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Hongsik Cho, Byoung Ju Kim, Sang-Hyug Park, Karen A Hasty, Byoung-Hyun Min
Background: Early stage osteoarthritis (OA) is clinically asymptomatic due to the avascular and the aneural nature of the cartilage tissue. Nevertheless, early detection of cartilage tissue is critical in order to impede the progression of OA. Hence, in order to develop effective preventive therapy for OA, diagnosis in the early stages is necessary. Methods: To achieve this goal, we have developed targeted, fluorescent nanosomes conjugated with monoclonal anti-type II collagen antibodies (MabCII) for diagnosis of early OA...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Chin-Yuan Chang, Jeremy R Lohman, Tingting Huang, Karolina Michalska, Lance Bigelow, Jeffrey D Rudolf, Robert Jedrzejczak, Xiaohui Yan, Ming Ma, Gyorgy Babnigg, Andrzej Joachimiak, George N Phillips, Ben Shen
C-1027 is a chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotic, consisting of the CagA apo-protein and the C-1027 chromophore. The C-1027 chromophore features a nine-membered enediyne core appended with three peripheral moieties, including an (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy--tyrosine. In a convergent biosynthesis of the C-1027 chromophore, the (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy--tyrosine moiety is appended to the enediyne core by the free-standing condensation enzyme SgcC5. Unlike canonical condensation domains from the modular nonribosomal peptide synthetases that catalyze amide bond formation, SgcC5 catalyzes ester bond formation, as demonstrated in vitro, between SgcC2-tethered (S)-3-chloro-5-hydroxy-β-tyrosine and (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol, a mimic of the enediyne core as an acceptor substrate...
March 13, 2018: Biochemistry
Paola Occhetta, Giuseppe Isu, Marta Lemme, Chiara Conficconi, Philipp Oertle, Christian Räz, Roberta Visone, Giulia Cerino, Marija Plodinec, Marco Rasponi, Anna Marsano
In vitro cardiac models able to mimic the fibrotic process are paramount to develop an effective anti-fibrosis therapy that can regulate fibroblast behaviour upon myocardial injury. In previously developed in vitro models, typical fibrosis features were induced by using scar-like stiffness substrates and/or potent morphogen supplementation in monolayer cultures. In our model, we aimed to mimic in vitro a fibrosis-like environment by applying cyclic stretching of cardiac fibroblasts embedded in three-dimensional fibrin-hydrogels alone...
March 13, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Bin Sheng, Youchao Yuan, Xiangyang Liu, Yi Zhang, Hongzhe Liu, Xiongjie Shen, Bin Liu, Lei Chang
Dysfunction of cartilaginous endplates (CEP) is an important etiologic aspect of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) because the endplate has nutritional and biomechanical functions in maintaining proper disc health. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of estrogen on degenerated human CEP cells and the involvement of miR-221 in these effects. Normal and degenerated human CEP tissues were collected from patients with idiopathic scoliosis and IDD, respectively. CEP cells were isolated from these tissues...
February 26, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Xiaowei Wang, Amy Kate Searle, Jan David Hohmann, Ao Leo Liu, Meike-Kristin Abraham, Jathushan Palasubramaniam, Bock Lim, Yu Yao, Maria Wallert, Eefang Yu, Yung-Chih Chen, Karlheinz Peter
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often deadly disease without medical, non-invasive treatment options. The upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on aortic endothelium provides an early target epitope for a novel biotechnological theranostic approach. MicroRNA-126 was used as a therapeutic agent, based on its capability to downregulate VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and thereby reduces leukocyte adhesion and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Ultrasound microbubbles were chosen as carriers, allowing both molecular imaging as well as targeted therapy of AAA...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Burcin Ustbas, Deniz Kilic, Ayhan Bozkurt, Mustafa Erkin Aribal, Ozge Akbulut
A silicone-based composite breast phantom is fabricated to be used as an education model in ultrasonography training. A matrix of silicone formulations is tracked to mimic the ultrasonography and tactile response of human breast tissue. The performance of two different additives: (i) silicone oil and (ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are monitored by a home-made acoustic setup. Through the use of 75 wt% vinyl-terminated PDMS in two-component silicone elastomer mixture, a sound velocity of 1...
