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Friedrich Kommoss, Asma Faruqi, C Blake Gilks, Sarah Lamshang Leen, Naveena Singh, Nafisa Wilkinson, W Glenn McCluggage
We investigated the frequency, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of tubal involvement in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and aimed to clarify the relationship between "serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)" and USC in these cases. Cases of USC with complete tubal examination were prospectively collected and reviewed for the presence of tubal involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and WT1 was performed on the endometrial and tubal tumor in cases with tubal involvement...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Yinyan Xu, Xinyan Huang, Juan Xie, Yanni Chen, Jing Fu, Li Wang
Autophagy, identified as type II programmed cell death, has already been known to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE), which is a gestational disease with high morbidity. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of let-7i, a miRNA, in trophoblastic autophagy. Placental tissue used in this study was collected from patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE) or normal pregnant women. A decreased level of let-7i was found in placenta of SPE. In addition, autophagic vacuoles were observed in SPE and the expression of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I was elevated...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini, Arnaldo Caruso, Paolo De Paoli, Riccardo Dolcetti
The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is still enigmatic, largely because its tumor cells, the so-called Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS) cells, invariably reside in a prominent reactive microenvironment, are rare and therefore difficult to analyze. On the other hand, the broadly investigated cHL-derived cell lines are not unequivocally considered as suitable and representative models for this puzzling disease. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the cross talk between the tumour cells and the reactive infiltrate of the microenvironment is complex and that multiple mechanisms occur, making cHL a very heterogeneous disease...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Carol A Casey, Ganapati Bhat, Melissa S Holzapfel, Armen Petrosyan
BACKGROUND: It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi; however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation...
October 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dwaipayan Dutta Gupta, Dandamudi Usharani, Shyamalava Mazumdar
Three stable copper complexes of peptides derived from the copper ion binding loop of the subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. These stable copper complexes of peptides were found to exhibit cysteine, histidine and/or methionine ligation, which has predominant σ-contribution in the Cys-Cu charge transfer. The copper(ii) peptide complexes showed type-2 EPR spectra, which is uncommon in copper-cysteinate complexes. UV-visible spectra, Raman and EPR results support a tetragonal structure of the coordination geometry around the copper ion...
October 17, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Evmorfia Fotou, Maria Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, Eleni Ioakeimoglou, Eleni Tziamourani, Ekaterini Malea, George Panayiaris, Eugenia Panou-Pomonis
Among the materials constituting the natural and cultural heritage, organic materials of proteinaceous origin as bone (collagen), parchment and woolen textiles (keratin) are the most susceptible to damage and decay because of their exposure to air pollution, inappropriate values of ambient temperature, humidity and light. Aiming at contributing to the development of a reliable and reproducible immunoassay for the evaluation of collagen and keratin decay, three polypeptide models of these proteins were designed, synthesized and studied...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Zhe He, Neil Charness, Jiang Bian, William R Hogan
Well-designed and well-conducted clinical studies represent gold standard approaches for generating medical evidence. However, elderly populations are systematically underrepresented in studies across major chronic medical conditions, which has hampered the generalizability (external validity) of studies to the real-world patient population. It is the norm that intervention studies often require a homogeneous cohort to test their hypotheses; therefore older adults with co-medications and comorbidities are often excluded...
February 2016: ... IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics. IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
Minoru Kihara, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Zin Phyu Win, Yuta Kitajima, Masazumi Nishikawa
Ghrelin exhibits a cardioprotective effect. We examined whether orally administered ghrelin-containing salmon stomach extract (sSE) instead of chemically synthesized ghrelin protects against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: (i) the control, (ii) DOX groups were fed a control diet (AIN-93G), (iii) the sSE, and (iv) DOX + sSE groups were fed a 10% sSE diet (AIN-93G + 10% sSE). After a 4-week pretreatment of sSE, DOX or saline was administered to the corresponding groups by intraperitoneal injection...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Didem Öner Özdaş, Mağrur Kazak, Aylin Çilingir, Meryem Gülce Subaşı, Murat Tiryaki, Şölen Günal
BACKGROUND: Although most of the studies investigated color stability of different restorative materials, evaluation of color stability of composites after immersion in multiple beverages in the same day by an in vitro oral simulation study is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess color change of different restorative materials at the end of days 1, 14, and 30 of immersion in multiple liquid types to mimic the oral environment in vitro. METHOD: Ten disc-shaped specimens were made from each of four different resin composites (Filtek Z250, Voco x-tra base, Beautifil Flow Plus, Beautifil II)...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Eitan Lerner, SangYoon Chung, Benjamin L Allen, Shuang Wang, Jookyung Lee, Shijia W Lu, Logan W Grimaud, Antonino Ingargiola, Xavier Michalet, Yazan Alhadid, Sergei Borukhov, Terence R Strick, Dylan J Taatjes, Shimon Weiss
Initiation is a highly regulated, rate-limiting step in transcription. We used a series of approaches to examine the kinetics of RNA polymerase (RNAP) transcription initiation in greater detail. Quenched kinetics assays, in combination with gel-based assays, showed that RNAP exit kinetics from complexes stalled at later stages of initiation (e.g., from a 7-base transcript) were markedly slower than from earlier stages (e.g., from a 2- or 4-base transcript). In addition, the RNAP-GreA endonuclease accelerated transcription kinetics from otherwise delayed initiation states...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Henrique Almeida, Binulal Nelson Sathy, Ivan Dudurych, Conor Timothy Buckley, Fergal J O'Brien, Daniel John Kelly
Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Graham E Jackson, Fatin M Elmagbari, Ahmed N Hammouda, Raffaele P Bonomo
Copper complexes have anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The preferred route of administration is through the skin, so the rate of dermal absorption and bioavailability of copper is important. Based on previous studies, 3-amino-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-propanamide, [H(56)NH2], was designed as a potential chelator of copper. The stability constant measurements revealed that MLH-1 is the most stable species at the physiological pH of 7.4. The X-ray crystal structure of this species was solved and copper was found in a rectangular pyramidal geometry...
