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Marina López-García, Roberto Romero-González, Marina Lacasaña, Antonia Garrido Frenich
A semiautomated method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) and the metabolite acetamiprid-n-desmethyl in urine samples. Two automated methods were tested (solid-phase extraction "SPE" and turbulent flow chromatography "TurboFlow™"), obtaining the best results when TurboFlow™ was applied...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Matthew J Traylor, Jong-Min Baek, Katelyn E Richards, Roberto Fusetto, W Huang, Peter Josh, Zhengzhong Chen, Padma Bollapragada, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham, Elizabeth M J Gillam
The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a primary cause of sheep flystrike and a major agricultural pest. Cytochrome P450 enzymes have been implicated in the resistance of L. cuprina to several classes of insecticides. In particular, CYP6G3 is a L. cuprina homologue of Drosophila melanogaster CYP6G1, a P450 known to confer multi-pesticide resistance. To investigate the basis of resistance, a bicistronic Escherichia coli expression system was developed to co-express active L. cuprina CYP6G3 and house fly (Musca domestica) P450 reductase...
September 13, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Xuewei Chen, Fen Li, Anqi Chen, Kangsheng Ma, Pingzhuo Liang, Ying Liu, Dunlun Song, Xiwu Gao
Aphis gossypii Glover is a destructive pest of numerous crops throughout the world. Although the expansion of Bt cotton cultivation has helped to control some insect pests, the damage from cotton aphids has not been mitigated. The evolution of aphid resistance to imidacloprid has made its chemical control more difficult since its introduction in 1991. Field populations of A. gossypii that were collected from different transgenic (Bt) cotton planting areas of China in 2014 developed different levels of resistance to imidacloprid...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Rachel R Rix, G Christopher Cutler
BACKGROUND: Hormetic preconditioning, whereby exposure to mild stress primes an organism to better tolerate subsequent stress, is well documented. It is unknown if exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can trans-generationally prime insects to better tolerate insecticide exposure, or whether exposure to hormetic concentrations of insecticide can induce mutations in genes responsible for insecticide resistance. Using the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and insecticide imidacloprid as a model, we examined if exposure to mildly toxic and hormetic concentrations of imidacloprid reduced aphid susceptibility to insecticides across four generations, and whether such exposures induced mutations in the imidacloprid binding site in post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
Olga S Kostromytska, Michael E Scharf, Eileen A Buss
BACKGROUND: Mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus spp.) consume turfgrasses and pasture grasses and uproot plants by their tunneling, which decreases turf aesthetics and decreases forage quantity and quality. Insecticides are frequently used to prevent damage. In typical field trials, damage symptoms, not percent of mortality or achieved level of control, are used to assess treatment efficacy. Here however, we evaluated the direct effect of key insecticides on Neoscapteriscus mole cricket behavior...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
Roberto Fusetto, Shane Denecke, Trent Perry, Richard A J O'Hair, Philip Batterham
Resistance to insecticides through enhanced metabolism is a worldwide problem. The Cyp6g1 gene of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a paradigm for the study of metabolic resistance. Constitutive overexpression of this gene confers resistance to several classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI). The metabolism of IMI in this species has been previously shown to yield oxidative and nitro-reduced metabolites. While levels of the oxidative metabolites are correlated with CYP6G1 expression, nitro-reduced metabolites are not, raising the question of how these metabolites are produced...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shane Denecke, Roberto Fusetto, Felipe Martelli, Alex Giang, Paul Battlay, Alexandre Fournier-Level, Richard A O' Hair, Philip Batterham
Insecticide resistance is an economically important example of evolution in response to intense selection pressure. Here, the genetics of resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid is explored using the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, a collection of inbred Drosophila melanogaster genotypes derived from a single population in North Carolina. Imidacloprid resistance varied substantially among genotypes, and more resistant genotypes tended to show increased capacity to metabolize and excrete imidacloprid...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Francesca M Rios, Travis E Wilcoxen, Laura M Zimmerman
Imidacloprid (IMD), a neonicotinoid, is generally considered to be of low toxicity in vertebrates. However, the inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors can have a profound effect on both the immune and nervous system due to the anti-inflammatory effects of ACh. Vertebrates, such as amphibians, might be affected by IMD because they breed in wetlands where the concentration of IMD is high. In our study, we experimentally exposed Rana catesbeiana tadpoles to environmentally relevant IMD and then quantified the ACh and antibody to non-replicating antigens...
August 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Masaya Matsumura, Sachiyo Sanada-Morimura, Akira Otuka, Shoji Sonoda, Dinh Van Thanh, Ho Van Chien, Phan Van Tuong, Phung Minh Loc, Ze-Wen Liu, Zeng-Rong Zhu, Jian-Hong Li, Gang Wu, Shou-Horng Huang
BACKGROUND: The two rice planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, have different life cycles in the regions of East Asia, the Red River Delta, and the Mekong Delta. The susceptibilities of these species to a range of insecticides have not previously been compared among the three regions over multiple years. Here we describe the differences and similarities in insecticide susceptibilities of the two species among the three regions from 2006-2011. RESULTS: In all three regions during 2006 to 2011, N...
September 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
Song-Quan Ong, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid, Hamdan Ahmad
In this study, bifenthrin (Maxxthor SC, Ensystex Australasia Pty Ltd), imidacloprid (Prothor SC, Ensystex Australasia Pty Ltd) and fipronil (Regent(®)50SC, Bayer) were applied on the natural infest manures according to the manufacturer rate during a broiler breeding cycle. Solvent direct-immersion extraction (SDIE) was used in detecting the target compound and later, quantification of the insecticide residues in field condition was investigated. The samples were prior cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) - photodiode array (PDA) system...
