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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149979/influence-of-oral-anaerobic-bacteria-on-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients-oral-mucositis-and-general-condition
#1
L Osakabe, A Utsumi, B Saito, Y Okamatsu, H Kinouchi, T Nakamaki, S Hironaka
OBJECTIVE: Oral mucositis (OM) caused by infection facilitated by myelosuppression and immunosuppression can be controlled through oral care. We investigated changes in oral anaerobic bacterial flora during the onset of OM with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: This study included 19 patients who underwent HSCT. All received professional oral care before initiating the preparative regimen. We assessed OM, oral health and obtained microbial samples from the oral cavity during 5 assessment points: before initiating the preparative regimen; the day before HSCT (day 1); and at 7, 14, and 30 days after HSCT...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149873/health-care-workers-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-on-tuberculosis-infection-control-nepal
#2
Anita Shrestha, Dipesh Bhattarai, Barsha Thapa, Prem Basel, Rajendra Raj Wagle
BACKGROUND: Infection control remains a key challenge for Tuberculosis (TB) control program with an increased risk of TB transmission among health care workers (HCWs), especially in settings with inadequate TB infection control measures. Poor knowledge among HCWs and inadequate infection control practices may lead to the increased risk of nosocomial TB transmission. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 28 health facilities providing TB services in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
November 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147885/proceedings-of-the-2017-isev-symposium-on-hiv-neurohiv-drug-abuse-evs
#3
Guoku Hu, Sowmya Yelamanchili, Fatah Kashanchi, Norman Haughey, Vincent C Bond, Kenneth W Witwer, Lynn Pulliam, Shilpa Buch
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146382/on-the-bias-of-estimates-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-from-test-negative-studies
#4
Kylie E C Ainslie, Meng Shi, Michael Haber, Walter A Orenstein
Estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccines are commonly obtained from a test-negative design (TND) study, where cases and controls are patients seeking care for an acute respiratory illness who test positive and negative, respectively, for influenza infection. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from TND studies are usually interpreted as vaccine effectiveness against medically-attended influenza (MAI). However, it is also important to estimate VE against any influenza illness (symptomatic influenza (SI)) as individuals with SI are still a public health burden even if they do not seek medical care...
November 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144598/estimating-burden-of-influenza-associated-influenza-like-illness-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infection-at-public-health-care-facilities-in-romania-during-the-2011-12-2015-16-influenza-seasons
#5
Giedre Gefenaite, Adriana Pistol, Rodica Popescu, Odette Popovici, Daniel Ciurea, Christiaan Dolk, Mark Jit, Diane Gross
BACKGROUND: Influenza is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality, but there is limited information on reliable disease burden estimates, especially from middle-income countries in the WHO European Region. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of medically attended influenza-associated influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalizations due to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) presenting to public health care facilities in Romania. PATIENTS/METHODS: Sentinel influenza surveillance data for ILI and SARI from 2011/12-2015/16, including virological data, was used to estimate influenza-associated ILI and SARI incidence/100000 and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)...
November 16, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143626/methodological-challenges-in-appraising-evidence-on-diagnostic-testing-for-who-guidelines-on-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
Roger Chou, Philippa Easterbrook, Margaret Hellard
Linking persons with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection with appropriate prevention and treatment requires that they first be diagnosed. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed its first guidelines on testing for chronic HBV and HCV infection, using a framework based on methods from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group for the formulation of recommendations, including determining the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143611/one-or-two-serological-assay-testing-strategy-for-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-infection-the-use-of-predictive-modelling
#7
John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142540/clinical-audit-of-dengue-related-deaths-in-2011-mayo-hospital-lahore-pakistan
#8
Somia Iqtadar, Nabeel Akbar, Mehreen Mehmood, Sajid Abaidullah
Background and Objective: Dengue infection has evolved into an epidemic during last few years in Pakistan and has been associated with poor outcomes. Literature with respect to mortality risk factors in Dengue infection is not sufficient. This compelled us to conduct this study to find out major contributory factors to death in patients with dengue viral infection at one of Asia's ancient hospital setting with an aim to recognize complications at earliest and improve case management in future...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142446/hysterosalpingographic-hsg-pattern-of-infertility-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#9
Chinwe R Onwuchekwa, Vaduneme K Oriji
Background: Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychological and economic problems. Aims: The aim of the study is to evaluate the structural abnormalities of the uterus and fallopian tubes in infertile women as elucidated by hysterosalpingography. Setting and Design: A retrospective study, conducted at the Radiology and Obstetric and Gynaecologic Departments of a tertiary health care institution. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of all consecutive patients in whom hysterosalpingographic (HSG) was performed for infertility between July 2013 and June 2015 in the Department of Radiology...
