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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423891/effective-thermal-inactivation-of-the-spores-of-bacillus-cereus-biofilms-using-microwave
#1
Hyong Seok Park, Jungwoo Yang, Hee Jung Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim
Microwave sterilization was performed to inactivate the spores of biofilms of Bacillus cereus involved in foodborne illness. The sterilization conditions, such as the amount of water biofilms were immersed in, temperature, and treatment time, were optimized after 15 runs based on the Box-Behnken design. The sterilization conditions, such as the amount of water and the operating temperature and treatment time were optimized using statistical analysis based on 15 runs experimental results designed by the Box- Behnken method...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416967/rescuing-ethanol-photosynthetic-production-of-cyanobacteria-in-non-sterilized-outdoor-cultivations-with-a-bicarbonate-based-ph-rising-strategy
#2
Zhi Zhu, Guodong Luan, Xiaoming Tan, Haocui Zhang, Xuefeng Lu
BACKGROUND: Ethanol photosynthetic production based on cyanobacteria cell factories utilizing CO2 and solar energy provides an attractive solution for sustainable production of green fuels. However, the scaling up processes of cyanobacteria cell factories were usually threatened or even devastated by biocontaminations, which restricted biomass or products accumulations of cyanobacteria cells. Thus it is of great significance to develop reliable biocontamination-controlling strategies for promoting ethanol photosynthetic production in large scales...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413314/implications-of-red-panax-ginseng-in-oxidative-stress-associated-chronic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Yoon-Mi Lee, Haelim Yoon, Hyun-Min Park, Byeng Chun Song, Kyung-Jin Yeum
The steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to increase its major known bioactive components, ginsenosides, and, therefore, its biological properties as compared to regular Panax ginseng. Biological functions of red Panax ginseng attenuating pro-oxidant environments associated with chronic diseases are of particular interest, since oxidative stress can be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Additionally, proper utilization of various biomarkers for evaluating antioxidant activities in natural products, such as ginseng, can also be important to providing validity to their activities...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380543/effect-of-pelleting-on-survival-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-contaminated-feed
#4
R A Cochrane, L L Schumacher, S S Dritz, J C Woodworth, A R Huss, C R Stark, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, R D Goodband, J Bia, Q Chen, J Zhang, P C Gauger, R J Derscheid, D R Magstadt, R G Main, C K Jones
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a heat-sensitive virus that has devastated the U.S. swine industry. Because of its heat sensitivity, we hypothesized that a steam conditioner and pellet mill mimicking traditional commercial thermal processing may mitigate PEDV infectivity. Pelleting, a common feed processing method, includes the use of steam and shear forces, resulting in increased temperature of the processed feed. Two thermal processing experiments were designed to determine if different pellet mill conditioner retention times and temperatures would impact PEDV quantity and infectivity by analysis of quantitative reverse transcription PCR and bioassay...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365338/on-a-clean-power-generation-system-with-the-co-gasification-of-biomass-and-coal-in-a-quadruple-fluidized-bed-gasifier
#5
Linbo Yan, Boshu He
A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋten), total exergy efficiency (ŋtex) and carbon sequestration rate (Rcs) were detected...
March 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355552/energy-transfer-mechanisms-during-molecular-delivery-to-cells-by-laser-activated-carbon-nanoparticles
#6
Aritra Sengupta, Michael D Gray, Sean C Kelly, Stefany Y Holguin, Naresh N Thadhani, Mark R Prausnitz
Previous studies have shown that exposure of carbon black nanoparticles to nanosecond pulsed near-infrared laser causes intracellular delivery of molecules through hypothesized transient breaks in the cell membrane. The goal of this study is to determine the underlying mechanisms of sequential energy transfer from laser light to nanoparticle to fluid medium to cell. We found that laser pulses on a timescale of 10 ns rapidly heat carbon nanoparticles to temperatures on the order of 1200 K. Heat is transferred from the nanoparticles to the surrounding aqueous medium on a similar timescale, causing vaporization of the surrounding water and generation of acoustic emissions...
March 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#7
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329760/low-temperature-hydrogen-production-from-water-and-methanol-using-pt-%C3%AE-moc-catalysts
#8
Lili Lin, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao, Siyu Yao, Xiao Zhang, Wenqian Xu, Shijian Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Qiaolin Yu, Yong-Wang Li, Chuan Shi, Xiao-Dong Wen, Ding Ma
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM)...
April 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294235/steam-reforming-of-methanol-over-oxide-decorated-nanoporous-gold-catalysts-a-combined-in-situ-ftir-and-flow-reactor-study
#9
J Shi, C Mahr, M M Murshed, T M Gesing, A Rosenauer, M Bäumer, A Wittstock
Methanol as a green and renewable resource can be used to generate hydrogen by reforming, i.e., its catalytic oxidation with water. In combination with a fuel cell this hydrogen can be converted into electrical energy, a favorable concept, in particular for mobile applications. Its realization requires the development of novel types of structured catalysts, applicable in small scale reactor designs. Here, three different types of such catalysts were investigated for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Oxides such as TiO2 and CeO2 and mixtures thereof (Ce1Ti2Ox) were deposited inside a bulk nanoporous gold (npAu) material using wet chemical impregnation procedures...
