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Elzbieta Kaczmarek, Carl J Hauser, Woon Yong Kwon, Ingred Rica, Li Chen, Nicola Sandler, Leo E Otterbein, Yan Campbell, Charles H Cook, Michael B Yaffe, Michael Marusich, Kiyoshi Itagaki
BACKGROUND: Trauma causes inflammation by releasing mitochondria (MT) that act as DAMPs. Trauma also increases susceptibility to infection. Human MT contain 13 N-formyl peptides (mtFPs). We studied whether mtFPs released into plasma by clinical injury induce neutrophil (PMN) inflammatory responses, whether their potency reflects their similarity to bacterial FPs and how their presence at clinically relevant concentration affects PMN function. METHODS: N-terminal sequences of the 13 mtFPs were synthesized...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Khaled Oueslati, Aurelie Promeyrat, Philippe Gatellier, Jean-Dominique Daudin, Alain Kondjoyan
Fenton reaction kinetics, which involved an Fe(II)/Fe(III) oxidative redox cycle, were studied in a liquid medium that mimics meat physicochemical conditions. Muscle antioxidants (enzymes, peptides and vitamins) were added one by one in the medium to determine their respective effects on formation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. A stoichio-kinetic mathematical model was used to predict the formation of these radicals. The difference between experimental and predicted results was mainly due to iron reactivity, which had to be taken into account in the model, and to uncertainties on some of the rate constant values introduced in the model...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gautham Vivek Sridharan, Matthew D'Alessandro, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Vicky Bhagat, Hugo Gagnon, John M Asara, Korkut Uygun, Martin L Yarmush, Nima Saeidi
Morbidly obese patients often elect for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a form of bariatric surgery that triggers a remarkable 30% reduction in excess body weight and reversal of insulin resistance for those who are type II diabetic. A more complete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms that drive the complex metabolic reprogramming post-RYGB could lead to innovative non-invasive therapeutics that mimic the beneficial effects of the surgery, namely weight loss, achievement of glycemic control, or reversal of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
September 2017: Technology
Mark J Haykowsky, T Jake Samuel, Michael D Nelson, Andre La Gerche
In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis...
May 1, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Zenghui Gu, Zhenhai Hou, Longbao Zheng, Xinqiang Wang, Liangbang Wu, Cheng Zhang
Osteosarcoma is a prevalent primary malignant tumor and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been validated to modulate the osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. In present study, our research team investigates the role of a novel identified lncRNA DICER1-AS1 on the tumor progression and autophagy. Results showed that lncRNA DICER1-AS1 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma cells using microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Cellular functional experiments revealed that DICER1-AS1 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration, invasion and autophagy of osteosarcoma cells in vitro...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nikolina Bąbała, Astrid Bovens, Evert de Vries, Victoria Iglesias-Guimarais, Tomasz Ahrends, Matthew F Krummel, Jannie Borst, Adriaan D Bins
In a mouse model of therapeutic DNA vaccination, we studied how the subcellular localization of vaccine protein impacts antigen delivery to professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) and efficiency of CTL priming. Cytosolic, membrane-bound, nuclear, and secretory versions of ZsGreen fluorescent protein, conjugated to MHC class I and -II ovalbumin (OVA) epitopes were expressed in keratinocytes by DNA vaccination into the skin. ZsGreen-OVA versions reached B cells in the skin-draining lymph node (dLN) that proved irrelevant for CTL priming...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Ratchanok Pingaew, Veda Prachayasittikul, Nuttapat Anuwongcharoen, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Somsak Ruchirawat, Virapong Prachayasittikul
A three series of thioureas, monothiourea type I (4a-g), 1,4-bisthiourea type II (5a-h) and 1,3-bisthiourea type III (6a-h) were synthesized. Their aromatase inhibitory activities have been evaluated. Interestingly, eight thiourea derivatives (4e, 5f-h, 6d, 6f-h) exhibited the aromatase inhibitory activities with IC50 range of 0.6-10.2 μM. The meta-bisthiourea bearing 4-NO2 group (6f) and 3,5-diCF3 groups (6h) were shown to be the most potent compounds with sub-micromolar IC50 values of 0.8 and 0.6 μM, respectively...
