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Lucas M Morrison, Justin B Renaud, Lyne Sabourin, Mark W Sumarah, Ken K C Yeung, David R Lapen
Background : Neonicotinoids are among the most widely used insecticides. Recently, there has been concern associated with unintended adverse effects on honeybees and aquatic invertebrates at low parts-per-trillion levels. Objective : There is a need for LC-MS/MS methods that are capable of high-throughput measurements of the most widely used neonicotinoids at environmentally relevant concentrations in surface water. Methods : This method allows for quantitation of acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam in surface water...
May 21, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Fabien J Démares, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
For two decades, neonicotinoid insecticides have been extensively used worldwide. Targeting neuronal receptors, they have deleterious effects on the behaviour and physiology of many of many beneficial as well as harmful insects. Bees are exposed to these insecticides in pollen and nectar while providing pollination services to agricultural crops, and neonicotinoids have been shown to impair navigation by bees and to decrease their foraging activity. We have previously reported the effect of dietary thiamethoxam on sucrose responsiveness of young worker bees...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Quan Zhang, Ximing Wang, Zhe Li, Hangbiao Jin, Zhengbiao Lu, Chang Yu, Yu-Fang Huang, Meirong Zhao
Neonicotinoids (neonics), a class of systemic insecticides, have been frequently detected in pollen, vegetables, and fruits. Recently, an increasing concern has been aroused for human exposure to neonics. However, biological monitoring for quantifying body burden of neonics has rarely been reported. In this study, we developed an isotope-dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously quantify nine neonics, including acetamiprid (ACE), thiamethoxam (THIAM), imidacloprid (IMIP), clothianidin (CLO), flonicamid (FLO), thiacloprid (THIAC), dinotefuran (DIN), nitenpyram (NIT), and imidaclothiz (IMIT) in urine...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Louise Walderdorff, Philippe Laval-Gilly, Antoine Bonnefoy, Jaïro Falla-Angel
Insect hemocytes play an important role in insects' defense against environmental stressors as they are entirely dependent on their innate immune system for pathogen defense. In recent years a dramatic decline of pollinators has been reported in many countries. The drivers of this declines appear to be associated with pathogen infections like viruses, bacteria or fungi in combination with pesticide exposure. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the impact of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, on the cellular immune response of two pollinators (Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris) during simultaneous immune activation with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) of Escherichia coli...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Rawikan Kachangoon, Jitlada Vichapong, Rodjana Burakham, Yanawath Santaladchaiyakit, Supalax Srijaranai
An effective pre-concentration method, namely amended-cloud point extraction (CPE), has been developed for the extraction and pre-concentration of neonicotinoid insecticide residues. The studied analytes including clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were chosen as a model compound. The amended-CPE procedure included two cloud point processes. Triton™ X-114 was used to extract neonicotinoid residues into the surfactant-rich phase and then the analytes were transferred into an alkaline solution with the help of ultrasound energy...
May 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
A Hakeem, J F Grant, P L Lambdin, F A Hale, J R Rhea, G J Wiggins, C Coots
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an exotic pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), in the eastern United States. Two commonly used insecticides to manage adelgid are imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, and horticultural oil, a refined petroleum oil foliar spray. We have investigated the influence of imidacloprid and horticultural oil on spider abundance at different canopy strata in eastern hemlock. In total, 2,084 spiders representing 11 families were collected from the canopies of eastern hemlock...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Edouard Akono Nantia, Antoine S Kada, Faustin Pt Manfo, Nehemiah N Tangu, Kaghou M Mbifung, Desire H Mbouobda, Augustave Kenfack
Parastar is an insecticide formulation of lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid, and it is largely used for crop production improvement in Santa, North West Region of Cameroon. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Parastar on reproductive parameters and testicular oxidative stress in adult albino Wistar male rats. Twenty rats (154 g ± 28 g) were divided into four groups of five animals each and treated daily with either distilled water (10 mL/kg), 1.25, 2.49 or 6.23 mg/kg of Parastar, respectively, for 35 days...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Andreas Focks, Dick Belgers, Marie-Claire Boerwinkel, Laura Buijse, Ivo Roessink, Paul J Van den Brink
Exposure patterns in ecotoxicological experiments often do not match the exposure profiles for which a risk assessment needs to be performed. This limitation can be overcome by using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the prediction of effects under time-variable exposure. For the use of TKTD models in the environmental risk assessment of chemicals, it is required to calibrate and validate the model for specific compound-species combinations. In this study, the survival of macroinvertebrates after exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide was modelled using TKTD models from the General Unified Threshold models of Survival (GUTS) framework...
May 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Carlos F Marina, J Guillermo Bond, José Muñoz, Javier Valle, Humberto Quiroz-Martínez, Jorge A Torres-Monzón, Trevor Williams
Many countries in Latin America have recently experienced outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya fever, in additional to the usual burden imposed by dengue, all of which are transmitted by Aedes aegypti in this region. To identify potential larvicides, we determined the toxicity of eight modern insecticides to A. aegypti larvae from a colony that originated from field-collected insects in southern Mexico. The most toxic compounds were pyriproxyfen (which prevented adult emergence) and λ-cyhalothrin, followed by spinetoram, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and acetamiprid, with chlorantraniliprole and spiromesifen the least toxic products...
