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Fast acting psychotropics

Joanna Ficek, Magdalena Zygmunt, Marcin Piechota, Dzesika Hoinkis, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Ryszard Przewlocki, Michal Korostynski
BACKGROUND: The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine was found to act as a fast-acting antidepressant. The effects of single treatment were reported to persist for days to weeks, even in otherwise treatment-refractory cases. Identification of the mechanisms underlying ketamine's antidepressant action may permit development of novel drugs, with similar clinical properties but lacking psychotomimetic, sedative and other side effects. METHODS: We applied whole-genome microarray profiling to analyze detailed time-course (1, 2, 4 and 8 h) of transcriptome alterations in the striatum and hippocampus following acute administration of ketamine, memantine and phencyclidine in C57BL/6 J mice...
2016: BMC Genomics
T P Jürgens
Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TAC) are characterized by severe and strictly unilateral headaches with a frontotemporal and periorbital preponderance in combination with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and restlessness or agitation. One main differentiating factor is the duration of painful attacks. While attacks typically last 5 s to 10 min in SUNCT syndrome (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing), paroxysmal hemicrania lasts 2-30 min and cluster headaches 15-180 min...
August 2014: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Garron T Dodd, Giacomo Mancini, Beat Lutz, Simon M Luckman
Hemopressin is a short, nine amino acid peptide (H-Pro-Val-Asn-Phe-Lys-Leu-Leu-Ser-His-OH) isolated from rat brain that behaves as an inverse agonist at the cannabinoid receptor CB(1), and is shown here to inhibit agonist-induced receptor internalization in a heterologous cell model. Since this peptide occurs naturally in the rodent brain, we determined its effect on appetite, an established central target of cannabinoid signaling. Hemopressin dose-dependently decreases night-time food intake in normal male rats and mice, as well as in obese ob/ob male mice, when administered centrally or systemically, without causing any obvious adverse side effects...
May 26, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Samuel Keith
BACKGROUND: Successful pharmacotherapy is dependent on several factors. While efficacy is obviously important, other factors that are often overlooked include the availability of optimal dosage forms, treatment compliance and reduction in side effects. A number of innovative delivery systems have been developed to address suboptimal therapy outcomes by enhancing drug delivery, assuring efficacy of treatment, reducing side effects, and improving compliance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to discuss the advances in formulations for various psychotropic agents that have been developed for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders...
August 30, 2006: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Dennis Flanagan
Triazolam can be helpful for sedating dental implant patients when administered orally or sublingually in low dosages of 0.125 or 0.25 mg, but not exceeding 0.5 mg. It is a fast- but short-acting benzodiazepine with few side effects, and it has a long record of successful use. Its effects can be reversed with incremental intravenous flumazenil, although there is a risk of seizure. Triazolam has not been shown to be carcinogenic, and it has a low potential for abuse and addiction. It is contraindicated in patients who are pregnant, breast-feeding, and those concomitantly taking ethanol, macrolid antibiotics, some protease inhibitors, psychotropic medications, ketoconazole, itraconazole, nefaxodone, or other medications that impair oxidative metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A)...
2004: Journal of Oral Implantology
Meera Vaswani, Farzana Kadar Linda, Subramanyam Ramesh
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have emerged as a major therapeutic advance in psychopharmacology. As a result, the discovery of these agents marks a milestone in neuropsychopharmacology and rational drug design, and has launched a new era in psychotropic drug development. Prior to the SSRIs, all psychotropic medications were the result of chance observation. In an attempt to develop a SSRI, researchers discovered a number of nontricyclic agents with amine-uptake inhibitory properties, acting on both noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons with considerable differences in potency...
February 2003: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
M Storvik, A M Lindén, O Kontkanen, M Lakso, E Castrén, G Wong
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor mediates fast excitatory neurotransmission, and agents that attenuate this function are neuroprotective, anesthetic, and psychotropic. To determine whether cAMP regulatable transcription factors play a role in the neurochemical actions of agents acting through NMDA receptors, the effects of the acute administration of uncompetitive and competitive antagonists on the expression of cAMP response element modulator (CREM) and inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) transcription factors were examined...
July 2000: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
R S Duman, G R Heninger, E J Nestler
Advances in molecular biology and neuroscience are leading to new opportunities for elucidation of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the long-term actions of psychotropic drugs. The actions of first messengers, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, on neuronal function can now be viewed in terms of their regulation of complex intracellular signal transduction pathways. These pathways mediate most actions of first messengers, including fast mediatory (e.g., cell firing), short-term modulatory (e...
December 1994: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
B Saletu, J Grünberger, L Linzmayer, K Taeuber
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nomifensine infusions as compared with oral preparations were investigated in a double-blind place-controlled crossover study in 10 healthy normal volunteers. They received randomized in weekly intervals 75 mg nomifensine and placebo intravenously as well as placebo, 75 and 150 mg nomifensine orally. Blood samples, quantitative EEG evaluations, psychometric tests, blood pressure, pulse rate and side effects were obtained and monitored at the hours 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8...
1982: International Pharmacopsychiatry
B Pepper, H Ryglewicz
We are fast approaching a centennial of New York State's institutional system, the anniversary of the State Care Act of 1980. This can be evaluated against another important anniversary; the quarter century mark of the current convulsion/revolution of the mental hygiene care system of the entire United States, commonly referred to as deinstitutionalization. The state institutions, which for the past century were built up and maintained as the major locus of care for the chronically mentally ill, no longer occupy that central place in many localities...
October 1985: Psychiatric Quarterly
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