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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324040/neonicotinoids-and-other-insect-nicotinic-receptor-competitive-modulators-progress-and-prospects
#1
John E Casida
Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321977/imidacloprid-exposure-cause-the-histopathological-changes-activation-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inos-8-ohdg-biomarkers-and-alteration-of-caspase-3-inos-cyp1a-mt1-gene-expression-levels-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-l
#2
Selçuk Özdemir, Serdar Altun, Harun Arslan
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid...
2018: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316522/joint-toxic-effects-of-triazophos-and-imidacloprid-on-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#3
Shenggan Wu, Xinfang Li, Xinju Liu, Guiling Yang, Xuehua An, Qiang Wang, Yanhua Wang
Pesticide contamination is more often found as a mixture of different pesticides in water bodies rather than individual compounds. However, regulatory risk evaluation is mostly based on the effects of individual pesticides. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the individual and joint toxicities of triazophos (TRI) and imidacloprid (IMI) to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) using acute indices and various sublethal endpoints. Results from 96-h semi-static test indicated that the LC50 values of TRI to D. rerio at multiple life stages (embryonic, larval, juvenile and adult stages) ranged from 0...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316188/evidence-for-activation-of-nitenpyram-by-a-mitochondrial-cytochrome-p450-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Thomas W R Harrop, Shane Denecke, Ying Ting Yang, Janice Chan, Phillip J Daborn, Trent Perry, Philip Batterham
BACKGROUND: Nitenpyram is a member of the economically important neonicotinoid class of insecticides. The in vivo metabolism of nitenpyram is not well characterised, but cytochrome P450 activity is the major mechanism of resistance to neonicotinoids identified in insect pests, and P450s metabolise other neonicotinoids including imidacloprid. RESULTS: Here, we used the GAL4/UAS system to direct RNAi against the cytochrome P450 redox partners to interrupt P450 functions in specific tissues in Drosophila melanogaster...
January 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313450/response-to-tennekes-2018-the-resilience-of-the-beehive-journal-of-toxicology-and-environmental-health-b-20-316-386
#5
Keith R Solomon, Gladys L Stephenson
This paper is a response to a letter from Dr. H Tennekes ("The Resilience of the Beehive" Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B 20: 316-386). Here we emphasize that our quantitative weight of evidence analyses were focused on the level of the honeybee colony. These colony-level responses include redundancy and resiliency as well as a number of possible sublethal effects of pesticides on the colony. We also note that the literature has shown that binding of neonicotinoid insecticides to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is reversible...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305920/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-mediated-dopamine-release-in-larval-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Poojan Pyakurel, Mimi Shin, B Jill Venton
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of insects and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for neonicotinoid insecticides. Functional insect nAChRs are difficult to express in host cells, and hence difficult to study. In mammals, acetylcholine and nicotine evoke dopamine release, but the extent to which this mechanism is conserved in insects is unknown. In intact larval ventral nerve cords (VNCs), we studied dopamine evoked by acetylcholine, nicotine, or neonicotinoids...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302769/imidacloprid-impedes-mitochondrial-function-and-induces-oxidative-stress-in-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera-larvae-hubner-noctuidae
#7
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Neonicotinoids have high agonistic affinity to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and are frequently used as insecticides against most devastating lepidopteran insect pests. Imidacloprid influenced dose-dependent decline in the state III and IV respiration, respiration control index (RCI), and P/O ratios, in vitro and in vivo. The bioassay indicated its LD50 value to be 531.24 μM. The insecticide exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition on F0F1-ATPase and complex IV activity. At 600 μM, the insecticide inhibited 83...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286367/monitoring-colony-level-effects-of-sublethal-pesticide-exposure-on-honey-bees
#8
William G Meikle, Milagra Weiss
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood, and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photographing frames, and by installing hives on scales and with internal sensors. Data from these periodic evaluations are then combined with running average and daily detrended data on hive weight and internal hive temperature...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279642/imidacloprid-poisoning-an-emerging-cause-of-potentially-fatal-poisoning
#9
Sanjay A Mundhe, Siddheshwar V Birajdar, Sheshrao S Chavan, Nikhil R Pawar
There are a variety of pesticides that are used to control the pests in agricultural lands and other places. Newer pesticides, developed as an alternative to highly toxic organophosphates such as imidacloprid including other neonicotinoid compounds, are being increasingly used considering their less harmful effects in case of human exposures. Though it is considered relatively safer to human beings, it can lead to potentially life-threatening complications and acute poisoning with these compounds may be fatal in large ingestion...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273854/imidacloprid-slows-the-development-of-preference-for-rewarding-food-sources-in-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens
#10
Jordan D Phelps, Caroline G Strang, Malgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Tomasz Sniegocki, Andrzej Posyniak, David F Sherry
Bee pollination is economically and ecologically vital and recent declines in bee populations are therefore a concern. One possible cause of bee declines is pesticide use. Bumblebees exposed to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, have been shown to be less efficient foragers and collect less pollen on foraging trips than unexposed bees. We investigated whether bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) chronically exposed to imidacloprid at field-realistic levels of 2.6 and 10 ppb showed learning deficits that could affect foraging...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260456/degradation-of-the-neonicotinoid-pesticides-in-the-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-source
#11
Yunfeng Chai, Hongping Chen, Xin Liu, Chengyin Lu
During the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticide standards (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) by mass spectrometry, the degradation of these pesticides (M-C=N-R is degraded into M-C=O, M is the skeleton moiety, and R is NO2 or CN) was observed in the atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces (ESI and APCI). In APCI, the degradation of all the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied took place, and the primary mechanism was in-source ion/molecule reaction, in which a molecule of water (confirmed by use of H218O) attacked the carbon of the imine group accompanying with loss of NH2R (R=NO2, CN)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258871/phylogenetic-and-functional-characterization-of-ten-p450-genes-from-the-cyp6ae-subfamily-of-helicoverpa-armigera-involved-in-xenobiotic-metabolism
#12
Yu Shi, Huidong Wang, Zhi Liu, Shuwen Wu, Yihua Yang, René Feyereisen, Yidong Wu
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a generalist herbivore widely distributed over the world and is a major lepidopteran pest on cotton. Studies, especially from Asia, show that it relies on cytochrome P450 monooxygenases with broad substrate specificities to protect itself from pesticides. The number of P450s may have expanded in the processes of coping with the wide diversity of phytochemicals that the insect encounters among its numerous host plants. In order to examine the metabolic capabilities of these P450s, we focused here on all ten P450s of the Helicoverpa armigera CYP6AE subfamily, which can be easily induced by plant toxins and pyrethroids...
