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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753341/human-parasitology-and-parasitic-diseases-heading-towards-2050
#1
Peter J Hotez
By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736001/atomic-origins-of-water-vapour-promoted-alloy-oxidation
#2
Langli Luo, Mao Su, Pengfei Yan, Lianfeng Zou, Daniel K Schreiber, Donald R Baer, Zihua Zhu, Guangwen Zhou, Yanting Wang, Stephen M Bruemmer, Zhijie Xu, Chongmin Wang
The presence of water vapour, intentional or unavoidable, is crucial to many materials applications, such as in steam generators, turbine engines, fuel cells, catalysts and corrosion1-4 . Phenomenologically, water vapour has been noted to accelerate oxidation of metals and alloys5,6 . However, the atomistic mechanisms behind such oxidation remain elusive. Through direct in situ atomic-scale transmission electron microscopy observations and density functional theory calculations, we reveal that water-vapour-enhanced oxidation of a nickel-chromium alloy is associated with proton-dissolution-promoted formation, migration, and clustering of both cation and anion vacancies...
May 7, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727154/spontaneous-synthesis-of-high-crystalline-tio-2-compact-mesoporous-stacked-film-by-low-temperature-steam-annealing-method-for-efficient-perovskite-solar-cells
#3
Yoshitaka Sanehira, Youhei Numata, Masashi Ikegami, Tsutomu Miyasaka
Highly crystalline TiO2 nanostructured films were synthesized by simple steam treatment of a TiCl4 precursor film under saturated water vapor atmosphere at 125 °C, here referred to as the steam-annealing method. In a single TiO2 film preparation step, a bilayer structure comprising a compact bottom layer and a mesoporous surface layer was formed. The mesoporous layer was occupied by bipyramidal nanoparticles, with a composite phase of anatase and brookite crystals. Despite the low-temperature treatment process, the crystallinity of the TiO2 film was high, comparable with that of the TiO2 film sintered at 500 °C...
May 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717670/effects-of-cooking-and-in-vitro-digestion-on-antioxidant-properties-and-cytotoxicity-of-the-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatoroseus-agaricomycetes
#4
Tatiane Brugnari, Pedro Henrique Alves da Silva, Alex Graça Contato, Fabíola Dorneles Inácio, Mariene Marques Nolli, Camila Gabriel Kato, Rosane Marina Peralta, Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza
In this study we evaluated the antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity of an aqueous extract of the Pleurotus ostreatoroseus mushroom, which was cooked. Fresh basidiocarps were heated and steamed at 100°C and the resulting aqueous extract was assessed before and after in vitro digestion. Cooking reduced the amounts of phenolic compounds in the extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated through the use of 4 methods. The lowest half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) against ABTS radicals was 0...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717523/influence-of-the-crystal-structure-of-titanium-oxide-on-the-catalytic-activity-of-rh-tio2-in-steam-reforming-of-propane-at-low-temperature
#5
Lin Yu, Katsutoshi Sato, Takaaki Toriyama, Tomokazu Yamamoto, Syo Matsumura, Katsutoshi Nagaoka
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) reduce CO2 emissions due to their high energy-conversion efficiency. Although SOFCs can convert LPG directly, coking occurs easily by decomposition of hydrocarbons, including C-C bonds on the electrode of fuel cell stacks. It is therefore necessary to develop an active steam pre-reforming catalyst that eliminates the hydrocarbons at low temperature, where waste heat of SOFCs is used. Here we show that the crystal structure of the TiO2 that anchors Rh particles is crucial for catalytic activity of Rh/TiO2 catalysts for propane pre-reforming...