May 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Heejung Im, Su Hee Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Youngmee Jung
We developed a highly elastic customized scaffold for soft-tissue regeneration and combined them with bioactive hydrogels with stem-cell-inducing ability. This was done to mimic mechanical properties of native soft tissues and improve the viability of transplanted cells as well as efficiency of tissue regeneration. The proposed study was aimed at evaluating various characteristics of scaffolds and investigating their tissue regenerating ability. Finger shaped porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated by an indirect 3D printing of poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) which provides a high elasticity for soft tissue engineering...
May 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Xiaotong Li, Liangen Shi, Xiangping Dai, Yajie Chen, Hongqing Xie, Min Feng, Yuyin Chen, Huabing Wang
During the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores, insects evolved systematic adaptive plasticity to minimise the chemical defence effects of their host plants. Previous studies mainly focused on the expressional plasticity of enzymes in detoxification and digestion. However, the expressional response and adaptive evolution of other fundamental regulators against host phytochemicals are largely unknown. Glucosidase II (GII), which is composed of a catalytic GIIα subunit and a regulatory GIIβ subunit, is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that regulates glycoprotein folding...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Jorge Sancho, Álvaro Alesanco, José García
The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is a biomedical signal that can be used to estimate volumetric blood flow changes in the peripheral circulation. During the past few years, several works have been published in order to assess the potential for PPGs to be used in biometric authentication systems, but results are inconclusive. In this paper we perform an analysis of the feasibility of using the PPG as a realistic biometric alternative in the long term. Several feature extractors (based on the time domain and the Karhunen⁻Loève transform) and matching metrics (Manhattan and Euclidean distances) have been tested using four different PPG databases (PRRB, MIMIC-II, Berry, and Nonin)...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Junkai Shi, Kansuo Guo, Shile Su, Jun Li, Chunhui Li
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by the breakdown of joint cartilage. The present study aimed to investigate an effective method for the treatment of OA. It was demonstrated that, compared with other patients, patients with OA exhibited lower mRNA expression levels of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2). MicroRNA (miR)‑486‑5p was predicted to bind with SMAD2, which was verified by dual‑luciferase reporter assay. Compared withcontrol patients who had no known history of OA or rheumatoid arthritis, patients with OA exhibited higher miR‑486‑5p expression level...
April 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Maria Löfgren, Emilia Svala, Anders Lindahl, Eva Skiöldebrand, Stina Ekman
Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory and degenerative joint disease commonly affecting horses. To identify genes of relevance for cartilage pathology in osteoarthritis we studied the time-course effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on equine articular cartilage. Articular cartilage explants from the distal third metacarpal bone were collected postmortem from three horses without evidence of joint disease. The explants were stimulated with IL-1β for 27 days and global gene expression was measured by microarray. Gene expression was compared to that of unstimulated explants at days 3, 9, 15, 21 and 27...
May 1, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Kenneth S Henry, Kristina S Abrams
Permanent loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers occurs with increasing age and sound overexposure, sometimes without hair cell damage or associated audiometric threshold elevation. Rodent studies suggest effects of AN damage on central processing and behavior, but these species have limited capacity to discriminate low-frequency speech-like sounds. Here, we introduce a new animal model of AN damage in an avian communication specialist, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). The budgerigar is a vocal learner and speech mimic with sensitive low-frequency hearing and human-like behavioral sensitivity to many complex signals including speech components...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Yusuke Ito, Yasuhiro Maejima, Natsuko Tamura, Yuka Shiheido-Watanabe, Masanori Konishi, Takashi Ashikaga, Kenzo Hirao, Mitsuaki Isobe
5-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of serum cholesterol levels. However, their synergic effects with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) remain to be established. We assessed the existence and potential underlying mechanisms of the effects of combined ARB [losartan (LOS)] and statin [simvastatin (SIM)] on cardiac function in rats and mice with load-induced HF. Salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were treated with vehicle, LOS, SIM, or LOS + SIM for 8 weeks...
