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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734788/neuropathic-pain-in-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-is-associated-with-altered-electrophysiological-properties-of-nociceptive-drg-neurons
#1
Omneya Taha, Thoralf Opitz, Marcus Mueller, Julika Pitsch, Albert Becker, Bernd Oliver Evert, Heinz Beck, Monika Jeub
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy characterized by rapidly progressive paresis and sensory disturbances. Moderate to severe and often intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, but its underlying mechanisms are unknown. Pathology of GBS is classically attributed to demyelination of large, myelinated peripheral fibers. However, there is increasing evidence that neuropathic pain in GBS is associated with impaired function of small, unmyelinated, nociceptive fibers...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733756/glial-and-neuronal-antibodies-in-patients-with-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#2
Güneş Altıokka-Uzun, Ece Erdağ, Betül Baykan, John Tzartos, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Bedia Samancı, Erdinç Dursun, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Katerina Karagiorgou, Christos Stergiou, Erdi Şahin, Esme Ekizoğlu, Murat Kürtüncü, Erdem Tüzün
Headache and visual disturbances are the main presenting symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) with an unknown cause. We aimed to investigate the antibodies against optic neuritis-associated glial antigens, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and uncharacterized neuronal membrane antigens in IIH patients. Consecutive patients diagnosed according to Friedman revised diagnostic criteria and control subjects were included after their consent...
July 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729154/tremelimumab-as-second-line-or-third-line-treatment-in-relapsed-malignant-mesothelioma-determine-a-multicentre-international-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#3
Michele Maio, Arnaud Scherpereel, Luana Calabrò, Joachim Aerts, Susana Cedres Perez, Alessandra Bearz, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Dean A Fennell, Dariusz Kowalski, Anne S Tsao, Paul Taylor, Federica Grosso, Scott J Antonia, Anna K Nowak, Maria Taboada, Martina Puglisi, Paul K Stockman, Hedy L Kindler
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies for malignant mesothelioma are urgently needed. In the DETERMINE study, we investigated the effects of the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in patients with previously treated advanced malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: DETERMINE was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial done at 105 study centres across 19 countries in patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma who had progressed after one or two previous systemic treatments for advanced disease...
July 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727882/corneal-confocal-microscopy-an-imaging-endpoint-for-axonal-degeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Ioannis N Petropoulos, Saadat Kamran, Yi Li, Adnan Khan, Georgios Ponirakis, Naveed Akhtar, Dirk Deleu, Ashfaq Shuaib, Rayaz A Malik
Purpose: To evaluate whether corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) detects axonal degeneration and whether this is associated with retinal nerve fiber degeneration and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Twenty-five patients with MS and 25 healthy control subjects underwent CCM, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and assessment of neurological disability using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and MS severity score (MSSS)...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726788/neuroprotection-by-eif2%C3%AE-chop-inhibition-and-xbp-1-activation-in-eae-optic-neuritiss
#5
Haoliang Huang, Linqing Miao, Feisi Liang, Xiaodong Liu, Lin Xu, Xiuyin Teng, Qizhao Wang, William H Ridder, Kenneth S Shindler, Yang Sun, Yang Hu
No therapies exist to prevent neuronal deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), because the molecular mechanism responsible for the progressive neurodegeneration is unknown. We previously showed that axon injury-induced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and optic nerve degeneration in traumatic and glaucomatous optic neuropathies. Optic neuritis, one of the most common clinical manifestations of MS, is readily modeled by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mouse...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719871/optic-neuritis-in-pregnancy-after-tdap-vaccination-report-of-two-cases
#6
Jose M Cabrera-Maqueda, Rocio Hernández-Clares, Ana E Baidez-Guerrero, Julian Ignacio Bermúdez Pío-Rendón, Jose J Martín Fernández
Two pregnant women developed one-eye blurring vision within three weeks after Tdap vaccination. Neurophtalmologic and MR examination confirmed an unilateral optic neuritis without evidence of underlying disease. Both patients had a full recovery, one after intravenous metilprednisolone. This is the first report of optic neuritis related with Tdap vaccination in pregnancy.
July 11, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#7
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunisation with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light NF-L, a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, while antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718302/cardiovascular-risk-factors-among-patients-with-vestibular-neuritis
#8
Yahav Oron, Shay Shemesh, Sagit Shushan, Udi Cinamon, Abraham Goldfarb, Ron Dabby, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and vestibular neuritis (VN) in hospitalized adult patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital setting. The medical records of patients (aged over 18 years old) who were hospitalized between the years 2005 and 2014 with the diagnosis of VN were retrieved. Inclusion criteria were: (1) acute vertigo lasting for at least 24 hours, (2) absence of auditory complaints, (3) horizontal unidirectional nystagmus present during physical examination, and (4) absence of neurological symptoms or signs...
