressing molecularly cloned Envs. Here we report on the ability of 5 bNAbs currently in clinical development to neutralize circulating primary HIV-1 isolates derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and compare the results to the pseudovirus panels used to characterize the bNAbs...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218008/improving-the-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-difficult-but-essential-task-for-a-successful-hiv-treatment-clinical-points-of-view-and-practical-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob, Gheorghita Jugulete
HIV infection is responsible for one the most devastating human pandemics. The advent of antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of the pandemic and saved millions of lives. Complex therapeutic regimens have been introduced since 1996 and have contributed to the transformation of HIV infection into a treatable chronic diseases. New types of potent antiretrovirals and their combinations, including "once daily" treatment, have simplified the regimens and diminished side effects. Nevertheless the adherence to antiretroviral therapy remains unsatisfactory and varies between 27 and 80% across different population in various studies, compared with the required level of 95%...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216346/darunavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-at-a-low-dose-600-100%C3%A2-mg-day-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-with-suppressed-hiv-viraemia
#4
S Seang, L Schneider, T Nguyen, M P Lê, C Soulie, R Calin, F Caby, M-A Valantin, R Tubiana, L Assoumou, A-G Marcelin, G Peytavin, C Katlama
Background: Darunavir/ritonavir is a potent PI with a high genetic barrier and pharmacological robustness favourably investigated as monotherapy. Whether darunavir could be dose reduced in the context of monotherapy deserves investigation. Methods: Patients with HIV suppressed viraemia (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL for 12 months) under ART who had switched to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy at 600/100 mg/day between 2013 and 2015 were included in this observational 48 week single-centre study...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192171/a-strategy-for-effective-latent-hiv-reactivation-using-subtherapeutic-drug-doses
#5
James Cotterell, Greg Neely
Cell state switches underlie a plethora of biological phenomena and disease treatment strategies. Hence the ability to efficiently switch states in a chosen direction is of central importance in a number of scenarios. Increasing the concentration of an effector that results in a given switch is often limited by side effects. Approaches are thus increasingly sought to bypass these constraints, increasing the frequency of state switching without increasing the frequency of the side effect. Here, we employ dynamical systems theory to uncover a simple strategy as to how to maximize the probability of reactivating latent Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) whilst maintaining minimal side effects...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183228/recommendations-for-buprenorphine-and-methadone-therapy-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-european-consensus
#6
Maurice Dematteis, Marc Auriacombe, Oscar D'Agnone, Lorenzo Somaini, Néstor Szerman, Richard Littlewood, Farrukh Alam, Hannu Alho, Amine Benyamina, Julio Bobes, Jean Pierre Daulouede, Claudio Leonardi, Icro Maremmani, Marta Torrens, Stephan Walcher, Michael Soyka
Management of patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) commonly includes opioid agonist therapy (OAT) as a part of an integrated treatment plan. These interventions are associated with proven benefits to the individual and society. Areas covered: The use of methadone and buprenorphine within an integrated treatment plan in the management of patients with OUD: this work provides consensus recommendation on pharmacotherapy in OUD to assist clinicians with practical decision making in this field. Expert opinion: Pharmacotherapy is recommended as part of an integrated OUD treatment approach with psychosocial interventions, with the goal of reducing risks of illicit opioid use, overdose mortality, infection with HIV or HCV, improving health, psychological and social outcomes...
November 29, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181714/discontinuation-of-efavirenz-in-paediatric-patients-why-do-children-switch
#7
Elke Wynberg, Eleri Williams, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Hermione Lyall, Caroline Foster
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is used globally as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in combination with a dual nucleoside backbone in adults and children from 3 years of age. Up to 40% of adults taking efavirenz report central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects, and the rates of discontinuation of efavirenz-based treatment are higher than other first-line regimens. Data on efavirenz discontinuation are more limited for children and adolescents...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166481/-prep-forum-an-on-line-debate-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-brazil
#8
Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes Queiroz, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa
This study aimed to identify health-promoting contents focused on HIV/Aids prevention in messages posted in a Facebook group for debates on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This was a prospective observational study using systematic non-participant observation. From July 2015 to June 2016, all the posts in the group were catalogued and formed a corpus. Everything was processed in IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. The collected data were grouped in three classes: (1) HIV/Aids prevention: discussing prophylaxis, treatment, target public, and side effects; (2) universal access to PrEP in Brazil: discussing government responsibilities; (3) on-line purchase of truvada: exposing a situation of vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155164/a-new-promising-candidate-to-overcome-drug-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-infections
#9
Elisabeth Zinser, Adalbert Krawczyk, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Ulrich Aufderhorst, Lena Stich, Mirko Zaja, Stefan Strobl, Alexander Steinkasserer, Christiane Silke Heilingloh
Infections with Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) belong to the most common human diseases worldwide, resulting in symptoms ranging from painful, but commonly self-limiting lesions of the orofacial or genital tract to severe infections of the eye or life-threatening generalized infections. Frequent HSV-reactivations at the eye may lead to the development of herpetic stromal keratitis, which is one of the major causes of infectious blindness in developed countries. The vast majority of life-threatening generalized infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, such as transplant recipients or patients suffering from advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with concurrent HSV-reactivation...