July 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Danica Baines, Emily Wilton, Abbe Pawluk, Michael de Gorter, Nora Chomistek
Accumulating evidence suggests that neonicotinoids may have long-term adverse effects on bee health, yet our understanding of how this could occur is incomplete. Pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in animals providing characteristic multiphasic dose-response curves and non-lethal endpoints in toxicity studies. However, it is not known if neonicotinoids act as EDCs in bees. To address this issue, we performed oral acute and chronic toxicity studies including concentrations recorded in nectar and pollen, applying acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to bumble bees, honey bees and leafcutter bees, the three most common bee species managed for pollination...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yi-Chan Peng, En-Cheng Yang
In a comment on our Article "Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid Reduces the Microglomerular Density of Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies", Rössler et al. assert that our reported counts are overall lower than previously reported due to the use of automated quantification. We address these issues in this reply.
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
L Delgado-Moreno, R Nogales, E Romero
Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Bornia Lafi, Mariem Chaâbane, Awatef Elwej, Malek Grati, Kamel Jamoussi, Hela Mnif, Tahia Boudawara, Hanen Ketata Bouaziz, Najiba Zeghal
Data on the individual nephrotoxic effects of imidacloprid (IMI) and gibberellic acid (GA3) are scarce. Moreover, there is a lack of information about their combined effects on the renal tissue. Our study investigated the effects of IMI and GA3 separately or together on rats kidney. IMI (64 mg/kg bw) was given for 3 weeks by gavage either individually or in combination with GA3 (200 mg/L) via drinking water. IMI associated or no with GA3 increased the levels of kidney malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, protein carbonyls and metallothionein, plasma creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen and lactate dehydrogenase activity...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Aline Aparecida Franco, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Cynthia Renata de Oliveira Jacob, Monique Bárbara Rosa de Oliveira, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
Euseius concordis (Chant) is an important predatory mite found in citrus orchards. The toxicity of 19 pesticides used in citrus orchards on biological and population parameters of this mite was assessed. Our results indicated that formetanate hydrochloride, dimethoate and phosmet were highly harmful (100% mortality) to E. concordis. Carbosulfan, diflubenzuron, fenpropathrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, mineral and vegetable oils, spinosad and thiamethoxam reduced the female's survival and/or fecundity, and were moderately harmful to E...
September 2, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Michael S Crossley, Yolanda H Chen, Russell L Groves, Sean D Schoville
The ability of insect pests to rapidly and repeatedly adapt to insecticides has long challenged entomologists and evolutionary biologists. Since Crow's seminal paper on insecticide resistance in 1957, new data and insights continue to emerge that are relevant to the old questions about how insecticide resistance evolves: such as whether it is predominantly mono- or polygenic, and evolving from standing vs. de novo genetic variation. Many studies support the monogenic hypothesis, and current management recommendations assume single- or two-locus models...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Jian-Xue Jin, Dao-Chao Jin, Feng-Liang Li, Ying Cheng, Wen-Hong Li, Zhao-Chun Ye, Yu-Hang Zhou
As a newer cis-nitromethylene neonicotinoid pesticide at present, cycloxaprid has good industrialization prospects, including the management of imidacloprid-resistant populations, because this chemical have an excellent efficiency against rice planthoppers. Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is the most economically important pest of rice worldwide and has developed resistance to many insecticides. This study focused on the expression change of these resistance genes, induced by cycloxaprid, involved in metabolic detoxification and receptor protein...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jonas Kathage, Pedro Castañera, José Luis Alonso-Prados, Manuel Gómez-Barbero, Emilio Rodríguez-Cerezo
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of three neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) and the pyrazole fipronil, widely used to control early season pests. Here, we use original farm survey data to examine the impact of the restrictions on pest management practices in eight regional case studies including maize, oilseed rape and sunflower in seven EU countries. RESULTS: In four case studies, farmers switched to using untreated seeds as no alternative seed treatments were available...
August 26, 2017: Pest Management Science
Bibhab Mahapatra, Totan Adak, Naveen K B Patil, G Guru P Pandi, G Basana Gowda, Manoj Kumar Yadav, S D Mohapatra, P C Rath, Sushmita Munda, Mayabini Jena
The role of soil moisture, light and pH on imidacloprid dissipation was investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based method was developed to quantify imidacloprid present in soil with a recovery of more than 82%. Rate of dissipation of imidacloprid from soil was faster in submerged condition compared to field capacity and air dried condition. Imidacloprid dissipated non-significantly between sterile and non-sterile soils, but at field capacity, the dissipation was faster in non-sterile soil compared to sterile soil after 60 days of incubation...
August 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jorge A Leiva, Peter Nkedi-Kizza, Kelly T Morgan, Davie M Kadyampakeni
Imidacloprid (IMD) is a neonicotinoid pesticide soil-drenched to many crops to control piercing-sucking insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Neonicotinoids are persistent in the environment and transport analyses are helpful estimate leaching potential from soils that could result in groundwater pollution. The objective of this study was to analyze IMD breakthrough under saturated water flow in soil columns packed with three horizons (A, E, Bh) of Immokalee Fine Sand (IFS). Also, we used the dimensionless form of the convective-dispersive model (CD-Model) to compare the optimized transport parameters from each column experiment (retardation factor, R; fraction of instantaneous-to-total retardation, β; and mass transfer coefficient, ω) with the parameters obtained from sorption batch equilibria and sorption kinetics...
2017: PloS One
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