October 4, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kar Wey Yong, Yuhui Li, Fusheng Liu, Bin Gao, Tian Jian Lu, Wan Abu Bakar Wan Abas, Wan Kamarul Zaman Wan Safwani, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Yufei Ma, Feng Xu, Guoyou Huang
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise in cardiac fibrosis therapy, due to their potential ability of inhibiting cardiac myofibroblast differentiation (a hallmark of cardiac fibrosis). However, the mechanism involved in their effects remains elusive. To explore this, it is necessary to develop an in vitro cardiac fibrosis model that incorporates pore size and native tissue-mimicking matrix stiffness, which may regulate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. In the present study, collagen coated polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates were fabricated, in which the pore size was adjusted without altering the matrix stiffness...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas Desautels, Jacob Calvert, Jana Hoffman, Melissa Jay, Yaniv Kerem, Lisa Shieh, David Shimabukuro, Uli Chettipally, Mitchell D Feldman, Chris Barton, David J Wales, Ritankar Das
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite this fact, a reliable means of predicting sepsis onset remains elusive. Early and accurate sepsis onset predictions could allow more aggressive and targeted therapy while maintaining antimicrobial stewardship. Existing detection methods suffer from low performance and often require time-consuming laboratory test results. OBJECTIVE: To study and validate a sepsis prediction method, InSight, for the new Sepsis-3 definitions in retrospective data, make predictions using a minimal set of variables from within the electronic health record data, compare the performance of this approach with existing scoring systems, and investigate the effects of data sparsity on InSight performance...
September 30, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
G Portocarrero Huang, A Molina, N Tran, G Collins, T Livingston Arinzeh
Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal and currently, no treatment exists that can restore normal hyaline cartilage. Creating tissue engineering scaffolds that more closely mimic the native extracellular matrix may be an attractive approach. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are present in native cartilage tissue, provide signaling and structural cues to cells. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, derived from cellulose, as a potential scaffold for cartilage repair applications. Fully sulfated, sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) was initially evaluated in soluble form as an additive to cell culture media...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Marius Hittinger, Nico Alexander Mell, Hanno Huwer, Brigitta Loretz, Nicole Schneider-Daum, Claus-Michael Lehr
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is linked to inflammatory processes in the human lung. The aim of this study was to mimic in vitro the treatment of lung inflammation by using a cell-based human autologous co-culture model. As a potential trial medication, we developed a pulmonary dry powder formulation loaded with interleukin-10 (IL-10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine. The inflammatory immune response was stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. The co-culture was combined with the Pharmaceutical Aerosol Deposition Device on Cell Cultures )PADDOCC), to deposit the IL-10-loaded microparticles on the inflamed co-culture model at the air-liquid interface...
September 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Nilüfer Çakır-Özkan, Sinan Eğri, Esengül Bekar, B Zuhal Altunkaynak, Yonca Betil Kabak, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak
PURPOSE: Promising developments have materialized in reconstructive surgical procedures with the applications of tissue engineering. In our study, we used tissue scaffolds fabricated from polylactic acid-polyethylene glycol (PLLA-PEG) copolymers to ensure different release rates of selective growth factors recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 [rhBMP-2] and vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF165) in the repair of mandibular bone defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our experimental study, 54 New Zealand rabbits were used...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Saeed Haghiri, Arash Ahmadi, Mehrdad Saif
Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells providing support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). They also act as supportive cells in the brain. Among a variety of glial cells, the star-shaped glial cells, i.e., astrocytes, are the largest cell population in the brain. The important role of astrocyte such as neuronal synchronization, synaptic information regulation, feedback to neural activity and extracellular regulation make the astrocytes play a vital role in brain disease...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xiaozhou Luo, Tsung-Shing Andrew Wang, Yong Zhang, Feng Wang, Peter G Schultz
The N-peptide of HIV gp41 forms a trimeric coiled-coil intermediate during host cell-viral fusion. Stable mimics of this coiled coil could potentially serve as HIV vaccine candidates or inhibitors of viral entry. Therefore, a variety of approaches have been investigated to maintain the N-peptide in its trimeric helical conformation. Here, we utilize a genetic method to incorporate the metal chelating noncanonical amino acid (2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl)alanine (BpyAla) into IZN17, an established trimeric coiled-coil gp41 model...
September 22, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
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