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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211567/isolation-precautions-use-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-infection-in-nursing-homes
#1
Catherine C Cohen, Andrew Dick, Patricia W Stone
OBJECTIVES: To examine factors associated with isolation precaution use in nursing home (NH) residents with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' certification from October 2010 to December 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Elderly, long-stay NH residents with positive MDRO infection assessments. MEASUREMENTS: Data were obtained from the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210943/faces-of-frailty-in-aging-with-hiv-infection
#2
REVIEW
Marion Thurn, Deborah R Gustafson
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The number of adults who are aging successfully and have HIV infection is increasing. More effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are preventing individuals infected with HIV from reaching end stages of the HIV infection and developing AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). However, even at lower viral loads, chronic HIV infection appears to have consequences on aging processes, including the development of frailty. RECENT FINDINGS: Frailty is a term used to describe vulnerability in aging...
February 16, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209395/highlights-from-the-2016-hiv-diagnostics-conference-the-new-landscape-of-hiv-testing-in-laboratories-public-health-programs-and-clinical-practice
#3
Laura G Wesolowski, Monica M Parker, Kevin P Delaney, S Michele Owen
The 2016 HIV Diagnostics Conference, held in Atlanta, Georgia, was attended by public health officials, laboratorians, HIV testing program managers, surveillance coordinators and industry representatives. The conference addressed test performance data, the implementation of new testing algorithms, quality assurance, and the application of new tests in a variety of settings. With regard to the recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Association of Public Health Laboratories HIV laboratory testing algorithm, the conference featured performance data, implementation challenges such as a lack of test options for the second and third steps, as well as data needs for new tests that may be used as part of the algorithm...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209197/accuracy-and-generalizability-of-using-automated-methods-for-identifying-adverse-events-from-electronic-health-record-data-a-validation-study-protocol
#4
Christian M Rochefort, David L Buckeridge, Andréanne Tanguay, Alain Biron, Frédérick D'Aragon, Shengrui Wang, Benoit Gallix, Louis Valiquette, Li-Anne Audet, Todd C Lee, Dev Jayaraman, Bruno Petrucci, Patricia Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Adverse events (AEs) in acute care hospitals are frequent and associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. Measuring AEs is necessary for quality improvement and benchmarking purposes, but current detection methods lack in accuracy, efficiency, and generalizability. The growing availability of electronic health records (EHR) and the development of natural language processing techniques for encoding narrative data offer an opportunity to develop potentially better methods...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207688/transmission-of-zika-virus-haiti-october-12-2015-september-10-2016
#5
Ito Journel, Lesly L Andrécy, Dudley Metellus, Jean S Pierre, Rose Murka Faublas, Stanley Juin, Amber M Dismer, David L Fitter, Daniel Neptune, Marie José Laraque, Salomon Corvil, Manise Pierre, Josiane Buteau, Donald Lafontant, Roopal Patel, Jean Frantz Lemoine, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles, Jacques Boncy, Paul Adrien
Zika virus disease is caused by infection with a flavivirus with broad geographic distribution and is most frequently transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease was first identified in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas in 2015 and was followed by a surge in reported cases of congenital microcephaly in Brazil; Zika virus disease rapidly spread to the rest of the region and the Caribbean (1), including Haiti. Infection with the virus is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (1) and rare neurologic complications in adults...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207077/prevention-of-health-care-associated-infections-in-an-era-of-public-reporting
#6
Chetan Jinadatha, Edward J Septimus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Texas Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203330/risk-factors-for-health-care-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#7
Sabahattin Ertugrul, Fesih Aktar, Ilyas Yolbas, Ahmet Yilmaz, Bilal Elbey, Ahmet Yildirim, Kamil Yilmaz, Recep Tekin