May 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Chandni Pathak, Dharmendra Kumar, Manoj Kumar Gangwar, Darshan Mhatre, Thierry Roisnel, Prasenjit Ghosh
Heterodinuclear mixed valence [Zn(II)-Fe(III)] and the homodinuclear [Zn(II)-Zn(II)] and [Ni(II)-Ni(II)] complexes of a bicompartmental ligand containing a bridging phenoxy as a O-donor and four pyridyl moieties and two amine moieties as the N-donors exhibit phosphoester hydrolysis activity similar to the hydrolase family of enzymes. While the heterodinuclear [Zn(II)-Fe(III)] (2) complex was obtained by the sequential addition of Fe(NO3 )3 ∙9H2 O and Zn(OAc)2 ∙2H2 O to the ligand 2,6‑bis{[bis(2‑pyridylmethyl)amino]methyl}‑4‑t‑butylphenol (HL) (1) in moderate yield of 37%, the homodinuclear [Zn(II)-Zn(II)] (3) and [Ni(II)-Ni(II)] (4) complexes were obtained by the direct reaction of the ligand (1) with Zn(OAc)2 ∙2H2 O and Ni(OAc)2 ∙2H2 O respectively, in good to moderate yields (43-63%)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Li-Lian Zhang, Qi Chen, Hao-Li Wang, Hua-Zi Xu, Nai-Feng Tian
BACKGROUND: Anterior odontoid screw fixation (AOSF) has been suggested as the optimal treatment for type II and some shallow type III odontoid fractures. However, only the classical surgical trajectory is available; no newer entry points or trajectories have been reported. METHODS: We evaluated the anatomical feasibility of a new trajectory for AOSF using three-dimensional (3-D) screw insertion simulation software (Mimics). Computed tomography (CT) scans of patients (65 males and 59 females) with normal cervical structures were consecutively obtained, and the axes were reconstructed in 3-D by Mimics software...
May 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kazuyuki Dei, Brett Byram
Previously, we introduced a model-based beamforming algorithm to suppress ultrasound imaging artifacts caused by clutter sources, such as reverberation and off-axis scattering. We refer to this method as aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE). In this study, we evaluated the algorithm's limitations and ability to suppress off-axis energy using Field II-based simulations, experimental phantoms and in vivo data acquired by a Verasonics ultrasound system with a curvilinear transducer (C5-2). We compared image quality derived from a standard delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, DAS with coherence factor (CF) weighting, ADMIRE and ADMIRE plus CF weighting...
April 25, 2018: Ultrasonics
Kelsey Meinerz, Scott C Beeman, Chong Duan, G Larry Bretthorst, Joel R Garbow, Joseph J H Ackerman
Recently, a number of MRI protocols have been reported that seek to exploit the effect of dissolved oxygen (O2 , paramagnetic) on the longitudinal 1 H relaxation of tissue water, thus providing image contrast related to tissue oxygen content. However, tissue water relaxation is dependent on a number of mechanisms, and this raises the issue of how best to model the relaxation data. This problem, the model selection problem, occurs in many branches of science and is optimally addressed by Bayesian probability theory...
January 2018: Applied Magnetic Resonance
Noah P Dunham, Wei-Chen Chang, Andrew J Mitchell, Ryan J Martinie, Bo Zhang, Jonathan A Bergman, Lauren J Rajakovich, Bo Wang, Alexey Silakov, Carsten Krebs, Amie K Boal, J Martin Bollinger
Hydroxylation of aliphatic carbons by non-heme Fe(IV)-oxo (ferryl) complexes proceeds by hydrogen-atom (H•) transfer (HAT) to the ferryl and subsequent coupling between the carbon radical and Fe(III)-coordinated oxygen (termed rebound). Enzymes that use H•-abstracting ferryl complexes for other transformations must either suppress rebound or further process hydroxylated intermediates. For olefin-installing C-C desaturations, it has been proposed that a second HAT to the Fe(III)-OH complex from the carbon alpha to the radical preempts rebound...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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