July 2017: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141983/are-parents-who-feel-the-need-to-watch-over-their-children-s-care-better-patient-safety-partners
#10
Elizabeth D Cox, Kristofer Hansen, Victoria P Rajamanickam, Roger L Brown, Paul J Rathouz, Pascale Carayon, Lori L DuBenske, Linda A Buel, Michelle M Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Many parents report needing to watch over their child's hospital care to prevent mistakes. In this study, we assessed whether needing to watch over care predicts parent performance of recommended safety behaviors to reduce medication errors and health care-associated infections. METHODS: At admission, we surveyed 170 parents about their need to watch over care, demographics, and hospitalization factors. At discharge, parents were surveyed about medication awareness and hand hygiene behaviors...
November 15, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138174/first-nations-hepatitis-c-virus-infections-six-year-retrospective-study-of-on-reserve-rates-of-newly-reported-infections-in-northwestern-ontario
#11
Janet Gordon, Natalie Bocking, Kathy Pouteau, Terri Farrell, Gareth Ryan, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To document rates of newly reported hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases from 2010 to 2015 in remote First Nations communities. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of aggregate data of newly reported HCV antibody-positive (Ab+) cases. SETTING: Northwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 31 First Nations communities (an on-reserve population of 20 901) supported in health care by the Sioux Lookout First Nations Health Authority...
November 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134742/innovative-technologies-for-point-of-care-testing-of-viral-hepatitis%C3%A2-in-low-resource-and-decentralized-settings
#12
Léa Duchesne, Karine Lacombe
According to the Global Burden of Diseases, chronic viral hepatitis B and C are one of the most challenging global health conditions that rank among the first causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries are particularly affected by the health burden associated with HBV or HCV infection. One major gap in efficiently addressing the issue of viral hepatitis is universal screening. However, the costs and chronic lack of human resources for using traditional screening strategies based on serology and molecular biology preclude any scaling-up...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#13
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133019/frequency-and-significance-of-qsofa-criteria-during-adult-rapid-response-team-reviews-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Maurice Le Guen, Yvonne Ballueer, Richard McKay, Glenn Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Daryl Jones
AIM: A new definition of sepsis released by an international task-force has introduced the concept of quick Sequential (Sepsis-Related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA). This study aimed to measure the proportion of patients who fulfilled qSOFA criteria during a Rapid Response Team (RRT) review and to assess their associated outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of adult RRT reviews over a one month period between 6th June and 10th July 2016 in a large tertiary hospital in Melbourne Australia RESULTS: Over a one-month period, there were 282 RRT reviews, 258 of which were included...