August 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716667/pupillometric-evaluation-of-the-melanopsin-containing-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mitochondrial-and-non-mitochondrial-optic-neuropathies
#9
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Henrik Lund-Andersen
In recent years, chromatic pupillometry is used in humans to evaluate the activity of melanopsin expressing intrinsic photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Blue light is used to stimulate the ipRGCs and red light activates the rod/cone photoreceptors. The late re-dilation phase of pupillary light reflex is primarily driven by the ipRGCs. Optic neuropathies i.e. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), glaucoma, optic neuritis and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are among the diseases, which have been subject to pupillometric studies...
July 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709761/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-churg-strauss-report-of-26-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Raphaël André, Vincent Cottin, Jean-Luc Saraux, Gilles Blaison, Boris Bienvenu, Pascal Cathebras, Romain Dhote, Aurélie Foucher, Helder Gil, Joëlle Lapoirie, David Launay, Valentine Loustau, François Maurier, Edouard Pertuiset, Thierry Zénone, Jörg Seebach, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Xavier Puéchal, Luc Mouthon, Loïc Guillevin, Benjamin Terrier
BACKGROUND: Although peripheral nervous system involvement is common in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are poorly described. This study aimed to describe CNS involvement in EGPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicenter study included patients with EGPA and CNS involvement affecting cranial nerves, brain and/or spinal cord. We also undertook a systematic literature review...
July 11, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705842/facial-palsy-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-special-case-of-ramsay-hunt-syndrome
#11
Fares Ayoub, Dhruv Mahtta, Roland-Austin Federico, Michael Kaufmann
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) is a rare complication of latent Varicella Zoster virus infection. It can be complicated by permanent hearing loss, loss of taste and postherpetic neuralgia. Although Ramsay Hunt syndrome most prominently involves the facial nerve, a number of other cranial nerves can be involved such as the vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and the vagus nerve. We report on a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuritis complicated by atrial fibrillation. Vagal involvement as evidenced by physical examination and MRI findings was present in our patient...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705754/progression-of-lyme-disease-to-bell-s-palsy-despite-treatment-with-doxycycline
#12
Luis A Marcos, Zengmin Yan
A 54 year-old healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a right sided facial paralysis. About 3 weeks ago, she woke up and noticed an attached engorged tick in her right lower extremity. A week later, she noticed a mild to moderate right jaw pain which progressed to a severe right facial pain so she visited her doctor. On physical, II to XII cranial nerve examination was unremarkable. Doppler ultrasound did not show any vascular abnormalities in temporal artery. Her inflammatory markers were within normal limits (C-reactive protein:0...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701542/group-iv-nociceptors-develop-axonal-chemical-sensitivity-during-neuritis-and-following-treatment-of-the-sciatic-nerve-with-vinblastine
#13
Rosann M Govea, Mary F Barbe, Geoffrey M Bove
We have previously shown that nerve inflammation (neuritis) and transient vinblastine application lead to axonal mechanical sensitivity in nociceptors innervating deep structures. We have also shown that these treatments reduce axonal transport, and proposed that this leads to functional accumulation of mechanically sensitive channels in the affected part of the axons. While informing the etiology of mechanically induced pain, axonal mechanical sensitivity does not address the common report of ongoing radiating pain during neuritis, which could be secondary to the provocation of axonal chemical sensitivity...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694135/characteristics-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-the-turkish-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-database
#14
Ünsal Yılmaz, Banu Anlar, Kıvılcım Gücüyener
OBJECTIVE: To document the clinical and paraclinical features of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) in Turkey. METHODS: Data of MS patients with onset before age 18 years (n = 193) were collected from 27 pediatric neurology centers throughout Turkey. Earlier-onset (<12 years) and later-onset (≥12 years) groups were compared. RESULTS: There were 123 (63.7%) girls and 70 (36.3%) boys aged 4-17 years, median 14 years at disease onset. Family history of MS was 6...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688712/cotton-osteotomy-in-flatfoot-reconstruction-a-review-of-consecutive-cases
#15
Troy J Boffeli, Katherine R Schnell
The Cotton osteotomy or opening wedge medial cuneiform osteotomy is a useful adjunctive flatfoot reconstructive procedure that is commonly performed; however, the outcomes are rarely reported owing to the adjunctive nature of the procedure. The Cotton procedure is relatively quick to perform and effectively corrects forefoot varus deformity after rearfoot fusion or osteotomy to achieve a rectus forefoot to rearfoot relationship. Proper patient selection is critical because the preoperative findings of medial column joint instability, concomitant hallux valgus deformity, or degenerative joint disease of the medial column might be better treated by arthrodesis of the naviculocuneiform or first tarsometatarsal joints...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684532/longitudinal-analysis-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-cns-inflammatory-diseases
