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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806793/holding-providers-accountable-for-health-care-outcomes
#1
David W Baker, Mark R Chassin
Federal public reporting and payment programs have increasingly emphasized the measurement of outcomes (such as readmission, health care-associated infections, and mortality). Yet, the criteria for assessing whether outcome measures are accurate and valid enough to use for public reporting, payment, and accreditation are not well-defined. An outcome measure should be used only if the outcome can be influenced substantially by providers (that is, a strong process-outcome link exists) and statistical adjustment can be made for differences in patient populations across providers so that differences in outcomes are truly attributable to differences in the care provided...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806494/body-piercing-motivations-and-implications-for-health
#2
REVIEW
Cheri Van Hoover, Carol-Ann Rademayer, Cindy L Farley
Body piercing has evolved from a behavior once considered extreme to an accepted choice among the general population. Earlobe piercing is so common that it is now considered a normative behavior. The motivations for choosing body piercing have changed and are associated with piercing site and number of piercings chosen by the individual. Meanings ascribed to body piercing were traditionally related to enhanced sexual desirability and experience, but now range from the innocuous, such as a fashion statement, to the risk laden, such as nonsuicidal self-injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805243/factors-associated-with-acceptance-of-pandemic-flu-vaccine-by-healthcare-professionals-in-spain-2009-2010
#3
Tania Fernández-Villa, Antonio J Molina, Nuria Torner, Jesus Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Susana García-Gutiérrez, José María Mayoral, Sonia Tamames, Ángela Domínguez, Vicente Martín
The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus reached pandemic level in Spain in 2009, prompting a national vaccination campaign. To avoid transmission to patients, healthcare professionals' vaccination against pandemic influenza is crucial. The main objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with the failure by healthcare professionals to accept the pandemic vaccination in 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of healthcare professionals in seven of Spain's autonomous regions. A questionnaire was used to collect information about personal and professional details, the respondents' flu vaccination status in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons (seasonal and pandemic vaccines), and their knowledge and attitudes...
August 14, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803661/daily-bathing-strategies-and-cross-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-impact-of-chlorhexidine-impregnated-wipes-in-a-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-endemic-intensive-care-unit
#4
Jesus Ruiz, Paula Ramirez, Esther Villarreal, Monica Gordon, Inmaculada Saez, Alfonso Rodríguez, María Jesús Castañeda, Álvaro Castellanos-Ortega
BACKGROUND: Health-care associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critical care units. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated wipes in the daily bathing of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) to prevent cross-transmission and colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) METHODS: Prospective cohort study with an intervention of 11 months. The intervention consisted of using CHG-impregnated wipes for the daily bathing of patients on mechanical ventilation or colonized by MDROs...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800737/anaemia-in-pregnancy-and-associated-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-of-antenatal-attendants-at-the-sunyani-municipal-hospital-ghana
#5
Peter Anlaakuu, Francis Anto
BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnancy is an important health issue resulting in high maternal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the current study was to identify factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving pregnant women seeking antenatal care at the Sunyani Municipal Hospital was conducted between May and June, 2015. It involved the collection of data on socio demographic and obstetric variables, medical interventions and malaria infection, consumption of iron containing foods and supplements using a case record form and a structured questionnaire...
August 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799774/real-time-surveillance-of-influenza-morbidity-tracking-intensive-care-unit-resource-utilization
#6
Arthur W Baker, Michael B Edmond, Loreen A Herwaldt, Luke F Chen, Sudha Srikantaswamy, Daniel J Sexton
RATIONALE: Existing real-time surveillance of influenza morbidity, based primarily upon time-trended U.S. hospitalization and death data, is inadequate. These surveillance methods do not accurately predict hospital resource requirements or sufficiently capture the public health impact of the current influenza season. OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of tracking surrogate markers of influenza morbidity among patients hospitalized with influenza...
August 11, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797326/severe-liver-disease-related-to-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-treatment-naive-patients-epidemiological-characteristics-and-associated-factors-at-first-expert-centre-visit-france-2000-to-2007-and-2010-to-2014
#7
Alice Sanna, Yann Le Strat, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Sylvie Deuffic Burban, Patrizia Carrieri, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau, Christine Larsen
Given recent profound improvements in the effectiveness of antiviral treatment for chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we aimed to describe the characteristics of patients referred to hepatology expert centres in France from 2000 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2014, and to identify factors associated with severe liver disease at their first visit for evaluation. We analysed data from two sources covering all of France: the former hepatitis C surveillance network, which included patients between 2000 and 2007, and the ANRS CO22 HEPATHER multi-centre cohort, which included patients between 2012 and 2014...