November 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132279/-i-will-take-arvs-once-my-body-deteriorates-an-analysis-of-swazi-men-s-perceptions-and-acceptability-of-test-and-start
#10
Alfred K Adams, Agostino M Zamberia
Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world. To mitigate the spread and devastation caused by HIV and to improve the wellbeing of people living with HIV, the country has adopted the latest available HIV prevention campaigns, including "Test and Start". Because evidence from randomised controlled trials has demonstrated a significant risk reduction in HIV transmission when HIV-positive people start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, Swaziland aims to find these people and link them to treatment. This study presents findings regarding the perceptions of this promising HIV-prevention intervention among men aged 17-69 years...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123599/patient-satisfaction-with-chronic-hiv-care-provided-through-an-innovative-pharmacist-nurse-managed-clinic-and-a-multidisciplinary-clinic
#11
Jason Kielly, Deborah V Kelly, Shabnam Asghari, Kim Burt, Jessica Biggin
Background: Pharmacist/nurse-led clinics are an established model for many chronic diseases but not yet for HIV. At our centre, patients with HIV are seen by a multidisciplinary team (physician, nurse, pharmacist, social worker) at least yearly. Some attend an HIV-specialist pharmacist/nurse clinic (or "nonphysician clinic," NPC) for alternate biannual visits. Our objective was to assess patient satisfaction with care received through both clinics. Methods: The Patient Satisfaction Survey for HIV Ambulatory Care (assesses satisfaction with access to care, clinic visits and quality of care) was administered by telephone to adults who attended either clinic between January and July 2014...
November 2017: Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ, Revue des Pharmaciens du Canada: RPC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112116/application-of-chitosan-chitooligosaccharide-and-their-derivatives-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Qian-Qian Ouyang, Shannon Zhao, Si-Dong Li, Cai Song
Classic hypotheses of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include cholinergic neuron death, acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency, metal ion dynamic equilibrium disorder, and deposition of amyloid and tau. Increased evidence suggests neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may cause AD. However, none of these factors induces AD independently, but they are all associated with the formation of Aβ and tau proteins. Current clinical treatments based on ACh deficiency can only temporarily relieve symptoms, accompanied with many side-effects...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105160/strength-in-amalgamation-newer-combination-agents-for-hiv-and-implications-for-practice
#13
Christopher McCoy, Melissa Badowski, Elizabeth Sherman, Rustin Crutchley, Ethan Smith, Daniel B Chastain
Antiretroviral (ART) therapy for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has undergone significant changes over the past 30 years. Many single tablet regimens (STR), including newer fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets, are available, offering patients several options for choosing a treatment regimen that works best for them. Given these changes, patients are more likely to adhere to treatment, achieve better clinical outcomes, and experience both fewer side effects and drug-drug interactions...
November 3, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095883/patterns-of-patient-and-healthcare-provider-viewpoints-regarding-participation-in-hiv-cure-related-clinical-trials-findings-from-a-multicentre-french-survey-using-q-methodology-anrs-apsec
#14
Christel Protière, Bruno Spire, Marion Mora, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Marie Préau, Marjolaine Doumergue, Philippe Morlat, David Zucman, Cécile Goujard, François Raffi, Olivier Lambotte, Marie Suzan-Monti
CONTEXT: Despite huge advances in the fight against HIV concerning diagnosis, clinical efficacy of antiretroviral treatments (ART), patient survival and quality of life, there is still no cure. Recent developments in HIV cure research have opened the way for clinical trials which could lead to a temporary or definitive end to ART. However, ethical questions exist about related trial-participation risks. The main goal of the ANRS-APSEC survey was, using Q-methodology, to investigate the viewpoints of people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV healthcare providers (HHP) regarding motivations for and barriers to participation in HIV Cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066858/rilpivirine-the-key-for-long-term-success
#15
Pompeyo Viciana
During the past 30 years of antiretroviral therapy, continuous improvements in drug discovery have provided increasingly potent and safer antivirals that have transformed HIV infection in a chronic illness, rarely fatal. Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are frequently used as part of any antiretroviral combination therapy. Side effects and low resistance barrier of fi rst-generation NNRTIs (e.g., nevirapine and efavirenz) have been overcome with rilpivirine (RPV), and the last NNRTI approved for the treatment of HIV infection...
