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Radiotherapy oncology

Matthew D Hall, Timothy E Schultheiss, David D Smith, Marwan G Fakih, Jeffrey Y C Wong, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with stage II-III rectal cancer. Limited evidence addresses whether radiotherapy dose escalation further improves pCR rates. Our purpose is to measure the effects of radiotherapy dose and other factors on post-therapy pathologic tumor (ypT) and nodal stage in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT followed by mesorectal excision...
October 20, 2016: Acta Oncologica
S Tonoli, D Alterio, O Caspiani, A Bacigalupo, F Bunkheila, M Cianciulli, A Merlotti, A Podhradska, M Rampino, D Cante, L Bruschieri, R Gatta, S M Magrini
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010...
October 19, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
İrfan Cicin, Tahsin Özatlı, Esma Türkmen, Türkan Özturk, Melike Özçelik, Devrim Çabuk, Ayşe Gökdurnalı, Özlem Balvan, Yaşar Yıldız, Metin Şeker, Nuriye Özdemir, Burcu Yapar, Özgür Tanrıverdi, Yusuf Günaydin, Serkan Menekşe, Berna Öksüzoğlu, Asude Aksoy, Bülent Erdogan, M Bekir Hacıoglu, Erkan Arpaci, Alper Sevinç
BACKGROUND: Prognostic factors and the standard treatment approach for gynaecological carcinosarcomas have not yet been clearly defined. Although carcinosarcomas are more aggressive than pure epithelial tumours, they are treated similarly. Serous/clear cell and endometrioid components may be predictive factors for the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or radiotherapy (RT) or RT in patients with uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas. Heterologous carcinosarcomas may benefit more from adjuvant CT...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Meriem Slaoui, Fatima Zahra Mouh, Imane Ghanname, Rachid Razine, Mohammed El Mzibri, Mariam Amrani
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available. METHODS: We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1) and women aged >40 years (Group 2)...
2016: PloS One
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Anish Khalil, Muhammad Faheem, Ammad Fahim, Haran Innocent, Zainab Mansoor, Shehrbano Rizvi, Hizra Farrukh
Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS)...
2016: Psychiatry Journal
Marco Krengli, Carla Pisani, Letizia Deantonio
The guidelines of the European and American Societies of Radiation Oncology (GEC-ESTRO and ASTRO) defined the selection criteria to offer partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy in patients with low risk breast cancer regardless pre-operative staging. A recent publication by Tallet et al. explored the impact of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on patient eligibility for PBI. From their study, an ipsilateral BC was detected in 4% of patients, excluding these patients from intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT)...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Alex Herskovic, Elizabeth Mauer, Paul Christos, Himanshu Nagar
BACKGROUND: The role of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in the treatment of pathologic stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial. We investigated practice patterns and outcomes for these patients in a prospectively maintained nationwide oncology outcomes database. METHODS: Patients with known histologies of pathologic stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC who underwent surgery with negative margins and received adjuvant multiagent chemotherapy from 2004-2013 were identified from the National Cancer DataBase (NCDB) and stratified by the use of PORT...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
K A Lee, C O'Sullivan, P Daly, J Pears, C Owens, B Timmermann, C Ares, S E Combs, D Indelicato, M Capra
BACKGROUND: Proton therapy (PT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality that uses protons, rather than conventional photons. PT is often used in paediatric oncology due to its reported capability to reduce acute and late adverse treatment effects. As PT is unavailable in Ireland, patients are referred abroad for treatment. AIMS: To: (1) produce a descriptive study of Irish children referred abroad for PT, and (2) discuss the case for PT in general. METHODS: A retrospective review of all children referred for PT before October 2015 was performed...