#16
Jae-Won Hyun, Mark R Woodhall, Su-Hyun Kim, In Hye Jeong, Byungsoo Kong, Gayoung Kim, Yeseul Kim, Min Su Park, Sarosh R Irani, Patrick Waters, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the seroprevalence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G1 (MOG-IgG) and associated clinical features of patients from a large adult-dominant unselected cohort with mainly relapsing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases. We also investigate the clinical relevance of MOG-IgG through a longitudinal analysis of serological status over a 2-year follow-up period. METHODS: Serum samples from 505 patients with CNS inflammatory diseases at the National Cancer Center were analysed using cell-based assays for MOG-IgG and aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680965/a-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-based-p75-ntr-peptide-mimetic-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-induced-axonal-pathology-and-demyelination
#17
David G Gonsalvez, Giang Tran, Jessica L Fletcher, Richard A Hughes, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Rhiannon J Wood, Sang Won Yoo, Mithraka De Silva, Wong W Agnes, Catriona McLean, Paul Kennedy, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
Axonal damage and demyelination are major determinants of disability in patients with peripheral demyelinating neuropathies. The neurotrophin family of growth factors are essential for the normal development and myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and as such are potential therapeutic candidates for ameliorating axonal and myelin damage. In particular, BDNF promotes peripheral nerve myelination via p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) receptors. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a small structural mimetic of the region of BDNF that binds to p75(NTR) (cyclo-dPAKKR) in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an established animal model of peripheral demyelinating neuropathy...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680531/mitochondrial-uncoupler-prodrug-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-mp201-prevents-neuronal-damage-and-preserves-vision-in-experimental-optic-neuritis
#18
Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, John G Geisler, Kenneth S Shindler
The ability of novel mitochondrial uncoupler prodrug of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), MP201, to prevent neuronal damage and preserve visual function in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of optic neuritis was evaluated. Optic nerve inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss are prominent features of optic neuritis, an inflammatory optic neuropathy often associated with the central nervous system demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Currently, optic neuritis is frequently treated with high-dose corticosteroids, but treatment fails to prevent permanent neuronal damage and associated vision changes that occur as optic neuritis resolves, thus suggesting that additional therapies are required...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674367/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-recurrent-intracranial-hemorrhage
#19
Hiroaki Yaguchi, Yasunori Mito, Ikkei Ohashi, Taichi Nomura, Ichiro Yabe, Yasutaka Tajima
The patient was a woman without hypertension who had previously experienced intracranial hemorrhage twice at 48 and 56 years of age. At 59 years of age, she was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) based on the presence of a brain stem lesion and the detection of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies. After 5 months of continuous treatment with prednisolone (15 mg/day), she presented with optic neuritis and intracranial bleeding. A recurrent attack of NMOSD and intracranial hemorrhage were concurrently diagnosed...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670343/differential-diagnosis-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sung-Min Kim, Seong-Joon Kim, Haeng Jin Lee, Hiroshi Kuroda, Jacqueline Palace, Kazuo Fujihara
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) mostly manifesting as optic neuritis and/or myelitis, which are frequently recurrent/bilateral or longitudinally extensive, respectively. As the autoantibody to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab) can mediate the pathogenesis of NMOSD, testing for the AQP4-Ab in serum of patients can play a crucial role in diagnosing NMOSD. Nevertheless, the differential diagnosis of NMOSD in clinical practice is often challenging despite the phenotypical and serological characteristics of the disease because: (1) diverse diseases with autoimmune, vascular, infectious, or neoplastic etiologies can mimic these phenotypes of NMOSD; (2) patients with NMOSD may only have limited clinical manifestations, especially in their early disease stages; (3) test results for AQP4-Ab can be affected by several factors such as assay methods, serologic status, disease stages, or types of treatment; (4) some patients with NMOSD do not have AQP4-Ab; and (5) test results for the AQP4-Ab may not be readily available for the acute management of patients...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
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