October 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054815/whole-brain-radiotherapy-or-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-as-consolidation-strategies-after-high-dose-methotrexate-based-chemoimmunotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-cns-lymphoma-results-of-the-second-randomisation-of-the-international-extranodal-lymphoma
#16
Andrés J M Ferreri, Kate Cwynarski, Elisa Pulczynski, Christopher P Fox, Elisabeth Schorb, Paul La Rosée, Mascha Binder, Alberto Fabbri, Valter Torri, Eleonora Minacapelli, Monica Falautano, Fiorella Ilariucci, Achille Ambrosetti, Alexander Roth, Claire Hemmaway, Peter Johnson, Kim M Linton, Tobias Pukrop, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Monica Balzarotti, Georg Hess, Ulrich Keller, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jens Panse, Alessandra Tucci, Lorella Orsucci, Francesco Pisani, Alessandro Levis, Stefan W Krause, Hans J Schmoll, Bernd Hertenstein, Mathias Rummel, Jeffery Smith, Michael Pfreundschuh, Giuseppina Cabras, Francesco Angrilli, Maurilio Ponzoni, Martina Deckert, Letterio S Politi, Jürgen Finke, Michele Reni, Franco Cavalli, Emanuele Zucca, Gerald Illerhaus
BACKGROUND: The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group-32 (IELSG32) trial is an international randomised phase 2 study that addresses two key clinical questions in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. Results of the first randomisation have demonstrated that methotrexate, cytarabine, thiotepa, and rituximab (called the MATRix regimen) is the induction combination associated with significantly better outcome compared with the other induction combinations tested...
November 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039217/the-role-of-metabolomics-in-tuberculosis-treatment-research
#17
Laneke Luies, Ilse du Preez, Du Toit Loots
Despite the fact that tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, it still results in approximately 1.8 million deaths annually. Various inadequacies in the current TB treatment strategies are major contributors to this high disease prevalence, including the long duration of therapy, the severe side effects associated with TB drugs, treatment failure due to drug resistance, post-treatment disease relapse, and HIV co-infection. In this review, we describe how metabolomics has contributed toward better explaining/elucidating the mechanisms of drug action/metabolism, drug toxicity and microbial drug resistance, and how metabolite biomarkers may serve as prognostic indicators for predicting treatment outcome as well as for the development of new TB drugs...
October 17, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037298/determinants-of-multidrug-resistance-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-zimbabwe-2014
#18
G Muchena, G Shambira, N Masuka, T Juru, N Gombe, L Takundwa, D Bangure, M Tshimanga
SETTING: Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients. DESIGN: A 1:3 case-control study with bivariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Risk factors for MDR-TB were history of nursing an MDR-TB patient (adjusted OR [aOR] 4.46, 95%CI 2.02-9.88), history of hospitalisation for 3 days (aOR 2.91, 95%CI 1.62-5.23) and history of foreign travel and stay outside Zimbabwe (aOR 2...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034952/viscum-articulatum-burm-f-a-review-on-its-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-traditional-uses
#19
REVIEW
Bhishma P Patel, Pawan K Singh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review and highlight traditional and ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical constituents, IP status, biological activity and pharmacological activity of Viscum articulatum. METHODS: Thorough literature searches were performed on Viscum articulatum, and data were analysed for reported traditional uses, pharmacological activity, phytochemicals present and patents filed. Scientific and patent databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Google patents, USPTO and Espacenet were searched using different keywords...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027607/developing-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-hiv-care-on-perceived-barriers-to-antiretroviral-adherence-assessing-the-needs-of-hiv-clinicians-through-qualitative-analysis
#20
Isabelle Toupin, Kim Engler, David Lessard, Leo Wong, Andràs Lènàrt, Bruno Spire, François Raffi, Bertrand Lebouché
PURPOSE: To identify HIV clinicians' needs for the clinical use of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PRO) on barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. METHODS: In 2015, five focus groups with 31 clinicians from France were transcribed, coded with Atlas.ti, and submitted to a typological analysis. RESULTS: The analysis identified seven patient profiles, each tied to distinct barriers to adherence and to specific needs for the PRO's content, data collection and transmission...
October 13, 2017: Quality of Life Research
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