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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732318/the-experimental-tobacco-marketplace-ii-substitutability-and-sex-effects-in-dual-electronic-cigarette-and-conventional-cigarette-users
#1
Amanda J Quisenberry, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
AIM: The aim of the current study was to evaluate tobacco product purchasing in the Experimental: Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) among male and female smokers who also use e-cigarettes. We hypothesized a high substitution profile for e-cigarettes and that males would purchase more Snus than females. METHODS: The ETM is an online market used in clinical abuse liability research to mimic real-world purchasing patterns. Tobacco products, including each participant's usual choice of conventional and e-cigarettes, were presented along with a price and description of nicotine content...
July 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731126/mir%C3%A2-132-in-atrial-fibrillation-directly-targets-connective-tissue-growth-factor
#2
Gang Qiao, Dongsheng Xia, Zhaoyun Cheng, Guobao Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently occurring, persistent cardiac arrhythmia, and the hallmark of AF‑dependent structural remodeling is atrial fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important in the process of fibrosis. The association between miRNA and CTGF in AF‑dependent fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine if microRNA (miR)‑132 was able to regulate CTGF with an anti‑fibrotic effect in AF. A total of ten dogs or patients were assigned to control (n=4) and AF groups (n=6)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727756/dysregulation-of-micrornas-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-high-salt-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-in-uninephrectomized-rats
#3
Venkateswara Rao Amara, Sunil Kumar Surapaneni, Kulbhushan Tikoo
Uninephrectomy is not associated with major adverse events in cardiovascular and renal functions of live kidney donors. The effect of high salt diet on the quality of life of live kidney donors is largely unknown. Hence in this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high salt diet on the alterations of renin-angiotensin system and microRNAs leading to CV and renal dysfunction in uninephrectomized rats. In order to mimic clinical scenario, uninephrectomized male Sprague Dawley rats were fed initially with normal pellet diet for 12 weeks and then for 20 weeks with high salt (10% w/w NaCl) diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726169/comparison-of-the-systemic-and-local-pharmacokinetics-of-clonidine-mucoadhesive-buccal-tablets-with-reference-clonidine-oral-tablets-in-healthy-volunteers-an-open-label-randomised-cross-over-trial
#4
Bérangère Vasseur, Alain Dufour, Laetitia Houdas, Helen Goodwin, Kathryn Harries, Neslihan Yesiltas Emul, Simon Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: The clonidine mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT) is a novel delivery system resulting in high and sustained concentrations of clonidine in the oral cavity. In a phase II clinical trial, clonidine MBT reduced the incidence of severe oral mucositis (OM) compared to placebo in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. This study compared the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and tolerability of clonidine MBT with a reference oral tablet (OT). METHODS: This was a randomised, three-period, single-dose crossover study in 36 healthy subjects aged 18-50 years...
July 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715744/short-term-thermophilic-treatment-cannot-remove-tetracycline-resistance-genes-in-pig-manures-but-exhibits-controlling-effects-on-their-accumulation-and-spread-in-soil
#5
Yijun Kang, Qing Li, Dan Xia, Min Shen, Lijuan Mei, Jian Hu
In this work, a microcosm experiment was conducted to merely mimic thermophilic phase in aerobic composting with pig manures in order to explore: (i) the effect of thermophilic phase in composting on the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs); and (ii) the impacts of the treated manures on the abundances of TRGs in soil. It was found that 4days of thermophilic process reduced the abundance of TRGs in pig manures by ∼1 lg unit compared to the samples without treatments, suggesting that other phases in composting may play significant roles in removal of TRGs...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704448/rnai-based-reverse-genetics-in-the-chelicerate-model-tetranychus-urticae-a-comparative-analysis-of-five-methods-for-gene-silencing
#6
Takeshi Suzuki, Maria Andreia Nunes, María Urizarna España, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin, Pengyu Jin, Nicolas Bensoussan, Vladimir Zhurov, Tawhid Rahman, Rebecca De Clercq, Pierre Hilson, Vojislava Grbic, Miodrag Grbic
RNA interference (RNAi) can be used for the protection against agricultural pests through the silencing of genes required for pest fitness. To assess the potential of RNAi approaches in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, we compared 5 methods for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These methods include mite feeding on either (i) leaves floating on a dsRNA solution, (ii) dsRNA-expressing plants, (iii) artificial diet supplemented with dsRNA, or (iv) dsRNA-coated leaves, and (v) mite soaking in a dsRNA solution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691315/metal-folded-single-chain-nanoparticle-nanoclusters-and-self-assembled-reduction-responsive-sub-5-nm-discrete-subdomains
#7
Hui Cao, Zhigang Cui, Pan Gao, Yi Ding, Xuechao Zhu, Xinhua Lu, Yuanli Cai
Easy access to discrete nanoclusters in metal-folded single-chain nanoparticles (metal-SCNPs) and independent ultrafine sudomains in the assemblies via coordination-driven self-assembly of hydrophilic copolymer containing 9% imidazole groups is reported herein. (1) H NMR, dynamic light scattering, and NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy results demonstrate self-assembly into metal-SCNPs (>70% imidazole-units folded) by neutralization in the presence of Cu(II) in water to pH 4.6. Further neutralization induces self-assembly of metal-SCNPs (pH 4...
