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health care associated infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434128/aspects-on-the-history-of-transmission-and-favor-of-distribution-of-viruses-by-iatrogenic-action-perhaps-an-example-of-a-paradigm-of-the-worldwide-spread-of-hiv
#1
REVIEW
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
April 22, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433398/multi-state-survey-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-brazil
#2
C Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, M C Padoveze, C R Veiga Kiffer, A L Barth, Irna C do Rosário Souza Carneiro, H I Garcia Giamberardino, J L Nobre Rodrigues, L Santos Filho, M J Gonçalves de Mello, M Severino Pereira, P Pinto Gontijo Filho, M Rocha, E A Servolo de Medeiros, A C Campos Pignatari
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) challenge public health in developing countries such as Brazil, which harbour social inequalities and variations in the complexity of healthcare and regional development. AIM: To describe the prevalence of HCAIs in hospitals in a sample of hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A prevalence survey conducted in 2011-13 enrolled 152 hospitals from the five macro-regions in Brazil. Hospitals were classified as large (≥200 beds), medium (50-199 beds) or small sized (<50 beds)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431848/epidemiology-of-device-associated-infections-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-nepal-a-prospective-surveillance-study-from-a-developing-country
#3
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Santosh Dahal, Jaya Prasad Singh, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Hari Prasad Kattel, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit patients are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. METHODS: A prospective, structured clinicomicrobiological surveillance was carried out for 3 common DA-HAIs: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) present in the patients of an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Nepal...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431844/health-care-associated-infections-studies-project-an-american-journal-of-infection-control-and-national-healthcare-safety-network-data-quality-collaboration
#4
Henrietta Smith, Janet E Brooks, Denise Leaptrot, Katherine Allen-Bridson, Angela Anttila, Cindy Gross, Joan N Hebden, Georganne Ryan, Eileen Scalise, Marc-Oliver Wright
This case study is part of a series centered on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network's (NHSN) health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance definitions. The intent of the case study series is to foster standardized application of the NHSN's HAI surveillance definitions among infection preventionists and accurate determination of HAI events. This specific case study focuses on the definitions found within the surgical site infection (SSI) protocol. It aims to reflect the real life and complex patient scenario surrounding a bloodstream infection that is secondary to an SSI and the application of the Present at the Time of Surgery event detail...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430097/zika-virus-update-more-on-an-emerging-arboviral-disease-in-the-western-hemisphere
#5
Kelly G Vest
Zika virus has captivated the world with its quick spread throughout the Western Hemisphere. Increased emphasis has been placed on the infection of pregnant women and subsequent adverse and severe effects in the developing fetus and newborn. This article supplements a previous article and provides updated information on new and evolving evidence that strengthens the association between Zika virus and unique congenital and neurologic diseases, updates what is known about the epidemiology of the disease, and provides new and updated material for primary care providers as they counsel patients who may be exposed or infected...
April 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430082/a-community-based-survey-on-syrian-refugee-women-s-health-and-its-predictors-in-%C3%A5-anliurfa-turkey
#6
Zeynep Simsek, Nebiye Yentur Doni, Nese Gül Hilali, Gokhan Yildirimkaya
Reproductive characteristics, mental health symptoms, micronutrient deficiencies, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI) were determined among married Syrian refugee women aged 15-49 years who were living outside of camps in 2015, using probability sampling. Of the 458 participants, 51.3% married before the age of 18 years. Early-age marriages and number of desired children increased after the war. In multivariable analyses, education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1...
