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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932032/the-application-of-in-situ-analytical-transmission-electron-microscopy-to-the-study-of-preferential-intergranular-oxidation-in-alloy-600
#1
M G Burke, G Bertali, E Prestat, F Scenini, S J Haigh
In situ analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a unique perspective on dynamic reactions in a variety of environments, including liquids and gases. In this study, in situ analytical TEM techniques have been applied to examine the localised oxidation reactions that occur in a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy, Alloy 600, using a gas environmental cell at elevated temperatures. The initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation, shown to be an important precursor phenomenon for intergranular stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), have been successfully identified using the in situ approach...
November 21, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891177/furfural-tolerance-and-detoxification-mechanism-in-candida-tropicalis
#2
Shizeng Wang, Gang Cheng, Chijioke Joshua, Zijun He, Xinxiao Sun, Ruimin Li, Lexuan Liu, Qipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871368/microbial-bioelectrosynthesis-of-hydrogen-current-challenges-and-scale-up
#3
REVIEW
Michael Kitching, Robin Butler, Enrico Marsili
Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833653/valorization-of-lignin-and-cellulose-in-acid-steam-exploded-corn-stover-by-a-moderate-alkaline-ethanol-post-treatment-based-on-an-integrated-biorefinery-concept
#4
Sheng Yang, Yue Zhang, Wen Yue, Wei Wang, Yun-Yan Wang, Tong-Qi Yuan, Run-Cang Sun
BACKGROUND: Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815127/larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-peumus-boldus-molina-and-its-ascaridole-enriched-fraction-against-culex-quinquefasciatus
#5
Débora Silva Borges de Castro, Denise Brentan da Silva, Jacqueline Domingues Tibúrcio, Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral, Vany Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Eduardo Serrão, João Máximo de Siqueira, Stênio Nunes Alves
Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792266/is-steam-an-oxidant-or-a-reductant-for-nickel-doped-ceria-cermets
#6
Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Dimitris K Niakolas, Fotios Paloukis, Thierry Dintzer, Spyridon Zafeiratos
Nickel/doped-ceria composites are promising electrocatalysts for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. Very often in the feedstock of the cells there is steam, frequently mixed with other gases, such as hydrogen or CO2. Increase of the steam concentration in the feed-mixture is considered accountable for the electrode oxidation and the deactivation of the device. However, direct experimental evidences of the steam interaction with nickel/doped-ceria composites, with adequate surface specificity, are lacking...
October 28, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775092/enhanced-methane-steam-reforming-activity-and-electrochemical-performance-of-ni0-9fe0-1-supported-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-with-infiltrated-ni-tio2-particles
#7
Kai Li, Lichao Jia, Xin Wang, Jian Pu, Bo Chi, Jian Li
Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765606/effect-of-lippia-alba-and-cymbopogon-citratus-essential-oils-on-biofilms-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-cytotoxicity-in-cho-cells
#8
A Tofiño-Rivera, M Ortega-Cuadros, D Galvis-Pareja, H Jiménez-Rios, L J Merini, M C Martínez-Pabón
BACKGROUND: Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. AIM: The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils METHODOLOGY: Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713954/anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oil-isolated-from-the-calyx-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l
#9
Chun-Yan Shen, Tian-Tian Zhang, Wen-Li Zhang, Jian-Guo Jiang
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702500/effect-of-compression-combined-with-steam-treatment-on-the-porosity-chemical-compositon-and-cellulose-crystalline-structure-of-wood-cell-walls
#10
Jiangping Yin, Tongqi Yuan, Yun Lu, Kunlin Song, Hanyin Li, Guangjie Zhao, Yafang Yin
The changes of porosity, chemical composition and cellulose crystalline structure of Spruce (Picea abies Karst.) wood cell walls due to compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment) were investigated by nitrogen adsorption, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. A number of slit-shaped mesopores with a diameter of 3.7nm was formed for the CS-treated wood, and more mesopores were found in the steam-treated wood. CRM results revealed cellulose structure was affected by treatment and β-aryl-ether links associated to guaiacyl units of lignin was depolymerized followed by re-condensation reactions...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693728/simulation-of-biomass-steam-gasification-in-fluidized-bed-reactors-model-setup-comparisons-and-preliminary-predictions
#11
Linbo Yan, C Jim Lim, Guangxi Yue, Boshu He, John R Grace
A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639301/use-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-biogas-for-the-operation-of-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-sofcs
#12
Jillian Lackey, Pascale Champagne, Brant Peppley
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) perform well on light hydrocarbon fuels, and the use of biogas derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of municipal wastewater sludges could provide an opportunity for the CH4 produced to be used as a renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG), NOx, SOx, and hydrocarbon pollutant emissions would also be reduced. In this study, SOFCs were operated on AD derived biogas. Initially, different H2 dilutions were tested (N2, Ar, CO2) to examine the performance of tubular SOFCs. With inert gases as diluents, a decrease in cell performance was observed, however, the use of CO2 led to a higher decrease in performance as it promoted the reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, reducing the H2 partial pressure in the gas mixture...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635282/solid-oxide-fuel-cell-interconnect-design-optimization-considering-the-thermal-stresses
#13
Min Xu, Tingshuai Li, Ming Yang, Martin Andersson
The mechanical failure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components may cause cracks with consequences such as gas leakage, structure instability and reduction of cell lifetime. A comprehensive 3D model of the thermal stresses of an anode-supported planar SOFC is presented in this work. The main objective of this paper is to get an interconnect optimized design by evaluating the thermal stresses of an anode-supported SOFC for different designs, which would be a new criterion for interconnect design. The model incorporates the momentum, mass, heat, ion and electron transport, as well as steady-state mechanics...