November 10, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132759/hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa-strategies-to-achieve-the-2030-elimination-targets
#15
REVIEW
C Wendy Spearman, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Chris Kassianides, Michael Kew, Philip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olusegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Mark W Sonderup
The WHO global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, created in May, 2016, aims to achieve a 90% reduction in new cases of chronic hepatitis B and C and a 65% reduction in mortality due to hepatitis B and C by 2030. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy, the estimated overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains high at 6·1% (95% uncertainty interval 4·6-8·5). In this Series paper, we have reviewed the literature to examine the epidemiology, burden of liver disease, and elimination strategies of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132380/addressing-challenges-in-scaling-up-tb-and-hiv-treatment-integration-in-rural-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-south-africa-suthi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Kogieleum Naidoo, Santhanalakshmi Gengiah, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Nesri Padayatchi, Pierre Barker, Andrew Nunn, Priashni Subrayen, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: A large and compelling clinical evidence base has shown that integrated TB and HIV services leads to reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated mortality and morbidity. Despite official policies and guidelines recommending TB and HIV care integration, its poor implementation has resulted in TB and HIV remaining the commonest causes of death in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This study aims to reduce mortality due to TB-HIV co-infection through a quality improvement strategy for scaling up of TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa...
November 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128552/venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#17
Hemalatha G Rangarajan, Joseph R Stanek, Rolla Abu-Arja, Rajinder P S Bajwa, Jeffery J Auletta, Dean A Lee, Sarah H O Brien, Riten Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with a pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant environment which places recipients at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). While the incidence of VTE in adult HCT recipients has been extensively studied, similar data for children are lacking. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to analyze the prevalence of VTE and associated risk factors in a large cohort of patients who underwent HCT at tertiary-care US children's hospitals...
November 8, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128300/enteral-versus-parenteral-early-nutrition-in-ventilated-adults-with-shock-a-randomised-controlled-multicentre-open-label-parallel-group-study-nutrirea-2
#18
Jean Reignier, Julie Boisramé-Helms, Laurent Brisard, Jean-Baptiste Lascarrou, Ali Ait Hssain, Nadia Anguel, Laurent Argaud, Karim Asehnoune, Pierre Asfar, Frédéric Bellec, Vlad Botoc, Anne Bretagnol, Hoang-Nam Bui, Emmanuel Canet, Daniel Da Silva, Michael Darmon, Vincent Das, Jérôme Devaquet, Michel Djibre, Frédérique Ganster, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Stéphane Gaudry, Olivier Gontier, Claude Guérin, Bertrand Guidet, Christophe Guitton, Jean-Etienne Herbrecht, Jean-Claude Lacherade, Philippe Letocart, Frédéric Martino, Virginie Maxime, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jean-Paul Mira, Saad Nseir, Gael Piton, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Jack Richecoeur, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, René Robert, Nathalie Rolin, Carole Schwebel, Michel Sirodot, François Tinturier, Didier Thévenin, Bruno Giraudeau, Amélie Le Gouge
BACKGROUND: Whether the route of early feeding affects outcomes of patients with severe critical illnesses is controversial. We hypothesised that outcomes were better with early first-line enteral nutrition than with early first-line parenteral nutrition. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group study (NUTRIREA-2 trial) done at 44 French intensive-care units (ICUs), adults (18 years or older) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support for shock were randomly assigned (1:1) to either parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition, both targeting normocaloric goals (20-25 kcal/kg per day), within 24 h after intubation...
November 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126751/shift-to-community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-national-veterans-health-administration-2003-2014
#19
Kelly R Reveles, Mary Jo V Pugh, Kenneth A Lawson, Eric M Mortensen, Jim M Koeller, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs frequently in inpatient settings; however, community-onset cases have been reported more frequently in recent years. This study evaluated hospital-onset and community-onset CDI in the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2014. Data were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126490/dental-management-of-patients-who-have-undergone-oral-cancer-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Villa, Sunday O Akintoye
Oral cancer therapies are associated with orofacial complications that could result in dose-limiting cancer treatment and consequent suboptimal tumor control. Oral cancer treatment complications include oral mucositis, salivary gland hypofunction, odontogenic infections, pain, dermatitis, neurotoxicity, soft tissue fibrosis, trismus, osteoradionecrosis, and potential cancer recurrence. These complications significantly affect cancer survivorship, quality of life, and psychosocial status. Effective dental management of patients with oral cancer involves the coordination of care among several health care professionals before, during, and after cancer therapy...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
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