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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216165/isolation-and-identification-of-new-chemical-constituents-from-chinese-chive-allium-tuberosum-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-raw-and-cooked-chinese-chive
#1
Quan Gao, Xia-Bing Li, Jia Sun, Er-Dong Xia, Feng Tang, Hai-Qun Cao, Hang Xun
Chinese chive (jiu cai) is a popular vegetable in China and has a unique flavour and aroma. The molecular basis of the characteristic fragrance and nutritional properties of Chinese chive has not been previously identified. Sequential extractions in a series of solvents and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate 40 compounds from Chinese chive. The compounds were identified based on high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and circular dichroism spectra...
February 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213710/biohydrogen-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse-hydrolysate-effects-of-ph-s-x-fe-2-and-magnetite-nanoparticles
#2
Karen Reddy, Mahmoud Nasr, Sheena Kumari, Santhosh Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Faizal Bux
Batch dark fermentation experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial pH, substrate-to-biomass (S/X) ratio, and concentrations of Fe(2+) and magnetite nanoparticles on biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) hydrolysate. By applying the response surface methodology, the optimum condition of steam-acid hydrolysis was 0.64% (v/v) H2SO4 for 55.7 min, which obtained a sugar yield of 274 mg g(-1). The maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 0.874 mol (mol glucose(-1)) was detected at the optimum pH of 5...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191037/understanding-the-structural-and-chemical-changes-of-plant-biomass-following-steam-explosion-pretreatment
#3
Thomas Auxenfans, David Crônier, Brigitte Chabbert, Gabriel Paës
BACKGROUND: Biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass has become one of the most valuable alternatives for the production of multi-products such as biofuels. Pretreatment is a prerequisite to increase the enzymatic conversion of the recalcitrant lignocellulose. However, there is still considerable debate regarding the key features of biomass impacting the cellulase accessibility. In this study, we evaluate the structural and chemical features of three different representative biomasses (Miscanthus × giganteus, poplar and wheat straw), before and after steam explosion pretreatment at increasing severities, by monitoring chemical analysis, SEM, FTIR and 2D NMR...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156125/cell-adhesion-to-acrylic-custom-provisional-abutment-placed-on-an-immediate-implant-a-case-report
#4
Hanae Saito, Ru-Ching Hsia, Dennis P Tarnow, Mark A Reynolds
This article presents the results of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the surface of an acrylic custom provisional abutment following first disconnection from a post-extraction immediate implant placement. An implant was placed immediately after extraction, the site was grafted, and a barrier membrane was adapted for graft containment. A custom acrylic shell was then relined, polished, and steam-cleaned prior to being screwed onto the implant. After 5 months of undisturbed healing, the custom provisional abutment was disconnected for the first time and processed for SEM examination...
February 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129140/committing-to-memory-memory-prosthetics-show-promise-in-helping-those-with-neurodegenerative-disorders
#5
Michele Solis
Cell phone chimes, sticky notes, even the proverbial string around a finger-these timehonored external cues help guard against our inevitable memory lapses. But some internal help to the brain itself may be on the way in the form of what's being called memory prosthetics. Once considered to be on the fringes of neuroscience, the idea of adding hardware to the brain to help with memory has gathered steam. In 2014, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) made a US$30 million investment in memory prosthetic research as part of the Obama administration's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative...
January 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114240/various-surface-treatments-to-implant-provisional-restorations-and-their-effect-on-epithelial-cell-adhesion-a-comparative-in-vitro-study
#6
Darya Luchinskaya, Rong Du, David M Owens, Dennis Tarnow, Nurit Bittner
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the ability of epithelial cells to attach to or proliferate on various mechanical or chemical surface treatments of an implant provisional material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyethyl methacrylate discs 10 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 to 0.75 mm in width were used in the study. Experimental discs were treated with either a mechanical (pumice, varnish for shine, or high polishing) or a chemical agent (alcohol, chlorhexidine, or steam) to provide cleaning and/or polishing...
February 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002493/about-the-sterilization-of-chitosan-hydrogel-nanoparticles
#7
Raquel Galante, Carolina F Rediguieri, Irene Satiko Kikuchi, Pablo A S Vasquez, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro, Terezinha J A Pinto
In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956287/toxic-anterior-segment-syndrome-caused-by-autoclave-reservoir-wall-biofilms-and-their-residual-toxins
#8
Andrew L Sorenson, Robert L Sorenson, David J Evans
PURPOSE: To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. SETTING: EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area...
November 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942436/engineering-a-wild-type-diploid-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-for-second-generation-bioethanol-production
#9
Hongxing Li, Yu Shen, Meiling Wu, Jin Hou, Chunlei Jiao, Zailu Li, Xinli Liu, Xiaoming Bao
BACKGROUND: The cost-effective production of second-generation bioethanol, which is made from lignocellulosic materials, has to face the following two problems: co-fermenting xylose with glucose and enhancing the strain's tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors. Based on our previous study, the wild-type diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BSIF with robustness and good xylose metabolism genetic background was used as a chassis for constructing efficient xylose-fermenting industrial strains...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932032/the-application-of-in-situ-analytical-transmission-electron-microscopy-to-the-study-of-preferential-intergranular-oxidation-in-alloy-600
#10
M G Burke, G Bertali, E Prestat, F Scenini, S J Haigh
In situ analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can provide a unique perspective on dynamic reactions in a variety of environments, including liquids and gases. In this study, in situ analytical TEM techniques have been applied to examine the localised oxidation reactions that occur in a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy, Alloy 600, using a gas environmental cell at elevated temperatures. The initial stages of preferential intergranular oxidation, shown to be an important precursor phenomenon for intergranular stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), have been successfully identified using the in situ approach...