December 16, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258192/identification-of-differentially-expressed-mirnas-in-colorado-potato-beetles-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-say-exposed-to-imidacloprid
#13
Mathieu D Morin, Pierre J Lyons, Nicolas Crapoulet, Sébastien Boquel, Pier Jr Morin
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) is a significant pest of potato plants that has been controlled for more than two decades by neonicotinoid imidacloprid. L. decemlineata can develop resistance to this agent even though the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance are not well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short ribonucleic acids that have been linked to response to various insecticides in several insect models. Unfortunately, the information is lacking regarding differentially expressed miRNAs following imidacloprid treatment in L...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247944/sorption-mechanisms-of-neonicotinoids-on-biochars-and-the-impact-of-deashing-treatments-on-biochar-structure-and-neonicotinoids-sorption
#14
Peng Zhang, Hongwen Sun, Chao Ren, Lujuan Min, Huiming Zhang
To elucidate the sorption affinity of biochars for neonicotinoid pesticides and the influence of biochar structure on sorption mechanisms therein, 24 biochar samples were obtained by pyrolyzing maize straw and pig manure at pyrolyzing temperatures (PTs) of 200-700 °C and by further deashing them using acids, and the sorption of three typical neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiacloprid on untreated and acid-deashed biochars were evaluated. All the biochar samples could efficiently adsorb the three neonicotinoids and multiple mechanisms were involved in sorption...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246838/imidacloprid-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-facilitates-tyrosine-hydroxylase-transcription-and-phenylethanolamine-n-methyltransferase-mrna-expression-to-enhance-catecholamine-synthesis-and-its-nicotine-evoked-elevation-in-pc12d-cells
#15
Ichiro Kawahata, Tohru Yamakuni
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide acting as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the target insects. However, questions about the safety to mammals, including human have emerged. Overactivation of mammalian peripheral catecholaminergic systems leads to onset of tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, etc., which have been observed in acutely imidacloprid-poisoned patients as well. Physiological activation of the nAChRs is known to drive catecholamine biosynthesis and secretion in mammalian adrenal chromaffin cells...
December 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244130/effects-of-neonicotinoid-imidacloprid-exposure-on-bumble-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-queen-survival-and-nest-initiation
#16
Judy Wu-Smart, Marla Spivak
Neonicotinoids are highly toxic to insects and may systemically translocate to nectar and pollen of plants where foraging bees may become exposed. Exposure to neonicotinoids can induce detrimental sublethal effects on individual and colonies of bees and may have long-term impacts, such as impaired foraging, reduced longevity, and reduced brood care or production. Less well-studied are the potential effects on queen bumble bees that may become exposed while foraging in the spring during colony initiation. This study assessed queen survival and nest founding in caged bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)] after chronic (18-d) dietary exposure of imidacloprid in syrup (1, 5, 10, and 25 ppb) and pollen (0...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228021/inheritance-mode-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-imidacloprid-in-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae-from-china
#17
Zhuo Ma, Jing Li, Yi Zhang, Chao Shan, Xiwu Gao
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222706/acute-toxicity-of-fresh-and-aged-residues-of-pesticides-to-the-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-and-to-the-hlb-bacteria-vector-diaphorina-citri
#18
V H Beloti, G R Alves, R A Moral, C G B Demétrio, P T Yamamoto
One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system...
December 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209966/residue-behavior-and-risk-assessment-of-imidacloprid-applied-on-greenhouse-cultivated-strawberries-under-different-application-conditions
#19
Tao Cang, Caixia Sun, Hua Zhao, Tao Tang, Changpeng Zhang, Ruixian Yu, Xinquan Wang, Qiang Wang, Fen Dai, Xueping Zhao
A risk assessment for imidacloprid applied on strawberries under different conditions was performed after residue determination using the quick, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The application conditions were varied according to the applied dosage, addition of a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, water volume, and sprayer type. The degradation dynamics of imidacloprid on strawberries followed first-order kinetics. At applied doses of 30-60 g a.i. ha-1, the half-lives of imidacloprid were 2...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205353/subconjunctival-dirofilaria-repens-infection-in-a-dog-resident-in-the-uk
#20
D Agapito, N-A A Aziz, T Wang, E R Morgan, I Wright
Dirofilaria repens infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old female German shepherd crossbreed, originally from Romania but brought into the UK in February 2014. The dog presented with conjunctivitis in March 2014 and then again 2 months later with additional ocular and nasal mucopurulent discharge. Bacterial cultures from the nasolacrimal duct were negative for bacterial growth. The case was referred in August 2014 for ophthalmic examination, which revealed abnormalities in both eyes, especially the left. They included mild palpebral conjunctival hyperaemia and marked follicular conjunctivitis, as well as a dorsonasal bulbar conjunctival mass...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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