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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#1
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329760/low-temperature-hydrogen-production-from-water-and-methanol-using-pt-%C3%AE-moc-catalysts
#2
Lili Lin, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao, Siyu Yao, Xiao Zhang, Wenqian Xu, Shijian Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Qiaolin Yu, Yong-Wang Li, Chuan Shi, Xiao-Dong Wen, Ding Ma
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM)...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294235/steam-reforming-of-methanol-over-oxide-decorated-nanoporous-gold-catalysts-a-combined-in-situ-ftir-and-flow-reactor-study
#3
J Shi, C Mahr, M M Murshed, T M Gesing, A Rosenauer, M Bäumer, A Wittstock
Methanol as a green and renewable resource can be used to generate hydrogen by reforming, i.e., its catalytic oxidation with water. In combination with a fuel cell this hydrogen can be converted into electrical energy, a favorable concept, in particular for mobile applications. Its realization requires the development of novel types of structured catalysts, applicable in small scale reactor designs. Here, three different types of such catalysts were investigated for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Oxides such as TiO2 and CeO2 and mixtures thereof (Ce1Ti2Ox) were deposited inside a bulk nanoporous gold (npAu) material using wet chemical impregnation procedures...
March 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284229/influence-of-temperature-fluctuations-during-cryopreservation-on-vital-parameters-differentiation-potential-and-transgene-expression-of-placental-multipotent-stromal-cells
#4
Denys Pogozhykh, Olena Pogozhykh, Volodymyr Prokopyuk, Larisa Kuleshova, Anatoliy Goltsev, Rainer Blasczyk, Thomas Mueller
BACKGROUND: Successful implementation of rapidly advancing regenerative medicine approaches has led to high demand for readily available cellular suspensions. In particular, multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) of placental origin have shown therapeutic efficiency in the treatment of numerous pathologies of varied etiology. Up to now, cryopreservation is the only effective way to preserve the viability and unique properties of such cells in the long term. However, practical biobanking is often associated with repeated temperature fluctuations or interruption of a cold chain due to various technical, transportation, and stocking events...
March 11, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281670/visualising-recalcitrance-by-colocalisation-of-cellulase-lignin-and-cellulose-in-pretreated-pine-biomass-using-fluorescence-microscopy
#5
Lloyd Donaldson, Alankar Vaidya
Mapping the location of bound cellulase enzymes provides information on the micro-scale distribution of amenable and recalcitrant sites in pretreated woody biomass for biofuel applications. The interaction of a fluorescently labelled cellulase enzyme cocktail with steam-exploded pine (SEW) was quantified using confocal microscopy. The spatial distribution of Dylight labelled cellulase was quantified relative to lignin (autofluorescence) and cellulose (Congo red staining) by measuring their colocalisation using Pearson correlations...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279601/enhanced-ethanol-production-at-commercial-scale-from-molasses-using-high-gravity-technology-by-mutant-s-cerevisiae
#6
Muhammad Arshad, Tariq Hussain, Munawar Iqbal, Mazhar Abbas
Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216165/isolation-and-identification-of-new-chemical-constituents-from-chinese-chive-allium-tuberosum-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-raw-and-cooked-chinese-chive
#7
Quan Gao, Xia-Bing Li, Jia Sun, Er-Dong Xia, Feng Tang, Hai-Qun Cao, Hang Xun
Chinese chive (jiu cai) is a popular vegetable in China and has a unique flavour and aroma. The molecular basis of the characteristic fragrance and nutritional properties of Chinese chive has not been previously identified. Sequential extractions in a series of solvents and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate 40 compounds from Chinese chive. The compounds were identified based on high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and circular dichroism spectra...
February 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213710/biohydrogen-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate-effects-of-ph-s-x-fe-2-and-magnetite-nanoparticles
#8
Karen Reddy, Mahmoud Nasr, Sheena Kumari, Santhosh Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Faizal Bux
Batch dark fermentation experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial pH, substrate-to-biomass (S/X) ratio, and concentrations of Fe(2+) and magnetite nanoparticles on biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. By applying the response surface methodology, the optimum condition of steam-acid hydrolysis was 0.64% (v/v) H2SO4 for 55.7 min, which obtained a sugar yield of 274 mg g(-1). The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 0.874 mol (mol glucose(-1)) was detected at the optimum pH of 5...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191037/understanding-the-structural-and-chemical-changes-of-plant-biomass-following-steam-explosion-pretreatment
#9
Thomas Auxenfans, David Crônier, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
BACKGROUND: Biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass has become one of the most valuable alternatives for the production of multi-products such as biofuels. Pretreatment is a prerequisite to increase the enzymatic conversion of the recalcitrant lignocellulose. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the key features of biomass impacting the cellulase accessibility. In this study, we evaluate the structural and chemical features of three different representative biomasses (Miscanthus × giganteus, poplar and wheat straw), before and after steam explosion pretreatment at increasing severities, by monitoring chemical analysis, SEM, FTIR and 2D NMR...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156125/cell-adhesion-to-acrylic-custom-provisional-abutment-placed-on-an-immediate-implant-a-case-report
#10
Hanae Saito, Ru-Ching Hsia, Dennis P Tarnow, Mark A Reynolds
This article presents the results of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the surface of an acrylic custom provisional abutment following first disconnection from a post-extraction immediate implant placement. An implant was placed immediately after extraction, the site was grafted, and a barrier membrane was adapted for graft containment. A custom acrylic shell was then relined, polished, and steam-cleaned prior to being screwed onto the implant. After 5 months of undisturbed healing, the custom provisional abutment was disconnected for the first time and processed for SEM examination...