July 10, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686274/spectroscopic-and-computational-studies-of-reversible-o2-binding-by-a-cobalt-complex-of-relevance-to-cysteine-dioxygenase
#8
Anne A Fischer, Sergey V Lindeman, Adam T Fiedler
The substitution of non-native metal ions into metalloenzyme active sites is a common strategy for gaining insights into enzymatic structure and function. For some nonheme iron dioxygenases, replacement of the Fe(ii) center with a redox-active, divalent transition metal (e.g., Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) gives rise to an enzyme with equal or greater activity than the wild-type enzyme. In this manuscript, we apply this metal-substitution approach to synthetic models of the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO). CDO is a nonheme iron dioxygenase that initiates the catabolism of l-cysteine by converting this amino acid to the corresponding sulfinic acid...
July 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683084/an-essential-role-for-the-vast-domain-of-the-arabidopsis-vad1-protein-in-the-regulation-of-defense-and-cell-death-in-response-to-pathogens
#9
Mehdi Khafif, Claudine Balagué, Carine Huard-Chauveau, Dominique Roby
Several regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) have been identified in plants which encode proteins with putative lipid-binding domains. Among them, VAD1 (Vascular Associated Death) contains a novel protein domain called VASt (VAD1 analog StAR-related lipid transfer) still uncharacterized. The Arabidopsis mutant vad1-1 has been shown to exhibit a lesion mimic phenotype with light-conditional appearance of propagative hypersensitive response-like lesions along the vascular system, associated with defense gene expression and increased resistance to Pseudomonas strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681247/impact-of-manual-control-point-selection-accuracy-on-automated-surface-matching-of-digital-dental-models
#10
Kathrin Becker, Benedict Wilmes, Chantal Grandjean, Dieter Drescher
OBJECTIVES: Treatment outcomes are frequently evaluated based on the superimposition of digital dental models. However, errors from surface matching may distort these findings. The aims of this study were (i) to develop a simulation unit to mimic point set registrations and (ii) to evaluate the impact and clinical relevance of manual landmark selection errors on registration accuracy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten randomly selected dental casts were digitized using a 3D laser scanner, and were loaded by an in-house developed simulation unit (MATLAB R2014a)...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672144/zn-ii-pramlintide-stability-binding-sites-and-unexpected-aggregation
#11
D Łoboda, M Rowińska-Żyrek
Pramlintide is an antidiabetic drug which mimics amylin - a small peptide co-secreted from pancreatic β-cells together with insulin, one of the hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. In the course of the disease, amylin misfolds into small oligomers or to an aggregated β-sheet amyloid fiber. The misfolding mechanism is not yet quite understood, but it is clear that zinc ions play an important role in the process. This work sheds new light on the role of zinc and pramlintide in the course of the disease, giving a detailed description of the Zn(II)-pramlintide complex, in which the metal ion binds to the imidazole of His18 and the amine group of Lys1, imposing a bend in the peptide between these residues...
September 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664509/hypertension-induced-synapse-loss-and-impairment-in-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-mimics-the-aging-phenotype-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#12
Zsuzsanna Tucsek, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Gábor Fülöp, Tripti Gautam, Albert Orock, Anna Csiszar, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari
Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that hypertension has detrimental effects on the cerebral microcirculation and thereby promotes accelerated brain aging. Hypertension is an independent risk factor for both vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the pathophysiological link between hypertension-induced cerebromicrovascular injury (e.g., blood-brain barrier disruption, increased microvascular oxidative stress, and inflammation) and cognitive decline remains elusive...