April 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jonathan K Challis, Leah D Cuscito, Shira Joudan, Kim H Luong, Charles W Knapp, Mark L Hanson, Charles S Wong
The Red River originates in the U.S., drains into Lake Winnipeg, and is a significant pathway for nutrients. We investigate its role as a source for pesticides, pharmaceuticals, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and microbes bearing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). We delineate agricultural, urban, and rural land-use for organic contaminants to determine the extent of chemical transboundary riverine fluxes, and characterize levels and trends of organic contaminants and ARGs between spring and fall 2014 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Khizar Hayat, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Sajjad Ali, Muhammad Farhan Saeed, Qaiser M Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Christos A Damalas
Insecticide exposure can affect honey bees in agro-ecosystems, posing behavioral stresses that can lead to population decline. In this study, insecticide incidence, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity were studied in Apis florea and A. dorsata honey bee samples collected from insecticide-treated and insecticide-free areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Seven insecticides: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid, phorate, emamectin, chlorfenapyr, and acetamiprid were detected in seven samples of A. florea and five samples of A...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexander I Vardavas, Eren Ozcagli, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K Alegakis, Fotini Vasilaki, Kostas Kaloudis, John Tsiaoussis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Christina Tsitsimpikou, Félix Carvalho, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
Imidacloprid (IMI) is a systemic, chloro-nicotinyl insecticide classified in Regulation N° 1272/2008 of the European Commision as "harmful if swallowed and very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects". IMI is metabolized in vitro both by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (reduction) and by cytochrome P450s enzymes (CYPs). In the present study, the AOX inhibitor sodium tungstate dihydrate (ST) was used to elucidate the relative contribution of CYP 450 and AOX metabolic pathways on IMI metabolism, in male rabbits exposed to IMI for two months...
May 2018: Mutation Research
Shitao Zhao, Jinhua Dong, Hee-Jin Jeong, Koichi Okumura, Hiroshi Ueda
Contamination of the land and water by neonicotinoid insecticide residues is currently a severe environmental problem. However, the traditional methods for pesticide residue analysis are time consuming and laborious. To tackle this problem, here we describe a novel quenchbody (Q-body) immunoassay reagent that allows the rapid and sensitive detection of imidacloprid, one of the most frequently used neonicotinoid pesticides, in aqueous solution. A Q-body comprises an antibody Fab fragment that is site-specifically labeled with a fluorescent dye...
April 28, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Élyse Caron-Beaudoin, Rachel Viau, J Thomas Sanderson
BACKGROUND: Aromatase (CYP19) is a key enzyme in estrogens biosynthesis. In the mammary gland, CYP19 gene is expressed at low levels under the regulation of its I.4 promoter. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, fibroblast cells surrounding the tumor express increased levels of CYP19 mRNA due to a decrease of I.4 promoter activity and an increase of PII, I.3, and I.7 promoter activity. Little is known about the effects of environmental chemicals on the promoter-specific CYP19 expression...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Y-T Hu, C-K Tang, C-P Wu, P-C Wu, E-C Yang, C-C Tai, Y-L Wu
Apis mellifera plays crucial roles in maintaining the balance of global ecosystems and stability of agricultural systems by helping pollination of flowering plants, including many crops. In recent years, this balance has been disrupted greatly by some pesticides, which results in great losses of honeybees worldwide. Previous studies have found that pesticide-caused memory loss might be one of the major reasons for colony loss. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are chemical compounds that inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases and are known to cause hyperacetylation of histone cores and influence gene expression...
April 25, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Kevin W Langdon, Rhonda Schumann, Lukasz L Stelinski, Michael E Rogers
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is the insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the presumed cause of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus (Rutaceae). Soil-applied neonicotinoids are used to manage vector populations and thus reduce the spread of HLB in Florida citrus. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and field to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of three neonicotinoid insecticides within individually sampled leaves and throughout the tree canopy. Following field application, no difference in parent material titer was observed between leaf middles versus leaf margins following application of Platinum 75SG or Belay 2...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xueyan Li, Xianwen Kan
In this study, a ratiometric strategy-based electrochemical sensor was developed by electropolymerization of thionine (THI) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite films on a glassy carbon electrode surface for imidacloprid (IMI) detection. THI played the role of an inner reference element to provide a built-in correction. In addition, the modified β-CD showed good selective enrichment for IMI to improve the sensitivity and anti-interference ability of the sensor. The current ratio between IMI and THI was calculated as the detected signal for IMI sensing...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
Fernando G Iturburu, María F Simoniello, Sandra Medici, Ana M Panzeri, Mirta L Menone
Neonicotinoids are one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. DNA damage is considered an early biological effect which could lead to reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate DNA damage and bases oxidation as a mechanism of genotoxicity, on the freshwater fish Australoheros facetus acutely exposed to imidacloprid (IMI). The Comet assay with the nuclease ENDO III enzyme was performed for detecting pyrimidine bases oxidation using blood samples. Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities frequencies were also quantified...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Carolina Mengoni Goñalons, Walter M Farina
Neonicotinoids are the most widespread insecticides in agriculture, preferred for their low toxicity to mammals and their systemic nature. Nevertheless, there have been increasing concerns regarding their impact on non-target organisms. Glyphosate is also widely used in crops and, therefore, traces of this pesticide are likely to be found together with neonicotinoids. Although glyphosate is considered a herbicide, adverse effects have been found on animal species, including honey bees. Apis mellifera is one of the most important pollinators in agroecosystems and is exposed to both these pesticides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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