March 2, 2018: Ultrasonics
Ioana Bunoiu, Mihaela Mindroiu, Claudiu Constantin Manole, Mihai Andrei, Adrian Nicoara, Ecaterina Vasilescu, Monica Popa, Andreea Cristiana Didilescu
There is a recent trend in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to use nanotechnology and bionanomaterials to obtain materials that mimic the surface properties of a natural tissue. From this perspective, nanolevel tissue engineering can be viewed as a novel anatomy of the future. In this paper, a novel titanium-based alloy is studied following this strategy. The alloy nanostructuration is proposed as an improved alternative for restorative prosthodontics or an implantable biomaterial. Tests in i) standard solution of simulated body fluid (SBF) and ii) natural saliva were performed to investigate the alloy's electrochemical stability...
March 3, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Ritu Mishra, Houda Benlhabib, Wei Guo, Connie B Lerma Cervantes, Carole R Mendelson
The major surfactant protein, SP-A (product of SFTPA gene), serves as a marker of type II pneumocyte differentiation and surfactant synthesis. SFTPA expression in cultured human fetal lung (HFL) epithelial cells is upregulated by hormones that increase cAMP and activate TTF-1/NKX2.1 and NF-κB. To further define mechanisms for type II cell differentiation and induction of SP-A, we investigated roles of miRNAs. Using microarray to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in HFL epithelial cells during type II cell differentiation in culture, we observed that members of the miR-199a/-214 cluster were significantly downregulated during differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Ivayla Apostolova, Catharina Lange, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Susanne Klutmann, Gerhard Adam, Michel J Grothe, Ralph Buchert
PURPOSE: Increased blood glucose level (BGL) has been reported to cause alterations of FDG uptake in the brain that mimic Alzheimer's disease (AD), even within the "acceptable" range ≤ 160 mg/dl. The aim of this study was (i) to confirm this in a large sample of well-characterized normal control (NC) subjects, and (ii) to analyze its impact on the prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: The study included NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) that were cognitively stable for ≥36 months after PET (n = 87, 74...
March 3, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jingjing Guo, Yan Wang, Min Zhao
Ferrous(II) phosphate nanoflowers (Fe3 (PO4 )2 ·8H2 O NFs) were synthesized by a facial co-precipitation method. The structure, composition and morphology were characterized by XRD, EDX, element mapping and FESEM. The as-prepared Fe3 (PO4 )2 ·8H2 O NFs exhibited excellent intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Steady-state kinetic studies showed that Fe3 (PO4 )2 ·8H2 O NFs exhibited stronger affinities with 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2 O2 as the substrates compared with the natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the catalytic constant (kcat ) value was even higher than HRP and other reported nanomaterial based peroxidase mimics...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Erxu Pi, Chengmin Zhu, Wei Fan, Yingying Huang, Liqun Qu, Yangyang Li, Qinyi Zhao, Feng Ding, Lijuan Qiu, Huizhong Wang, B W Poovaiah, Liqun Du
Salinity causes osmotic stress to crops and limits their productivity. To understand the mechanism underlying soybean salt tolerance, proteomics approach was used to identify phosphoproteins altered by NaCl treatment. Results revealed that 412 of the 4698 quantitatively analyzed phosphopeptides were significantly up-regulated upon salt treatment, including a phosphopeptide covering the serine 59 in the transcription factor GmMYB173. Our data showed that GmMYB173 is one of the three MYB proteins differentially phosphorylated upon salt treatment, and a substrate of the casein kinase-II...
March 1, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Nopporn Sawatjui, Temduang Limpaiboon, Karsten Schrobback, Travis Klein
Adult chondrocytes are surrounded by a protein- and glycosaminoglycan-rich extracellular matrix and are subjected to dynamic mechanical compression during daily activities. The extracellular matrix and mechanical stimuli play an important role in chondrocyte biosynthesis and homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to develop scaffold and compressive loading conditions that mimic the native cartilage microenvironment and enable enhanced chondrogenesis for tissue engineering applications. Towards this aim, we fabricated porous scaffolds based on silk fibroin (SF) and SF with gelatin/chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronate (SF-GCH), seeded the scaffolds with either human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) or chondrocytes, and evaluated their performance with and without dynamic compression...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Tao-Tao Liu, Qian Hao, Yan Zhang, Zhao-Hui Li, Zhi-Hua Cui, Wei Yang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA-133b (miR-133b) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) by targeting angiotensinogen (AGT) through the angiotensin-II (AngII) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signalling pathway in rats. METHODS: The DR rat model was established using retinal tissues of DR rats and normal rats. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the protein expressions of AGT and CD34 in retinal tissues. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were applied to detect miR-133b expression, AGT, AngII, ERK1/2 mRNA, and protein expressions in tissues and cells after transfection...