2016: Science Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604172/achieving-high-efficiency-and-eliminating-degradation-in-solid-oxide-electrochemical-cells-using-high-oxygen-capacity-perovskite
#14
Areum Jun, Junyoung Kim, Jeeyoung Shin, Guntae Kim
Recently, there have been efforts to use clean and renewable energy because of finite fossil fuels and environmental problems. Owing to the site-specific and weather-dependent characteristics of the renewable energy supply, solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) have received considerable attention to store energy as hydrogen. Conventional SOECs use Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) and LSM (strontium-doped lanthanum manganites)-YSZ as electrodes. These electrodes, however, suffer from redox-instability and coarsening of the Ni electrode along with delamination of the LSM electrode during steam electrolysis...
September 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575323/in-vitro-modulation-of-inflammatory-target-gene-expression-by-a-polyphenol-enriched-fraction-of-rose-oil-distillation-waste-water
#15
Jonas Wedler, Anna Weston, Julia Rausenberger, Veronika Butterweck
Classical production of rose oil is based on water steam distillation from the flowers of Rosa damascena. During this process, large quantities of waste water accrue which are discharged to the environment, causing severe pollution of both, groundwater and surface water due to a high content of polyphenols. We recently developed a strategy to purify the waste water into a polyphenol-depleted and a polyphenol-enriched fraction RF20-(SP-207). RF20-(SP-207) and sub-fraction F(IV) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570542/functional-characterization-of-the-native-swollenin-from-trichoderma-reesei-study-of-its-possible-role-as-c1-factor-of-enzymatic-lignocellulose-conversion
#16
Manuel Eibinger, Karin Sigl, Jürgen Sattelkow, Thomas Ganner, Jonas Ramoni, Bernhard Seiboth, Harald Plank, Bernd Nidetzky
BACKGROUND: Through binding to cellulose, expansin-like proteins are thought to loosen the structural order of crystalline surface material, thus making it more accessible for degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. Swollenin SWO1 is the major expansin-like protein from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a recombinant native form of SWO1 with respect to its possible auxiliary role in the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534135/chemical-composition-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-essential-oil-of-the-inflorescence-of-anacamptis-coriophora-subsp-fragrans-orchidaceae-from-tunisia
#17
Ridha El Mokni, Saoussen Hammami, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Gregorio Peron, Khaled Faidi, Jeremy Phillip Braude, Houcine Sebei, Mohamed Hédi El Aouni
The chemical composition of the essential oil produced by steam distillation of the inflorescences of naturally growing Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase subsp.fragrans (Pollini) R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. Chase (Orchidaceae) from Kroumiria, north-west Tunisia was studied by GC-MS, which led to the identification of 19 volatile components, representing 97% of the oil. The main constituents were methyl-(E)-p-methoxycinnamate (29.3%), 13-heptadecyn-1-ol (18.6%), 2,5-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol (14...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477889/accumulation-persistence-and-effects-of-indospicine-residues-in-camels-fed-indigofera-plant
#18
Eddie T T Tan, Rafat Al Jassim, A Judy Cawdell-Smith, Selina M Ossedryver, Bruce R D'Arcy, Mary T Fletcher
Indospicine (l-2-amino-6-amidinohexanoic acid) is a natural hepatotoxin found in all parts of some Indigofera plants such as Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera spicata. Several studies have documented a susceptibility to this hepatotoxin in different species of animals, including cattle, sheep, dogs, and rats, which are associated with mild to severe liver disease after prolonged ingestion. However, there is little published data on the effects of this hepatotoxin in camels, even though Indigofera plants are known to be palatable to camels in central Australia...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437031/rnaseq-reveals-hydrophobins-that-are-involved-in-the-adaptation-of-aspergillus-nidulans-to-lignocellulose
#19
Neil Andrew Brown, Laure N A Ries, Thaila F Reis, Ranjith Rajendran, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, Gordon Ramage, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Gustavo H Goldman
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. Waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. In nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. Instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments. RESULTS: In turn, we adopted an RNA-sequencing approach to interrogate how the model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, adapts to SEB, revealing the induction of carbon starvation responses and the lignocellulolytic machinery, in addition to morphological adaptations...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419196/secretome-data-from-trichoderma-reesei-and-aspergillus-niger-cultivated-in-submerged-and-sequential-fermentation-methods
#20
Camila Florencio, Fernanda M Cunha, Alberto C Badino, Cristiane S Farinas, Eduardo Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch
The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc...
September 2016: Data in Brief
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