October 15, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
C Gzell, M Back, H Wheeler, D Bailey, M Foote
The aim of this review is to explore the changing utility of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma over the past 60 years. Together with surgery, radiotherapy has always been the cornerstone of treatment of glioblastoma, but techniques have significantly advanced over this time. The exploration of early two-dimensional techniques, investigation of dose escalation, concomitant chemotherapy and modern techniques, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image-guided radiotherapy, and volumetric-modulated arc therapy will be covered...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Finn Ole Larsen, Alice Markussen, Benny V Jensen, Anne L Fromm, Kirsten K Vistisen, Vibeke K Parner, Dorte Linnemann, Rasmus H Hansen, Helle H Johannesen, Jakob V Schou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before, during, and after radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with rectum cancer T4 or T3 involving the mesorectal fascia was included in a prospective phase 2 trial. Liver or lung metastases were accepted if the surgeons found them resectable. The patients received 6 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin before chemoradiotherapy (CRT), continued capecitabine and oxaliplatin during radiotherapy, and received 4 weeks of capecitabine and oxaliplatin after CRT...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Ajay Gupta, Siddhartha Baxi, Christopher Hoyne
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive oncology services have recently been introduced in the Northern Territory (NT) enabling delivery of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSC). The purpose of this study is to assess feasibility, compliance and toxicity of CCRT in remote Australia. METHODS: Chart review was conducted for all patients >18 years, with biopsy-proven LAHNSC, receiving curative intent CCRT between January 2010 and September 2012...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Jéssica Ribeiro Gomes, Rafael A Schmerling, Carolina K Haddad, Douglas J Racy, Robson Ferrigno, Erlon Gil, Pedro Zanuncio, Antônio C Buzaid
Abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon characterized by tumor regression of untreated metastatic lesions after a local therapy (eg, radiotherapy). We studied the probability of abscopal effect with radiotherapy associated with anti-programmed death cell 1 (PD1) therapy after progression on anti-PD1. This study is a retrospective analysis of patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cancer at Antônio Ermírio de Moraes Oncology Center, Brazil. To be eligible for this analysis, patients must have had unequivocal evidence of disease progression on anti-PD1 therapy and subsequent radiotherapy for any tumor site while still receiving anti-PD1...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotherapy
O Kalita, K Cwiertka, D Vrána, M Vaverka, L Tučková, M Megová
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor schwannoma (MPNST), also known as malignant schwannoma, is a very rare tumor accounting for only 2% of all sarcomas. The prognosis is relatively poor, with a 5-year survival rate of 46-69%. The treatment of MPNST has not been standardized yet. Mainstay treatment is radical resection. Oncological adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment has equivocal indications with unclear effects. CASE: The case report presents a 55-year-old patient who showed resistance in the medial-ventral area of the left lower limb...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Michiro Susa, Kazutaka Kikuta, Robert Nakayama, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Keisuke Horiuchi, Sota Oguro, Masanori Inoue, Hideki Yashiro, Seishi Nakatsuka, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Chiba, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Historically, local control of recurrent sarcomas has been limited to radiotherapy when surgical re-resection is not feasible. For metastatic carcinomas to the bone or soft tissue, radiotherapy and some interventional radiology treatment along with other systemic therapies have been widely advocated due to the possibility of disseminated disease. These techniques are effective in alleviating pain and achieving local control for some tumor types, but it has not been effective for prolonged local control of most tumors...
October 13, 2016: BMC Cancer
G Cocorullo, R Tutino, N Falco, T Fontana, G Salamone, L Licari, G Gulotta
Rectal bleeding is very common in general population with a prevalence of 10-20 %. Primary care physicians have to stratify patients basing on urgency and on the colo-rectal cancer risk and to conduct a decision making for the correct management. We report a case of a 61-years-old woman, complaining rectal bleeding and an anal mass attended to their family doctor who does a visit but without a digital rectal examination and diagnosed a hemorrhoidal prolapse suggesting medical therapy. For the persistence of symptoms she comes to our service from emergency attention...
May 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Caroline Brammer, Sundus Yahya, Dawn Dawson, Carol Glaister, Susan B Merrick
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this feasibility study is to define the resource effectiveness of Cetuximab versus cisplatin given concomitantly with radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma within a NHS clinical oncology unit. METHODS: 20 Patients with stage 3 or 4 head and neck squamous cell cancers were randomised to receive either Cetuximab with radiotherapy (ERT) or cisplatin with radiotherapy (CRT) concurrent with external beam radiotherapy 70 Gy in 35 fractions on a 1:1 basis over a 12-month duration...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Chai Hong Rim, Jinsil Seong
In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality...
September 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Koichi Tomita, Kenji Yano, Akimitsu Nishibayashi, Shien Seike, Ko Hosokawa
BACKGROUND: When the inframammary fold (IMF) is excised in mastectomy procedures for oncologic reasons, it must be recreated to restore a natural breast shape. Despite refinements in surgical techniques, postoperative loss of a well-defined IMF can occur. This study aimed to assess the outcomes of IMF recreation after two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 75 consecutive patients who underwent unilateral, two-stage, implant-based breast reconstruction between 2013 and 2015 at the authors' institution...
2016: SpringerPlus
R Orecchia, A Surgo, M Muto, A Ferrari, G Piperno, M A Gerardi, S Comi, C Garibaldi, D Ciardo, A Bazani, F Golino, F Pansini, C Fodor, P Romanelli, D Maestri, V Scroffi, S Mazza, B A Jereczek-Fossa
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate patient profile, feasibility, and acute toxicity of RadioTherapy (RT) delivered by VERO® in the first 20 months of clinical activity. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 1) adult patients; 2) limited volume cancer (M0 or oligometastatic); 3) small extracranial lesions; 4) treatment between April 2012 and December 2013 and 5) written informed consent. Two techniques were employed: intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT)...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
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