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health care associated infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341490/containing-influenza-outbreaks-with-antiviral-use-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan-2008-2014
#1
Hao-Yuan Cheng, Wan-Chin Chen, Yu-Ru Chou, Angela Song-En Huang, Wan-Ting Huang
BACKGROUNDS: Influenza can spread rapidly in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and residents are usually at higher risk for influenza infections. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral interventions on outbreak control. METHODS: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control used a syndromic surveillance system to monitor outbreaks in LTCFs. Local public health authorities verified those outbreaks and logged reports to the Epidemic Investigation Report Files Management System (EIRFMS)...
January 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340489/tuberculosis-infection-among-primary-health-care-workers
#2
Thamy Carvalho Lacerda, Fernanda Mattos de Souza, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli, Geisa Fregona, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima, Ethel Leonor Maciel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340463/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-chronic-wounds-of-patients-treated-in-primary-health-care-settings-in-brazil
#3
Eliane Patricia Lino Pereira-Franchi, Maria Rachel Nogueira Barreira, Natália de Sousa Lima Moreira da Costa, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Wounds can be colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the wounds of patients treated at Basic Health Units in Brazil and identified risk factors associated with their presence. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA were 51.5% and 8.7%, respectively. There was a correlation between the presence of S. aureus in wounds and nostrils (p<0...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339536/length-of-stay-and-hospital-revisit-after-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations
#4
Christopher J Russell, Mary R Mamey, Joyce Y Koh, Sheree M Schrager, Michael N Neely, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI...
January 16, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339405/health-care-professionals-neckties-as-a-source-of-transmission-of-bacteria-to-patients-a-systematic-review
#5
Pia Pace-Asciak, Sanjiv K Bhimrao, Frederick K Kozak, Brian D Westerberg
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that neckties worn by health care professionals may contribute to infections contracted in health care settings. We evaluated the evidence for health-care-associated infections resulting from neckties and whether the evidence is sufficient to warrant a tieless policy in Canada. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to determine whether neckties worn by health care professionals colonize harmful pathogenic bacteria and whether they contribute to the spread of infection to patients in the inpatient or outpatient setting...
January 12, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339298/implementation-and-impact-of-an-audit-and-feedback-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-in-the-orthopaedics-department-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-controlled-interrupted-time-series-study
#6
Margarida Tavares, Ana Cláudia Carvalho, José Pedro Almeida, Paulo Andrade, Ricardo São Simão, Pedro Soares, Carlos Alves, Rui Pinto, Arnaud Fontanet, Laurence Watier
A prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship intervention conducted in the Orthopaedics Department of a University Hospital in Portugal was evaluated by comparing an interrupted time series in an intervention group and a non-intervention (control) group. Monthly antibiotic use (except cefazolin) was measured as World Health Organization- and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical-defined daily doses (DDD) from January 2012 to September 2016, excluding the 6-month phase of intervention implementation starting on January 1, 2015...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338730/factors-associated-with-hiv-positive-sero-status-among-exposed-infants-attending-care-at-health-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-rural-uganda
#7
Methuselah Muhindo Kahungu, Julius Kiwanuka, Frank Kaharuza, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: East and South Africa contributes 59% of all pediatric HIV infections globally. In Uganda, HIV prevalence among HIV exposed infants was estimated at 5.3% in 2014. Understanding the remaining bottlenecks to elimination of mother-to-child transmission (eMTCT) is critical to accelerating efforts towards eMTCT. This study determined factors associated with HIV positive sero-status among exposed infants attending mother-baby care clinics in rural Kasese so as to inform enhancement of interventions to further reduce MTCT...