May 1, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652472/new-class-of-hybrid-materials-for-detection-capture-and-on-demand-release-of-carbon-monoxide
#6
Anaïs Pitto-Barry, Alexandru Lupan, Christopher Ellingford, Amr A A Attia, Nicolas P E Barry
Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578651/pilot-scale-up-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-production-by-halomonas-bluephagenesis-via-cell-growth-adapted-optimization-process
#7
Jianwen Ye, Wuzhe Huang, Dongsheng Wang, Fengyi Chen, Jin Yin, Teng Li, Haoqian Zhang, Guo-Qiang Chen
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), short as P(3HB-co-4HB), is one of the most valuable biopolymers because of its flexible mechanical properties. In this study, our goal is to establish the scaled-up process of low cost P(3HB-co-4HB) from a 7.5-L fermentor to 1-m3 and 5-m3 industrial bioreactors, respectively, using Halomonas bluephagenesis TD40 grown on glucose, γ-butyrolactone and waste corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, under open non-sterile and fed-batch or continuous conditions. The non-sterile process enables the energy reduction for less steam consumption...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578062/characterization-of-essential-oil-from-ocimum-gratissimum-leaves-antibacterial-and-mode-of-action-against-selected-gastroenteritis-pathogens
#8
Nitirat Chimnoi, Nanthawan Reuk-Ngam, Piyachat Chuysinuan, Panita Khlaychan, Nisachon Khunnawutmanotham, Daranee Chokchaichamnankit, Wassapol Thamniyom, Srikanjana Klayraung, Chulabhorn Mahidol, Supanna Techasakul
Essential oil of fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (OGEO) was water-steam distilled and analyzed by GC-MS. Thirty-seven compounds were identified, with eugenol (55.6%) as the major component followed by cis-ocimene (13.9%), γ-muurolene (11.6%), (Z,E)-α-farnesene (5.6%), α-trans-bergamotene (4.1%), and β-caryophyllene (2.7%). Antimicrobial activity of OGEO was tested against four gastroenteritis pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri). OGEO exhibited antibacterial effect, with MICs of 1-2 mg ml-1 , against the tested species...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519654/characterization-and-induction-of-phenolic-acid-decarboxylase-from-aspergillus-luchuensis
#9
Mayumi Maeda, Masashi Tokashiki, Midori Tokashiki, Keiko Uechi, Susumu Ito, Toki Taira
Awamori is a traditional distilled liquor in the Ryukyu Islands, made from steamed rice by the action of the black-koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the specific flavors in aged awamori kusu is vanillin, which is derived from ferulic acid (FA) in rice grains. FA is released from the cell wall material in the rice grain by ferulic acid esterase produced by A. luchuensis. Through decarboxylation of FA, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) is produced, which is transferred to the distilled liquor, and converted to vanillin by natural oxidization during the aging process...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500751/inhibitory-effect-of-japanese-black-vinegar-on-ige-mediated-degranulation-of-rbl-2h3-cells-and-a-murine-model-of-japanese-cedar-pollinosis
#10
Seiji Awane, Kosuke Nishi, Momoko Ishida, Masanobu Nagano, Kazunori Hashiguchi, Akira Fujii, Takuya Sugahara
Japanese black vinegar (JBV) is a traditional vinegar manufactured with steamed unpolished rice. After screening, beneficial effects of JBV on IgE-mediated allergic responses were found. In this study, acetic acid-free JBV was used to evaluate its antiallergic effects. JBV suppressed degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The inhibitory effect of JBV on the degranulation seemed to be caused by the bioactive ingredients other than proteins, because the activity was not affected by heat treatment or protease digestion...
March 2, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428611/high-level-expression-of-an-engineered-%C3%AE-mannanase-mrmman5a-in-pichia-pastoris-for-manno-oligosaccharide-production-using-steam-explosion-pretreated-palm-kernel-cake
#11
Yan-Xiao Li, Ping Yi, Jun Liu, Qiao-Juan Yan, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
An engineered β-mannanase (mRmMan5A) from Rhizomucor miehei was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Through high cell density fermentation, the expression level of mRmMan5A reached 79,680 U mL-1 . The mRmMan5A showed maximum activity at pH 4.5 and 65 °C, and exhibited high specific activities towards mannans. To produce manno-oligosaccharides, palm kernel cake (PKC) was pretreated by steam explosion at 200 °C for 7.5 min, and then hydrolyzed by mRmMan5A. As a result, the total manno-oligosaccharide yield reached 34...
May 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420466/processing-bulk-natural-wood-into-a-high-performance-structural-material
#12
Jianwei Song, Chaoji Chen, Shuze Zhu, Mingwei Zhu, Jiaqi Dai, Upamanyu Ray, Yiju Li, Yudi Kuang, Yongfeng Li, Nelson Quispe, Yonggang Yao, Amy Gong, Ulrich H Leiste, Hugh A Bruck, J Y Zhu, Azhar Vellore, Heng Li, Marilyn L Minus, Zheng Jia, Ashlie Martini, Teng Li, Liangbing Hu
Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used for millennia as a structural material for building and furniture construction. However, the mechanical performance of natural wood (its strength and toughness) is unsatisfactory for many advanced engineering structures and applications...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325916/proanthocyanidin-polymeric-tannins-from-stryphnodendron-adstringens-are-effective-against-candida-spp-isolates-and-for-vaginal-candidiasis-treatment
#13
Aline Luiza Duarte de Freitas, Vanessa Kaplum, Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Leandro Buffoni Roque da Silva, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Kelly Ishida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by in vitro and in vivo experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from the Stryphnodendron adstringens stem bark with antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro are also active against planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA, including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and are capable of controlling Candida vaginitis in vivo...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322058/gas-chromatography-gc-mass-analysis-and-bioactivity-of-essential-oil-from-aerial-parts-of-ferulago-trifida-antimicrobial-antioxidant-ache-inhibitory-general-toxicity-mtt-assay-and-larvicidal-activities