July 27, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795891/experience-using-closed-incision-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-in-sternotomy-patients
#8
B Philip, P McCluskey, J Hinchion
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delayed wound healing, surgical site infections (SSIs), and other wound complications are associated with increased morbidity and health-care costs. In cardiothoracic surgery, wound complications can have life-threatening consequences. In recent years, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been applied over closed surgical incisions to help reduce tension and protect from external contamination. We report our initial experiences using a closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) over clean, closed sternotomy incisions at an Irish tertiary referral centre...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795594/the-battle-of-worldviews-a-case-study-of-liver-fluke-infection-in-khon-kaen-thailand
#9
Sara Samiphak, S Leonard Syme
Control efforts to reduce infection from the parasitic flatworm Opisthorchis viverrini have progressed through understanding the epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini, antiparasitic drug developments, technological innovations, health education promoting cooking of fish, and improved hygienic defecation. Yet the problem persists. The case study method was used to examine the fundamental cause of the liver fluke infection problem. Evidence shows that the liver fluke-infected population does not care about living a long life...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793861/viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-hospital-health-care-workers-over-time-and-association-with-symptoms
#10
C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of healthcare workers (HCWs), and association with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in China and 223 HCWs were recruited from fever clinics and respiratory, paediatric, emergency/Intensive medication wards...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793116/urinary-tract-infection-a-cohort-of-older-people-with-urinary-incontinence
#11
Laís Samara de Melo, Flávia Falci Ercole, Danilo Ulisses de Oliveira, Tatiana Saraiva Pinto, Mariana Avendanha Victoriano, Carla Lúcia Goulart Constant Alcoforado
Objective: To evaluate epidemiological aspects of urinary tract infection in older patients with urinary incontinence living in long-term care institutions in Belo Horizonte. Method: Concurrent cohort held from April 1st to October 1st, 2015. The study was conducted in two long-term care institutions in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, with 84 incontinent older people. Results: Cumulative incidence of urinary tract infection was 19% (95% CI: 7.83-23.19) and the incidence density was 3...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793031/airborne-fungi-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#12
C L Gonçalves, F V Mota, G F Ferreira, J F Mendes, E C Pereira, C H Freitas, J N Vieira, J P Villarreal, P S Nascente
The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas - RS, with the attempt to know the place's environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp...
July 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792372/treatment-failure-of-bacterial-vaginosis-is-not-associated-with-higher-loads-of-atopobium-vaginae-and-gardnerella-vaginalis
#13
Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira, Gilbert Gerard Donders, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada, Andrea da Rocha Tristão, Thaiz Fernandes, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Camila Marconi
PURPOSE: Cervicovaginal Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis are strongly associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and are the main components of vaginal biofilms. The low efficacy of BV treatment with metronidazole may be due to the presence of such biofilms. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the pretreatment cervicovaginal loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis for women who restored normal flora and those who persisted with BV after a full course of oral metronidazole...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789637/perceptions-practices-and-health-seeking-behaviour-constrain-je-aes-interventions-in-high-endemic-district-of-north-india
#14
Sanjay Chaturvedi, Neha Sharma, Manish Kakkar
BACKGROUND: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) stay as poorly understood phenomena in India. Multiple linkages to determinants such as poverty, socio-economic status, gender, environment, and population distribution, make it a greater developmental issue than just a zoonotic disease. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted to map knowledge, perceptions and practices of community and health systems level stakeholders. Seventeen interviews with utilizers of AES care, care givers from human and veterinary sectors, Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs), and pig owners and 4 Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) with farmers, community leaders, and students were conducted in an endemic north Indian district-Kushinagar...
August 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779831/clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
REVIEW
John G Bartlett
Clostridium difficile infection is a major health care challenge in terms of patient and economic consequences. For the patient, it is a morbid and sometimes a life-threatening iatrogenic complication of antibiotic treatment. In the United States, the provider's institution may face financial penalties, because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention views this as an iatrogenic health care-associated complication that may not be reimbursable by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; this has resulted in substantial incentives for new approaches to prevention and treatment...
September 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#16
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776463/prevalence-and-impact-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-pregnant-women-in-central-ethiopia
#17
Andreas Schönfeld, Torsten Feldt, Tafese B Tufa, Hans M Orth, André Fuchs, Million G Mesfun, Frieder Pfäfflin, Tamara Nordmann, Matthias Breuer, Monika Hampl, Dieter Häussinger
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global public health issue and omnipresent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Moreover, STIs and HIV in pregnant women can harm the unborn child. In this study, we systematically investigated the prevalence of HIV, relevant STIs and vaginal group B streptococcus colonization among pregnant women presenting at Asella Teaching Hospital in central Ethiopia and their effect on perinatal mortality. A follow-up was performed six weeks after delivery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774769/predictors-for-under-prescribing-antibiotics-in-children-with-respiratory-infections-requiring-antibiotics
#18
Aaron E Kornblith, Jahan Fahimi, Hemal Kanzaria, Ralph C Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Previous studies showed variability in the use of diagnostic and therapeutic resources for children with febrile acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI), including antibiotics. Unnecessary antibiotic use has important public and individual health outcomes, but missed antibiotic prescribing also has important consequences. We sought to determine factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in pediatric ARTI, specifically those with pneumonia. METHODS: We assessed national trends in the evaluation and treatment of ARTI for pediatric emergency department (ED) patients by analyzing the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2002 to 2013...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774756/implementation-in-the-midst-of-complexity-using-ethnography-to-study-health-care-associated-infection-prevention-and-control
#19
Mary Jo Knobloch, Kevin V Thomas, Erin Patterson, Michele L Zimbric, Jackson Musuuza, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Contextual factors associated with health care settings make reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) a complex task. The aim of this article is to highlight how ethnography can assist in understanding contextual factors that support or hinder the implementation of evidence-based practices for reducing HAIs. METHODS: We conducted a review of ethnographic studies specifically related to HAI prevention and control in the last 5 years (2012-2017)...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774697/emerging-issues-challenges-and-changing-epidemiology-of-fungal-disease-outbreaks
#20
REVIEW
Kaitlin Benedict, Malcolm Richardson, Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Brendan R Jackson, Tom Chiller
Several high-profile outbreaks have drawn attention to invasive fungal infections (IFIs) as an increasingly important public health problem. IFI outbreaks are caused by many different fungal pathogens and are associated with numerous settings and sources. In the community, IFI outbreaks often occur among people without predisposing medical conditions and are frequently precipitated by environmental disruption. Health-care-associated IFI outbreaks have been linked to suboptimal hospital environmental conditions, transmission via health-care workers' hands, contaminated medical products, and transplantation of infected organs...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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