February 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129140/committing-to-memory-memory-prosthetics-show-promise-in-helping-those-with-neurodegenerative-disorders
#11
Michele Solis
Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative...
January 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114240/various-surface-treatments-to-implant-provisional-restorations-and-their-effect-on-epithelial-cell-adhesion-a-comparative-in-vitro-study
#12
Darya Luchinskaya, Rong Du, David M Owens, Dennis Tarnow, Nurit Bittner
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the ability of epithelial cells to attach to or proliferate on various mechanical or chemical surface treatments of an implant provisional material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyethyl methacrylate discs 10 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 to 0.75 mm in width were used in the study. Experimental discs were treated with either a mechanical (pumice, varnish for shine, or high polishing) or a chemical agent (alcohol, chlorhexidine, or steam) to provide cleaning and/or polishing...
February 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002493/about-the-sterilization-of-chitosan-hydrogel-nanoparticles
#13
Raquel Galante, Carolina F Rediguieri, Irene Satiko Kikuchi, Pablo A S Vasquez, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro, Terezinha J A Pinto
In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956287/toxic-anterior-segment-syndrome-caused-by-autoclave-reservoir-wall-biofilms-and-their-residual-toxins
#14
Andrew L Sorenson, Robert L Sorenson, David J Evans
PURPOSE: To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. SETTING: EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area...
November 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942436/engineering-a-wild-type-diploid-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-for-second-generation-bioethanol-production
#15
Hongxing Li, Yu Shen, Meiling Wu, Jin Hou, Chunlei Jiao, Zailu Li, Xinli Liu, Xiaoming Bao
BACKGROUND: The cost-effective production of second-generation bioethanol, which is made from lignocellulosic materials, has to face the following two problems: co-fermenting xylose with glucose and enhancing the strain's tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors. Based on our previous study, the wild-type diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BSIF with robustness and good xylose metabolism genetic background was used as a chassis for constructing efficient xylose-fermenting industrial strains...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932032/the-application-of-in-situ-analytical-transmission-electron-microscopy-to-the-study-of-preferential-intergranular-oxidation-in-alloy-600
#16
M G Burke, G Bertali, E Prestat, F Scenini, S J Haigh
In situ analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a unique perspective on dynamic reactions in a variety of environments, including liquids and gases. In this study, in situ analytical TEM techniques have been applied to examine the localised oxidation reactions that occur in a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy, Alloy 600, using a gas environmental cell at elevated temperatures. The initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation, shown to be an important precursor phenomenon for intergranular stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), have been successfully identified using the in situ approach...
November 21, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891177/furfural-tolerance-and-detoxification-mechanism-in-candida-tropicalis
#17
Shizeng Wang, Gang Cheng, Chijioke Joshua, Zijun He, Xinxiao Sun, Ruimin Li, Lexuan Liu, Qipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871368/microbial-bioelectrosynthesis-of-hydrogen-current-challenges-and-scale-up
#18
REVIEW
Michael Kitching, Robin Butler, Enrico Marsili
Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833653/valorization-of-lignin-and-cellulose-in-acid-steam-exploded-corn-stover-by-a-moderate-alkaline-ethanol-post-treatment-based-on-an-integrated-biorefinery-concept
#19
Sheng Yang, Yue Zhang, Wen Yue, Wei Wang, Yun-Yan Wang, Tong-Qi Yuan, Run-Cang Sun
BACKGROUND: Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815127/larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-peumus-boldus-molina-and-its-ascaridole-enriched-fraction-against-culex-quinquefasciatus
#20
Débora Silva Borges de Castro, Denise Brentan da Silva, Jacqueline Domingues Tibúrcio, Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral, Vany Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Eduardo Serrão, João Máximo de Siqueira, Stênio Nunes Alves
Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment...
December 2016: Experimental Parasitology
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