June 29, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657078/a-novel-artificial-synapse-with-dual-modes-using-bilayer-graphene-as-the-bottom-electrode
#13
He Tian, Wentian Mi, Haiming Zhao, Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Yi Yang, Po-Wen Chiu, Tian-Ling Ren
Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) shows great potential to be used as an artificial synapse for neuromorphic applications. The resistance can be gradually reduced during reset, which can enable enough states to mimic the "forgetting" process. However, the abrupt set (Mode I) cannot generate enough states to mimic the "learning" process, which results in depression-only behavior. In this work, we introduce another mode (Mode II) in an Al/AlOx/graphene 'RRAM' stack by using oxygen vacancies as trapping centers and bottom electrode bilayer graphene as the channel material...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650243/antigenicity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-inflamed-joint-environment
#14
Jacqueline A Hill, Jennifer M Cassano, Margaret B Goodale, Lisa A Fortier
OBJECTIVE To determine whether major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II expression in equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) changes with exposure to a proinflammatory environment reflective of an inflamed joint. SAMPLE Cryopreserved bone marrow-derived MSCs from 12 horses and cartilage and synovium samples from 1 horse euthanized for reasons other than lameness. PROCEDURES In part 1 of a 3-part study, the suitability of a quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for measurement of MHC class II expression in MSCs following stimulation with interferon (IFN)-γ was assessed...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647469/intra-articular-injection-of-microrna-140-mirna-140-alleviates-osteoarthritis-oa-progression-by-modulating-extracellular-matrix-ecm-homeostasis-in-rats
#15
H-B Si, Y Zeng, S-Y Liu, Z-K Zhou, Y-N Chen, J-Q Cheng, Y-R Lu, B Shen
OBJECTIVE: Disruptions of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis are key events in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). MicroRNA-140 (miRNA-140) is expressed specifically in cartilage and regulates ECM-degrading enzymes. Our objective in this study was to determine if intra-articular injection of miRNA-140 can attenuate OA progression in rats. DESIGN: miRNA-140 levels in human normal and OA cartilage derived chondrocytes and synovial fluid were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 21, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644828/a-mutant-of-chlamydomonas-without-lhcsr-maintains-high-rates-of-photosynthesis-but-has-reduced-cell-division-rates-in-sinusoidal-light-conditions
#16
Michael Cantrell, Graham Peers
The LHCSR protein belongs to the light harvesting complex family of pigment-binding proteins found in oxygenic photoautotrophs. Previous studies have shown that this complex is required for the rapid induction and relaxation of excess light energy dissipation in a wide range of eukaryotic algae and moss. The ability of cells to rapidly regulate light harvesting between this dissipation state and one favoring photochemistry is believed to be important for reducing oxidative stress and maintaining high photosynthetic efficiency in a rapidly changing light environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639194/rnaa-induced-by-tata-box-targeting-micrornas
#17
Yijun Zhang, Hui Zhang
Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637856/how-to-get-the-most-bang-for-your-buck-the-evolution-and-physiology-of-nutrition-dependent-resource-allocation-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Enoch Ng'oma, Anna M Perinchery, Elizabeth G King
All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634958/bioprinting-cartilage-tissue-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-peg-hydrogel
#19
Guifang Gao, Karen Hubbell, Arndt F Schilling, Guohao Dai, Xiaofeng Cui
Bioprinting based on thermal inkjet printing is one of the most attractive enabling technologies for tissue engineering and regeneration. During the printing process, cells, scaffolds , and growth factors are rapidly deposited to the desired two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) locations. Ideally, the bioprinted tissues are able to mimic the native anatomic structures in order to restore the biological functions. In this study, a bioprinting platform for 3D cartilage tissue engineering was developed using a commercially available thermal inkjet printer with simultaneous photopolymerization ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630952/estimating-patient-s-health-state-using-latent-structure-inferred-from-clinical-time-series-and-text
#20
Aaron Zalewski, William Long, Alistair E W Johnson, Roger G Mark, Li-Wei H Lehman
Modern intensive care units (ICUs) collect large volumes of data in monitoring critically ill patients. Clinicians in the ICUs face the challenge of interpreting large volumes of high-dimensional data to diagnose and treat patients. In this work, we explore the use of Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes (HDP) as a Bayesian nonparametric framework to infer patients' states of health by combining multiple sources of data. In particular, we employ HDP to combine clinical time series and text from the nursing progress notes in a probabilistic topic modeling framework for patient risk stratification...
February 2017: IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
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