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the causative organisms and risk factors of HCA-BSIs in NICUs. METHODS: This study was performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit of Dicle university, Turkey. The study consisted of 126 patients (infected group) with positive blood culture and 126 randomly selected patients (uninfected control group) with negative blood culture after four days of hospitalization...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202204/expedited-partner-therapy-a-review-for-the-pediatric-nurse-practitioner
#8
Lauren M Hopson, Sabrina Opiola McCauley
The rate of sexually transmitted infections in the United States increased in 2015 for the second year in a row. Adolescents bear an undue portion of this burden because of increased physiologic susceptibility, higher rates of reinfection, and developmental age. Despite expedited partner therapy (EPT) being legalized in 39 states, health care providers still report infrequently providing EPT to their adolescent patients. Patients who benefit most from EPT include those with high-risk sexual behavior, a steady relationship status, higher education level, or an established relationship with the provider...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201979/wide-variation-in-sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-and-counselling-at-aboriginal-primary-health-care-centres-in-australia-analysis-of-longitudinal-continuous-quality-improvement-data
#9
Barbara Nattabi, Veronica Matthews, Jodie Bailie, Alice Rumbold, David Scrimgeour, Gill Schierhout, James Ward, Rebecca Guy, John Kaldor, Sandra C Thompson, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis are readily treatable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which continue to occur at high rates in Australia, particularly among Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to: explore the extent of variation in delivery of recommended STI screening investigations and counselling within Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centres; identify the factors associated with variation in screening practices; and determine if provision of STI testing and counselling increased with participation in continuous quality improvement (CQI)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199918/factors-associated-with-alcohol-use-prior-to-and-during-pregnancy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-cape-town-south-africa
#10
Kirsty Brittain, Robert H Remien, Tamsin Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer, Claude A Mellins
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent in South Africa, but there are few prospectively-collected data exploring patterns of consumption among HIV-infected women, which may be important to improve maternal and child health outcomes. We examined patterns of and factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: Participants were enrolled when entering antenatal care at a large primary care clinic, and alcohol use was assessed using the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test)...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199824/protective-effect-of-metformin-against-tuberculosis-infections-in-diabetic-patients-an-observational-study-of-south-indian-tertiary-healthcare-facility
#11
Marupuru Srujitha, Senapati Padmanav, P Swathi, M Sonal Sekhar, M K Unnikrishnan, K Manu Mohan
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization estimated that people with diabetes (DM) are at 2-3 times the higher risk for tuberculosis (TB). Studies have shown that DM not only increases the risk of active TB but, also puts co-affected person at increased risk of poor outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the protective effect of metformin against TB in DM patients and also, to investigate the relationship between poor glycemic control and TB. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted over 8 months, where cases and controls were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study...
February 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199798/the-hotel-study-clinical-and-health-service-effectiveness-in-a-cohort-of-homeless-or-marginally-housed-persons
#12
William G Honer, Alejandro Cervantes-Larios, Andrea A Jones, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Julio S Montaner, Howard Tran, Jimmy Nham, William J Panenka, Donna J Lang, Allen E Thornton, Talia Vertinsky, Alasdair M Barr, Ric M Procyshyn, Geoffrey N Smith, Tari Buchanan, Mel Krajden, Michael Krausz, G William MacEwan, Kristina M Gicas, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Alexander Rauscher, Krista Schultz
OBJECTIVE: The Hotel Study was initiated in Vancouver's Downtown East Side (DTES) neighborhood to investigate multimorbidity in homeless or marginally housed people. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of existing, illness-specific treatment strategies and assessed the effectiveness of health care delivery for multimorbid illnesses. METHOD: For context, we mapped the housing locations of patients presenting for 552,062 visits to the catchment hospital emergency department (2005-2013)...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199770/prevalence-of-hbsag-hbeag-among-1-936-801-couples-preparing-for-pregnancy-in-rural-china-an-observational-study
#13
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Qiaomei Wang, Shenhai Ping, Man Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Min Liu