January 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336918/current-prevention-and-control-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-long-term-care-facilities-for-the-elderly-in-japan
#8
Naoko Kariya, Naomi Sakon, Jun Komano, Kazunori Tomono, Hiroyasu Iso
Residents of long-term care facilities for the elderly are vulnerable to health care-associated infections. However, compared to medical institutions, long-term care facilities for the elderly lag behind in health care-associated infection control and prevention. We conducted a epidemiologic study to clarify the current status of infection control in long-term care facilities for the elderly in Japan. A questionnaire survey on the aspects of infection prevention and control was developed according to SHEA/APIC guidelines and was distributed to 617 long-term care facilities for the elderly in the province of Osaka during November 2016 and January 2017...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336226/identifying-metrics-before-and-after-readmission-following-head-and-neck-surgery-and-factors-affecting-readmission-rate
#9
Sidharth V Puram, Neil Bhattacharyya
Objectives Determine nationally representative readmission rates after head and neck cancer (HNCA) surgery and factors associated with readmission. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of admissions database. Methods The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was analyzed for HNCA surgery admissions and subsequent readmission within 30 days. The readmission rate, length of stay (LOS), disposition, mortality rate, and total charges were determined. Diagnoses and procedures upon readmission were quantified. Factors that were associated with readmission were determined...
January 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334886/factors-associated-with-recent-unsuppressed-viral-load-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-care-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#10
D Joseph Davey, Z Abrahams, M Feinberg, M Prins, C Serrao, B Medeossi, E Darkoh
Unsuppressed viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs when treatment fails to suppress a person's VL and is associated with decreased survival and increased HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with unsuppressed VL (VL > 400 copies/ml) in patients currently in care on first-line ART for ≥ 6 months attending South African public healthcare facilities. We analysed electronic medical records of ART patients with a VL result on record who started ART between January 2004 and April 2016 from 271 public health facilities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334885/2016-united-kingdom-national-guideline-on-the-sexual-health-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
Dan Clutterbuck, David Asboe, Tristan Barber, Carol Emerson, Nigel Field, Stuart Gibson, Gwenda Hughes, Rachael Jones, Martin Murchie, Achyuta V Nori, Michael Rayment, Ann Sullivan
This guideline is intended for use in UK Genitourinary medicine clinics and sexual health services but is likely to be of relevance in all sexual health settings, including general practice and Contraception and Sexual Health (CASH) services, where men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual health care or where addressing the sexual health needs of MSM may have public health benefits. For the purposes of this document, MSM includes all gay, bisexual and all other males who have sex with other males and both cis and trans men...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329922/a-multistate-investigation-of-health-care-associated-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-related-to-liquid-docusate-sodium-contamination-january-october-2016
#12
Janet Glowicz, Matthew Crist, Carolyn Gould, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Judith Noble-Wang, Tom J B de Man, K Allison Perry, Zachary Miller, William C Yang, Stephen Langille, Jessica Ross, Bobbiejean Garcia, Janice Kim, Erin Epson, Stephanie Black, Massimo Pacilli, John J LiPuma, Ryan Fagan
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have been associated with medical devices and water-based products. Water is the most common raw ingredient in nonsterile liquid drugs, and the significance of organisms recovered from microbiologic testing during manufacturing is assessed using a risk-based approach. This incident demonstrates that lapses in manufacturing practices and quality control of nonsterile liquid drugs can have serious unintended consequences...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326004/health-care-associated-infections-in-iran-a-national-update-for-the-year-2015
#13
Babak Eshrati, Hossein Masoumi Asl, Shirin Afhami, Zahra Pezeshki, Arash Seifi
BACKGROUND: A national surveillance system for health care-associated infections (HAIs) in Iran is relatively new, and an update on incidence and mortality rates can aid clinicians and stakeholders in development of new guidelines and imperative modifications to be made. METHODS: Data were extracted from the national HAIs surveillance software for more than 7 million hospitalizations during 2015. Data regarding age, gender, deaths, ward of admission, and microbiologic findings were collected and analyzed...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324733/antibiotics-dispensed-to-privately-insured-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-infections-united-states-2014
#14
Elizabeth C Ailes, April D Summers, Emmy L Tran, Suzanne M Gilboa, Kathryn E Arnold, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jennita Reefhuis
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322764/rapid-veterinary-diagnosis-of-bovine-reproductive-infectious-diseases-from-semen-using-paper-origami-dna-microfluidics
#15
Zhugen Yang, Gaolian Xu, Julien Reboud, Syed Atif Ali, Gurpreet Kaur, John McGiven, Nongthombam Boby, Praveen Gupta, Pallab Chaudhuri, Jonathan Mark Cooper
The health and well-being of cattle is a significant concern for global agricultural output. In dairy production within low and middle income countries (LMICs), there is a significant biosensing challenge in detecting sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens during animal husbandry, due in part to difficulties associated with the limited infrastructure for veterinary medicine. Here we demonstrate low-cost, multiplexed and sample-to-answer paper-origami tests for the detection of three bovine infectious reproductive diseases in semen samples, collected at a test site in rural India...