March 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284229/influence-of-temperature-fluctuations-during-cryopreservation-on-vital-parameters-differentiation-potential-and-transgene-expression-of-placental-multipotent-stromal-cells
#10
Denys Pogozhykh, Olena Pogozhykh, Volodymyr Prokopyuk, Larisa Kuleshova, Anatoliy Goltsev, Rainer Blasczyk, Thomas Mueller
BACKGROUND: Successful implementation of rapidly advancing regenerative medicine approaches has led to high demand for readily available cellular suspensions. In particular, multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) of placental origin have shown therapeutic efficiency in the treatment of numerous pathologies of varied etiology. Up to now, cryopreservation is the only effective way to preserve the viability and unique properties of such cells in the long term. However, practical biobanking is often associated with repeated temperature fluctuations or interruption of a cold chain due to various technical, transportation, and stocking events...
March 11, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281670/visualising-recalcitrance-by-colocalisation-of-cellulase-lignin-and-cellulose-in-pretreated-pine-biomass-using-fluorescence-microscopy
#11
Lloyd Donaldson, Alankar Vaidya
Mapping the location of bound cellulase enzymes provides information on the micro-scale distribution of amenable and recalcitrant sites in pretreated woody biomass for biofuel applications. The interaction of a fluorescently labelled cellulase enzyme cocktail with steam-exploded pine (SEW) was quantified using confocal microscopy. The spatial distribution of Dylight labelled cellulase was quantified relative to lignin (autofluorescence) and cellulose (Congo red staining) by measuring their colocalisation using Pearson correlations...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279601/enhanced-ethanol-production-at-commercial-scale-from-molasses-using-high-gravity-technology-by-mutant-s-cerevisiae
#12
Muhammad Arshad, Tariq Hussain, Munawar Iqbal, Mazhar Abbas
Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216165/isolation-and-identification-of-new-chemical-constituents-from-chinese-chive-allium-tuberosum-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-raw-and-cooked-chinese-chive
#13
Quan Gao, Xia-Bing Li, Jia Sun, Er-Dong Xia, Feng Tang, Hai-Qun Cao, Hang Xun
Chinese chive (jiu cai) is a popular vegetable in China and has a unique flavour and aroma. The molecular basis of the characteristic fragrance and nutritional properties of Chinese chive has not been previously identified. Sequential extractions in a series of solvents and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate 40 compounds from Chinese chive. The compounds were identified based on high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and circular dichroism spectra...
February 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213710/biohydrogen-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate-effects-of-ph-s-x-fe-2-and-magnetite-nanoparticles
#14
Karen Reddy, Mahmoud Nasr, Sheena Kumari, Santhosh Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Faizal Bux
Batch dark fermentation experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial pH, substrate-to-biomass (S/X) ratio, and concentrations of Fe(2+) and magnetite nanoparticles on biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. By applying the response surface methodology, the optimum condition of steam-acid hydrolysis was 0.64% (v/v) H2SO4 for 55.7 min, which obtained a sugar yield of 274 mg g(-1). The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 0.874 mol (mol glucose(-1)) was detected at the optimum pH of 5...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191037/understanding-the-structural-and-chemical-changes-of-plant-biomass-following-steam-explosion-pretreatment
#15
Thomas Auxenfans, David Crônier, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
BACKGROUND: Biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass has become one of the most valuable alternatives for the production of multi-products such as biofuels. Pretreatment is a prerequisite to increase the enzymatic conversion of the recalcitrant lignocellulose. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the key features of biomass impacting the cellulase accessibility. In this study, we evaluate the structural and chemical features of three different representative biomasses (Miscanthus × giganteus, poplar and wheat straw), before and after steam explosion pretreatment at increasing severities, by monitoring chemical analysis, SEM, FTIR and 2D NMR...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156125/cell-adhesion-to-acrylic-custom-provisional-abutment-placed-on-an-immediate-implant-a-case-report
#16
Hanae Saito, Ru-Ching Hsia, Dennis P Tarnow, Mark A Reynolds
This article presents the results of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the surface of an acrylic custom provisional abutment following first disconnection from a post-extraction immediate implant placement. An implant was placed immediately after extraction, the site was grafted, and a barrier membrane was adapted for graft containment. A custom acrylic shell was then relined, polished, and steam-cleaned prior to being screwed onto the implant. After 5 months of undisturbed healing, the custom provisional abutment was disconnected for the first time and processed for SEM examination...
February 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129140/committing-to-memory-memory-prosthetics-show-promise-in-helping-those-with-neurodegenerative-disorders
#17
Michele Solis
Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative...
January 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114240/various-surface-treatments-to-implant-provisional-restorations-and-their-effect-on-epithelial-cell-adhesion-a-comparative-in-vitro-study
#18
Darya Luchinskaya, Rong Du, David M Owens, Dennis Tarnow, Nurit Bittner
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the ability of epithelial cells to attach to or proliferate on various mechanical or chemical surface treatments of an implant provisional material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyethyl methacrylate discs 10 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 to 0.75 mm in width were used in the study. Experimental discs were treated with either a mechanical (pumice, varnish for shine, or high polishing) or a chemical agent (alcohol, chlorhexidine, or steam) to provide cleaning and/or polishing...
February 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002493/about-the-sterilization-of-chitosan-hydrogel-nanoparticles
#19
Raquel Galante, Carolina F Rediguieri, Irene Satiko Kikuchi, Pablo A S Vasquez, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro, Terezinha J A Pinto
In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956287/toxic-anterior-segment-syndrome-caused-by-autoclave-reservoir-wall-biofilms-and-their-residual-toxins
#20
Andrew L Sorenson, Robert L Sorenson, David J Evans
PURPOSE: To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. SETTING: EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area...
November 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
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