February 28, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Zhixi Li, Wenjun Jiang, Gang Wu, Xueming Ju, Youyu Wang, Wenying Liu
The identification and development of novel therapeutic strategies for acute lung injury is urgently required. It has been previously demonstrated that microRNA (miR)‑16 suppresses the level of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β in acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, the present study investigated the role of miR‑16 in the phenotype, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the involvement of TGF‑β/Smad family member 2 (Smad2) and JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 signaling, of primary human alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII)...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hao Yang, Di Wu, Hua Li, Nan Chen, Yongjun Shang
Background: Osteoarthritis is characterized by the continuous degradation of the articular cartilage. The microRNA miR-448 has been found to be broadly involved in cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and EMT. While aberrant expression of miR-448 has been found in multiple cancers, its level in osteoarthritis cartilage and its role in the progression of this disease are still unknown. Here, we examined the functional roles of miR-448 and its expression in osteoarthritis tissues, including IL-1β-stimulated osteoarthritis chondrocytes...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Guoping Ding, Liangjing Zhou, Tao Shen, Liping Cao
Previous studies have demonstrated that pancreatic cancer-derived microRNA (miR)-212-3p can inhibit the expression of regulatory factor X-associated protein (RFXAP), an important transcription factor for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, and thereby lead to downregulation of MHC class II in dendritic cells. It has also been established that interferon (IFN)-γ can increase the expression of MHC class II in immune cells. It was therefore hypothesized that IFN-γ can inhibit miR-212-3p expression in pancreatic cancer, leading to the upregulation of RFXAP and MHC class II expression...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Wenbin Yang, Timothy J Searl, Ryan E Yaggie, Anthony J Schaeffer, David J Klumpp
Interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic bladder condition associated with pain and voiding dysfunction that is often regarded as a neurogenic cystitis. Patient symptoms are correlated with the presence of urothelial lesions. We previously characterized a murine neurogenic cystitis model that recapitulates mast cell accumulation and urothelial lesions, and these events were dependent upon TNF. To further explore the role of TNF in bladder inflammation and function, we generated a transgenic mouse model with chronic TNF overexpression in urothelium under the control of the uroplakin II (UPII) promoter...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Avinaash Subramaniam, Michelle Landstrom, Alice Luu, K C Hayes
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1) they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2) unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3) and they take too long to develop diabetes...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
Sijia Wang, Aya Kobeissi, Ying Dong, Nihal Kaplan, Wending Yang, Congcong He, Kang Zeng, Han Peng
We have shown that microRNAs-103 and -107(miRs-103/107) positively regulate end-stage autophagy via ensuring dynamin activity in cultured keratinocytes. Most work in end-stage autophagy has been conducted using in vitro model systems. In vivo regulation of end-stage autophagy in epidermis remains unknown. Here, we used antagomirs to subcutaneously knock-down miR-107 in the skin; conversely, we delivered miR-107 mimic subcutaneously via in vivo transfection to increase this miRNA. We found that antagomir-107 treatment in epidermis: (i) depleted endogenous miR-107; (ii) increased GFP-LC3 puncta in epidermal basal layers of GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, indicative of an accumulation of autophagosomes; (iii) inhibited LC3 turnover and increased p62, suggesting an inhibition of autophagy flux; and (iv) increased phosphorylated dynamin (p-dynamin, an inactive form), a key enzyme in end-stage autophagy...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Xiaofei Zhang, Arne H Smits, Gabrielle Ba van Tilburg, Huib Ovaa, Wolfgang Huber, Michiel Vermeulen
Ubiquitin-binding proteins play an important role in eukaryotes by translating differently linked polyubiquitin chains into proper cellular responses. Current knowledge about ubiquitin-binding proteins and ubiquitin linkage-selective interactions is mostly based on case-by-case studies. We have recently reported a method called ubiquitin interactor affinity enrichment-mass spectrometry (UbIA-MS), which enables comprehensive identification of ubiquitin interactors for all ubiquitin linkages from crude cell lysates...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
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