November 21, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891177/furfural-tolerance-and-detoxification-mechanism-in-candida-tropicalis
#11
Shizeng Wang, Gang Cheng, Chijioke Joshua, Zijun He, Xinxiao Sun, Ruimin Li, Lexuan Liu, Qipeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Current biomass pretreatment by hydrothermal treatment (including acid hydrolysis, steam explosion, and high-temperature steaming) and ionic liquids generally generate inhibitors to the following fermentation process. Furfural is one of the typical inhibitors generated in hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Furfural could inhibit cell growth rate and decrease biofuel productivity of microbes. Candida tropicalis is a promising microbe for the production of biofuels and value-added chemicals using hemicellulose hydrolysate as carbon source...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871368/microbial-bioelectrosynthesis-of-hydrogen-current-challenges-and-scale-up
#12
REVIEW
Michael Kitching, Robin Butler, Enrico Marsili
Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833653/valorization-of-lignin-and-cellulose-in-acid-steam-exploded-corn-stover-by-a-moderate-alkaline-ethanol-post-treatment-based-on-an-integrated-biorefinery-concept
#13
Sheng Yang, Yue Zhang, Wen Yue, Wei Wang, Yun-Yan Wang, Tong-Qi Yuan, Run-Cang Sun
BACKGROUND: Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815127/larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-peumus-boldus-molina-and-its-ascaridole-enriched-fraction-against-culex-quinquefasciatus
#14
Débora Silva Borges de Castro, Denise Brentan da Silva, Jacqueline Domingues Tibúrcio, Marcos Eduardo Guerra Sobral, Vany Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Eduardo Serrão, João Máximo de Siqueira, Stênio Nunes Alves
Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), known as the domestic mosquito, is a common and abundant species throughout the world, and a cosmopolitan species. The adults of this mosquito are important in terms of public and animal health since they display adaptability to different hosts. In humans, they are responsible for the transmission of various diseases. One manner of control of this vector is the use of insecticidal or larvicidal products, which may have the drawback of toxicity to mammals and can be harmful to the environment...
December 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792266/is-steam-an-oxidant-or-a-reductant-for-nickel-doped-ceria-cermets
#15
Vasiliki Papaefthimiou, Dimitris K Niakolas, Fotios Paloukis, Thierry Dintzer, Spyridon Zafeiratos
Nickel/doped-ceria composites are promising electrocatalysts for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. Very often in the feedstock of the cells there is steam, frequently mixed with other gases, such as hydrogen or CO2. Increase of the steam concentration in the feed-mixture is considered accountable for the electrode oxidation and the deactivation of the device. However, direct experimental evidences of the steam interaction with nickel/doped-ceria composites, with adequate surface specificity, are lacking...
October 28, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775092/enhanced-methane-steam-reforming-activity-and-electrochemical-performance-of-ni0-9fe0-1-supported-solid-oxide-fuel-cells-with-infiltrated-ni-tio2-particles
#16
Kai Li, Lichao Jia, Xin Wang, Jian Pu, Bo Chi, Jian Li
Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765606/effect-of-lippia-alba-and-cymbopogon-citratus-essential-oils-on-biofilms-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-cytotoxicity-in-cho-cells
#17
A Tofiño-Rivera, M Ortega-Cuadros, D Galvis-Pareja, H Jiménez-Rios, L J Merini, M C Martínez-Pabón
BACKGROUND: Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. AIM: The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713954/anti-inflammatory-activities-of-essential-oil-isolated-from-the-calyx-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l
#18
Chun-Yan Shen, Tian-Tian Zhang, Wen-Li Zhang, Jian-Guo Jiang
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702500/effect-of-compression-combined-with-steam-treatment-on-the-porosity-chemical-compositon-and-cellulose-crystalline-structure-of-wood-cell-walls
#19
Jiangping Yin, Tongqi Yuan, Yun Lu, Kunlin Song, Hanyin Li, Guangjie Zhao, Yafang Yin
The changes of porosity, chemical composition and cellulose crystalline structure of Spruce (Picea abies Karst.) wood cell walls due to compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment) were investigated by nitrogen adsorption, confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. A number of slit-shaped mesopores with a diameter of 3.7nm was formed for the CS-treated wood, and more mesopores were found in the steam-treated wood. CRM results revealed cellulose structure was affected by treatment and β-aryl-ether links associated to guaiacyl units of lignin was depolymerized followed by re-condensation reactions...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693728/simulation-of-biomass-steam-gasification-in-fluidized-bed-reactors-model-setup-comparisons-and-preliminary-predictions
#20
Linbo Yan, C Jim Lim, Guangxi Yue, Boshu He, John R Grace
A user-defined solver integrating the solid-gas surface reactions and the multi-phase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) approach is built based on the OpenFOAM software. The solver is tested against experiments. Then, biomass-steam gasification in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasifier is preliminarily predicted. It is found that the predictions agree well with the experimental results. The bed material circulation loop in the DFB can form automatically and the bed height is about 1m. The voidage gradually increases along the height of the bed zone in the bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) of the DFB...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
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