April 21, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429631/household-food-insecurity-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-sagamu-nigeria-a-preliminary-study
#7
Oluwafolahan O Sholeye, Victor J Animasahun, Albert A Salako, Bankole K Oyewole
BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity has been associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV infection and poor treatment outcomes. This study therefore determined the prevalence of household food insecurity and its associated factors among people living with HIV in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 244 adult clients accessing care and support at the teaching hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria, selected via systematic sampling...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427355/identifying-and-characterizing-hepatitis-c-virus-hotspots-in-massachusetts-a-spatial-epidemiological-approach
#8
Thomas J Stopka, Michael A Goulart, David J Meyers, Marga Hutcheson, Kerri Barton, Shauna Onofrey, Daniel Church, Ashley Donahue, Kenneth K H Chui
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have increased during the past decade but little is known about geographic clustering patterns. METHODS: We used a unique analytical approach, combining geographic information systems (GIS), spatial epidemiology, and statistical modeling to identify and characterize HCV hotspots, statistically significant clusters of census tracts with elevated HCV counts and rates. We compiled sociodemographic and HCV surveillance data (n = 99,780 cases) for Massachusetts census tracts (n = 1464) from 2002 to 2013...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426852/an-outbreak-of-endogenous-fungal-endophthalmitis-among-intravenous-drug-abusers-in-new-england
#9
Aubrey R Tirpack, Jay S Duker, Caroline R Baumal
Importance: Intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) is a known risk factor for endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE), a severe intraocular infection caused by hematogenous seeding of mycotic organisms to the eye. Reporting significant increases in heroin-related deaths since 2014, the New England region is in the midst of an opioid crisis that has led to a substantial increase in patients at risk for this vision-threatening disease. Objective: To present an update on characteristics, management, and visual outcomes in patients with EFE...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426466/physician-variation-in-time-to-antimicrobial-treatment-for-septic-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department
#10
Ithan D Peltan, Kristina H Mitchell, Kristina E Rudd, Blake A Mann, David J Carlbom, Catherine L Hough, Thomas D Rea, Samuel M Brown
OBJECTIVES: Delayed initiation of appropriate antimicrobials is linked to higher sepsis mortality. We investigated interphysician variation in septic patients' door-to-antimicrobial time. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Emergency department of an academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Adult patients treated with antimicrobials in the emergency department between 2009 and 2015 for fluid-refractory severe sepsis or septic shock...
April 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426439/high-mortality-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-large-healthcare-system
#11
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, Yuhui Zhu, Di Liang, David Huang
OBJECTIVES: Elevated mortality has been observed among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) treated in addiction specialty clinics or programs. Information about OUD patients in general healthcare settings is needed in light of the current effort to integrate addiction services into primary healthcare systems. This study examined mortality rates, causes of death, and associated risk factors among patients with OUD in a large general healthcare system. METHODS: Mortality data were linked with electronic health records of 2576 OUD patients cared for in a large university health system from 2006 to 2014...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425828/compliance-to-guidelines-for-the-prescribing-of-antibiotics-in-acute-infections-at-namibia-s-national-referral-hospital-a-pilot-study-and-the-implications
#12
S Nakwatumbah, D Kibuule, B Godman, V Haakuria, F Kalemeera, A Baker, M Mwangana
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal antibiotic prescribing remains a public health concern in Namibia. The objective is to determine the level and predictors of compliance to guidelines in the prescribing of antibiotics in acute infections at a national referral hospital in Namibia to improve future prescribing. METHODS: Descriptive observational cross-sectional study. The clinical records of patients receiving care were reviewed. Prescribing practices were assessed using a self- administered questionnaire with reference to Namibia Standard Treatment Guidelines (NSTG)...