January 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320513/a-harm-reduction-model-of-abortion-counseling-about-misoprostol-use-in-peru-with-telephone-and-in-person-follow-up-a-cohort-study
#16
Daniel Grossman, Sarah E Baum, Denitza Andjelic, Carrie Tatum, Guadalupe Torres, Liza Fuentes, Jennifer Friedman
BACKGROUND: In Peru, abortion is legal only to preserve the life and health of the woman. A non-profit clinic system in Peru implemented a harm-reduction model for women with unwanted pregnancy that included pre-abortion care with instructions about misoprostol use and post-abortion care; they started offering telephone follow-up for clients in 2011. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the harm-reduction model, and to compare outcomes by type of follow-up obtained...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319251/time-to-revisit-recommendations-on-doctor-to-population-ratio-in-india
#17
Madhav G Deo
A buzzword in Indian press and amongst the policy makers is that India is short of the WHO recommended doctor to population ratio of 1:1000. The recommendations were formulated to facilitate programs to achieve some of the health related UN-Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Infections and malnutrition, which can be comfortably handled by a basic MBBS doctor, were the dominant health issues at the time of the formulation of the MDGs. However, all countries worldwide are going through health epidemiological transition and health impact of the non-communicable disorders (NCDs) can be no more ignored even by the low income nations...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318413/evaluation-of-postoperative-fever-after-surgical-correction-of-neuromuscular-scoliosis-implication-on-management
#18
Mohamed Abdelhamid Ali Yousef, Scott Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Scoliosis is a common deformity in patients with neuromuscular disorders which usually necessitates surgical correction. Patients with neuromuscular scoliosis are characterized by increased incidence of associated medical co-morbidities and higher postoperative complication rate; therefore, these patients are often managed with a wide multidisciplinary care team. Postoperative fever is a frequent complication after surgery which is often routinely investigated using different workup tests to rule out infection...
January 9, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316797/disparities-in-hiv-viral-load-suppression-by-race-ethnicity-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-hiv-outpatient-study
#19
Kate Buchacz, Carl Armon, E Tedaldi, Frank J Palella, Richard M Novak, Douglas Ward, Rachel Hart, Marcus Durham, John Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing the rates of virologic suppression (VS) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is essential to limiting HIV morbidity and sexual transmission of HIV in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed data for MSM of non-Hispanic white (white), non-Hispanic black (black) or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) at nine U.S. HIV clinics. VS (HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL) was measured closest to January 1, 2015...
January 9, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314789/risk-factors-for-hospitalizations-due-to-bacterial-respiratory-tract-infections-after-tracheotomy
#20
Christopher J Russell, Cary Thurm, Matt Hall, Tamara D Simon, Michael N Neely, Jay G Berry
OBJECTIVE: Identify characteristics associated with hospital readmission due to bacterial respiratory tract infections (bRTI) after tracheotomy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of 8009 children 0-17 years undergoing tracheotomy from 2007 to 2013 at 48 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. The primary outcome was first hospital admission after tracheotomy for bRTI (ie, primary diagnosis of bRTI or a primary diagnosis of bRTI symptom and secondary diagnosis of bRTI)...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
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