#14
Saeed Tavakoli, Hassan Vatandoost, Reza Zeidabadinezhad, Reza Hajiaghaee, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Mohammad Reza Abai, Narguess Yassa
Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300307/chemical-composition-and-bioactivity-of-essential-oil-from-blepharocalyx-salicifolius
#15
Fabiana Barcelos Furtado, Bruna Cristina Borges, Thaise Lara Teixeira, Hans Garcia Garces, Luiz Domingues de Almeida Junior, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo Alves, Claudio Vieira da Silva, Ary Fernandes Junior
Natural products represent a source of biologically active molecules that have an important role in drug discovery. The aromatic plant Blepharocalyx salicifolius has a diverse chemical constitution but the biological activities of its essential oils have not been thoroughly investigated. The aims of this paper were to evaluate in vitro cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of an essential oil from leaves of B. salicifolius and to identify its main chemical constituents. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and biological activities were performed by a microdilution broth method...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298510/structural-activity-relationship-of-ginsenosides-from-steamed-ginseng-in-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction
#16
Ang Ying, Qing-Tao Yu, Li Guo, Wen-Song Zhang, Jin-Feng Liu, Yun Li, Hong Song, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Ya-Zhong Ge, E-Hu Liu, Qun Liu
Ginseng has been reported to have diverse pharmacological effects. One of the therapeutic claims for ginseng is to enhance sexual function. Ginsenosides are considered as the major active constituents. A steaming process can alter the ginsenoside profile of ginseng products. The structure-function relationship of ginsenosides in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated yet. In this work, 15 different processed ginsengs are produced by steaming, and 13 major ginsensosides are quantified by liquid chromatography with UV detection, including Rg1, Re, Rf, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rf, Rk3, Rh4, 20S-Rg3, 20R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282974/new-efficient-and-reliable-air-electrode-material-for-proton-conducting-reversible-solid-oxide-cells
#17
Daoming Huan, Nai Shi, Lu Zhang, Wenzhou Tan, Yun Xie, Wanhua Wang, Changrong Xia, Ranran Peng, Yalin Lu
Driven by the demand to minimize fluctuation in common renewable energies, reversible solid oxide cells (RSOCs) have drawn increasing attention for they can operate either as fuel cells to produce electricity or as electrolysis cells to store electricity. Unfortunately, development of proton-conducting RSOCs (P-RSOCs) faces a major challenge of poor reliability because of the high content of steam involved in air electrode reactions, which could seriously decay the lifetime of air electrode materials. In this work, a very stable and efficient air electrode, SrEu2 Fe1...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146345/effect-of-high-pressure-processing-on-colour-phytochemical-contents-and-antioxidant-activities-of-purple-waxy-corn-zea-mays-l-var-ceratina-kernels
#18
Kawinchaya Saikaew, Kamol Lertrat, Mutita Meenune, Ratchada Tangwongchai
High-pressure processing (HPP) at 250-700 MPa for 30-45 min affects the colour parameters, phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of purple waxy corn kernels (p < 0.05). The higher pressure-level, the lower L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗) and h(o) (p < 0.05). However, pressure-treated kernels at 700 MPa showed a similar colour profile to steam-treated kernels. HPP caused a loss in the total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activities. The pressure-treated kernels had a higher phytochemical content than the steam-treated kernels...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121067/high-yields-of-hydrogen-production-from-methanol-steam-reforming-with-a-cross-u-type-reactor
#19
Shubin Zhang, Yufeng Zhang, Junyu Chen, Xuelin Zhang, Xiaowei Liu
This paper presents a numerical and experimental study on the performance of a methanol steam reformer integrated with a hydrogen/air combustion reactor for hydrogen production. A CFD-based 3D model with mass and momentum transport and temperature characteristics is established. The simulation results show that better performance is achieved in the cross-U type reactor compared to either a tubular reactor or a parallel-U type reactor because of more effective heat transfer characteristics. Furthermore, Cu-based micro reformers of both cross-U and parallel-U type reactors are designed, fabricated and tested for experimental validation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100872/bioaccesibility-of-cylindrospermopsin-from-cooked-fish-muscle-after-the-application-of-an-in-vitro-digestion-model-and-its-bioavailability
#20
Sara Maisanaba, Federica Saladino, Guillermina Font, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán, Giuseppe Meca
Humans can be exposed to cyanotoxins through the ingestion of contaminated water, food or beverages. In the present work, the bioaccesibility of Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), one of the most relevant cyanotoxins, was evaluated in a pure CYN solution and cooked CYN-contaminated fish muscles (20 μg/mL). An in vitro digestion model including the salivar, gastric, duodenal and colonic phases was performed, being each fraction analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS to evaluate CYN degradation. Moreover, Caco-2/TC7 cells were exposed to the digested duodenal and colonic phases to elucidate the final bioavailability of CYN in an approximation to the real human exposure scenario...
December 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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