April 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425261/central-line-associated-blood-stream-infections-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-over-a-5-5-year-period
#13
Aynur Atilla, Zahide Doğanay, Hale Kefeli Çelik, Mehmet Derya Demirağ, Sırrı S Kiliç
BACKGROUND/AIM: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and the infection rates vary in a wide range1397645907(high: 62.5%; low: 20%) in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and the risk factors for mortality in patients with CLABSIs in intensive care units (ICUs) and provide the relevant data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electronic medical records database and file records obtained through active surveillance by an infection control committee of a hospital were screened to identify patients with CLABSIs hospitalized from January 2008 through July 2013...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422906/risk-factors-and-costs-associated-with-nationwide-nonelective-readmission-after-trauma
#14
Joshua Parreco, Jessica Buicko, Nicholas Cortolillo, Nicholas Namias, Rishi Rattan
BACKGROUND: Most prior studies of readmission after trauma have been limited to single institutions while multi-institutional studies have been limited to single states and an inability to distinguish between elective and nonelective readmissions. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors and costs associated with nonelective readmission after trauma across the US. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmission Database was queried for all patients with nonelective admissions in 2013 and 2014 with a primary diagnosis of trauma...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421202/the-interaction-between-hiv-and-intestinal-helminth-parasites-coinfection-with-nutrition-among-adults-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#15
B T Mkhize, M Mabaso, T Mamba, C E Napier, Z L Mkhize-Kwitshana
In South Africa few studies have examined the effects of the overlap of HIV and helminth infections on nutritional status. This cross-sectional study investigated the interaction between HIV and intestinal helminths coinfection with nutritional status among KwaZulu-Natal adults. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic and stratified based on their HIV, stool parasitology, IgE, and IgG4 results into four groups: the uninfected, HIV infected, helminth infected, and HIV-helminth coinfected groups...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421178/applying-precision-public-health-to-prevent-preterm-birth
#16
REVIEW
John P Newnham, Matthew W Kemp, Scott W White, Catherine A Arrese, Roger J Hart, Jeffrey A Keelan
Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the major health-care challenges of our time. Being born too early is associated with major risks to the child with potential for serious consequences in terms of life-long disability and health-care costs. Discovering how to prevent PTB needs to be one of our greatest priorities. Recent advances have provided hope that a percentage of cases known to be related to risk factors may be amenable to prevention; but the majority of cases remain of unknown cause, and there is little chance of prevention...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419343/utilizing-a-modified-care-coordination-measurement-tool-to-capture-value-for-a-pediatric-outpatient-parenteral-and-prolonged-oral-antibiotic-therapy-program
#17
Louise E Vaz, Cindi L Farnstrom, Kimberly K Felder, Judith Guzman-Cottrill, Hannah Rosenberg, Richard C Antonelli
Background.: Outpatient parenteral or prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) programs reduce inpatient healthcare costs by shifting care to outpatient settings. Care coordination (CC) is a necessary component to successfully transition patients. Our objective was to assess outcomes of provider time spent on nonreimbursable CC activities in a pediatric OPAT program. Methods.: We used a qualitative feasibility pilot design and modified the Care Coordination Measurement Tool...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419013/standardizing-best-nursing-practice-for-implanted-ports-applying-evidence-based-professional-guidelines-to-prevent-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#18
Susanne B Conley, Paula Buckley, Lisa Magarace, Candace Hsieh, Lillian Vitale Pedulla
Nearly 3 million central vascular access devices (CVADs) are used in the United States each year. These devices are an important advance in health care and essential to oncology patients. However, CVADs are the most frequent cause of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). CLABSI can be prevented when evidence-based practices are followed consistently over time. Professional organizations establish valid standards and guidelines to guide CVAD practice. This article identifies strategies implemented at a comprehensive ambulatory cancer center to integrate professional evidence-based standards and guidelines for implanted port care into nursing practice at the point of care...
May 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415553/promising-silicones-modified-with-cationic-biocides-for-the-development-of-antimicrobial-medical-devices
#19
Sarah Ghamrawi, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Oksana Tarasyuk, Sergiy Rogalsky, Lyudmila Lyoshina, Olga Bulko, Jean-François Bardeau
We have tested silicones containing 2% or 5% of the cationic biocides polyhexamethylene guanidine dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PHMG-DBS), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (OMIM-BF4) or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (DMIM-BF4) against the major relevant bacterial and yeast species in health care-associated infections (HCAI). Study conducted according to the international standard ISO 22196 revealed that silicones containing 2% or 5% DMIM-BF4 or 5% PHMG-DBS presented the highest antimicrobial activity, leading to a logarithmic growth reduction of 3...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414622/clostridium-difficile-infection
#20
Jennan A Phillips, Stephanie Hammond
Preventing Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of health care-associated infections in hospitals and infectious disease death in the United States, is a national priority. Increased rates of infection among low-risk individuals in the community call for community-based prevention efforts to halt the increasing spread of this highly contagious opportunistic infection.
April 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
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