OBJECTIVE: There are few extant studies on the prevalence of HBV infection in couples preparing for pregnancy. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in couples preparing for pregnancy in rural China, and the association between HBV prevalence and the statuses of HBsAg/HBeAg and ALT in the spouses. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study, using data from a health check-up program for 1 936 801 rural couples from 31 provinces preparing for pregnancy between 2010 and 2012...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198711/longitudinal-opioid-use-among-hiv-infected-patients-2000-to-2014
#14
Laurence Brunet, Sonia Napravnik, Amy D Heine, Peter A Leone, Joseph J Eron
Longitudinal opioid prescription use is unknown among HIV-infected patients. Group-based trajectory modeling followed by multinomial logistic regression was used to identify distinct trajectories and their association with baseline characteristics among 1239 HIV-infected UNC CFAR HIV Clinical Cohort participants, 2000-2014. Three trajectories were identified: 1) 72% never/sporadic opioid use (referent group), 2) 11% episodic use (associated with female sex, depression, drug-related diagnoses, antiretroviral therapy use and undetectable HIV RNA), and 3) 16% chronic use (associated with older age, female sex and mental health diagnoses)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#15
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195783/-hiv-is-not-going-to-kill-me-old-age-is-the-intersection-of-aging-and-hiv-for-older-hiv-infected-adults-in-rural-communities
#16
Katherine Quinn, Chris Sanders, Andrew E Petroll
Older adults with HIV/AIDS living in rural areas face unique challenges to accessing HIV care and medications, and suffer greater mortality than non-rural HIV-infected individuals. This qualitative study examined the intersection of aging and HIV to identify factors that affect overall health, engagement in care, and medication adherence among this understudied population. Qualitative interviews were conducted by phone with 29 HIV-positive adults over the age of 50 living in U.S. rural counties and analyzed using thematic content analysis...
February 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194585/prevalence-and-associations-of-psychological-distress-hiv-infection-and-hiv-care-service-utilization-in-east-zimbabwe
#17
Malebogo Tlhajoane, Jeffrey W Eaton, Albert Takaruza, Rebecca Rhead, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Nadine Schur, Lorraine Sherr, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates...
February 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193663/results-from-a-patient-based-health-education-intervention-in-reducing-antibiotic-use-for-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-private-sector-primary-care-setting-in-singapore
#18
Magdalene Hui Min Lee, Darius Shaw Teng Pan, Joyce Huixin Huang, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Joash Wen Chen Chong, Ee Hui Goh, Lili Jiang, Yee Sin Leo, Tau Hong Lee, Chia Siong Wong, Victor Weng Keong Loh, Fong Seng Lim, Adrian Zhongxian Poh, Tat Yean Tham, Wei Mon Wong, Yue Yu
We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) amongst adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at GP (general practitioner) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the aetiology of URTIs, role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193249/factors-associated-with-parental-reasons-for-no-intent-to-vaccinate-female-adolescents-with-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-national-immunization-survey-teen-2008-2012
#19
Vinay K Cheruvu, Madhav P Bhatta, Lauren N Drinkard
BACKGROUND: 1) To identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental "no-intent" for their 13-17 year old unvaccinated daughter to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series within the next twelve months, 2) to describe patterns in "no-intent" by socio-demographic factors, and 3) to identify socio-demographic factors associated with parental reasons for "no-intent". METHODS: Data from 2008-2012 National Immunization Survey - Teen (NIS - Teen) were examined in this study...
February 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193183/factors-associated-with-the-length-of-delay-with-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-among-adult-tuberculosis-patients-attending-at-public-health-facilities-in-gondar-town-northwest-ethiopia
#20
Selamsew Bogale, Ermias Diro, Atsede Mazengia Shiferaw, Melaku Kindie Yenit
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential for an effective tuberculosis (TB) control program. However, significant proportion of cases remains undiagnosed and untreated. Delay in diagnosis and treatment increases transmission. Hence, the study assessed the length of delay and associated factors with tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment among adults attending public health facilities in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May, 2016...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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