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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#1
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910409/risk-of-acute-gastroenteritis-associated-with-human-bocavirus-infection-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Ri De, Liying Liu, Yuan Qian, Runan Zhu, Jie Deng, Fang Wang, Yu Sun, Huijin Dong, Liping Jia, Linqing Zhao
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs), which were first identified in 2005 and are composed of genotypes 1-4, have been increasingly detected worldwide in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. To investigate if HBoV infection is a risk factor of acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old, we searched PubMed, Embase (via Ovid), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the prevalence of HBoVs in individuals from Oct 25, 2005 to Oct 31, 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#3
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906408/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-presenting-as-upper-gastrointestinal-hematoma-and-ulcers-after-endoscopic-biopsy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Biqin Chen, Zhao Yang, Heng Lu, Cheng Wei, Fangyu Wang, Chang Liu
RATIONALE: Eosinphilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration with various manifestations. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy, which is considered a safe and routine procedure for the majority. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 54-year-old male who was presented with intermittent periumbilical pain and melena, and only revealed verrucous gastritis by endoscopy. DIAGNOSES: The patient's condition worsened two days after the endoscopic biopsy, and another endoscopy found hematoma and ulcers in upper gastrointestinal tract...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886496/convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-quaternary-hospital-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-picu-in-south-africa-an-8-year-review
#5
Yavini Reddy, Yusentha Balakrishna, Lawrence Mubaiwa
PURPOSE: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. RESULTS: Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus...
August 2, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885302/postinfection-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-links-between-gastroenteritis-inflammation-the-microbiome-and-functional-disease
#6
Ian A Downs, Olga C Aroniadis, Libusha Kelly, Lawrence J Brandt
Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882583/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-in-hospitalized-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-southern-taiwan-according-to-major-pathogens
#7
Ning Chung, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Fu-Chun Kuo, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jung-Jung Mu, Fang-Tzy Wu, Li-Min Huang, Yi-Chuan Huang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsin Chi, Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. METHODS: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC) for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871025/the-economic-impact-of-childhood-acute-gastroenteritis-on-malawian-families-and-the-healthcare-system
#8
Nathaniel Hendrix, Naor Bar-Zeev, Deborah Atherly, Jean Chikafa, Hazzie Mvula, Richard Wachepa, Amelia C Crampin, Themba Mhango, Charles Mwansambo, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Clint Pecenka
OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study sought to estimate health system and household costs for episodes of diarrhoeal illness in Malawi. SETTING: Data were collected in two Malawian settings: a rural health centre in Chilumba and an urban tertiary care hospital in Blantyre. PARTICIPANTS: Children under 5 years of age presenting with diarrhoeal disease between 1 January 2013 and 21 November 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Illnesses attributed to other underlying causes were excluded, as were illnesses commencing more than 2 weeks prior to presentation...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835355/efficacy-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-for-the-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Henryk Szymański, Hania Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children. Oral rehydration therapy is the key treatment. However, despite proven efficacy, it remains underused. This is because oral rehydration solution neither reduces the frequency of bowel movements and fluid loss nor shortens the duration of illness. Hence, there is interest in adjunctive treatments. According to the 2014 guidelines developed by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the use of the following probiotics may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation)...
August 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#10
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813644/rotavirus-disease-course-among-immunocompromised-patients-5-year-observations-from-a-tertiary-care-medical-centre
#11
P Bruijning-Verhagen, M D Nipshagen, H de Graaf, M J M Bonten
Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed beyond infancy. We assessed rotavirus disease among immunocompromised hospitalized patients. METHODS: Rotavirus infections at a Dutch tertiary-care centre were identified from 5-year laboratory records...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810833/population-effectiveness-of-the-pentavalent-and-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Daniel Hungerford, Katie Smith, Angela Tucker, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Roberto Vivancos, Catherine McLeonard, Nigel A Cunliffe, Neil French
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus was the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children prior to the introduction of routine vaccination. Since 2006 there have been two licensed vaccines available; with successful clinical trials leading the World Health Organization to recommend rotavirus vaccination for all children worldwide. In order to inform immunisation policy we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to assess population effectiveness against acute gastroenteritis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781938/foodborne-infectious-diseases-mediated-by-inappropriate-infection-control-in-food-service-businesses-and-relevant-countermeasures-in-korea
#13
REVIEW
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Hyun-Min Cho, Ji Won Hong, Sa-Youl Ghim
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to propose an appropriate course of action for improving the guidelines followed by food handlers for control of infection. For this purpose, previous epidemiological reports related to acute gastroenteritis in food service businesses mediated by food handlers were intensively analyzed. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified in international databases. We selected eligible papers reporting foodborne infectious disease outbreaks...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777099/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-review-of-known-environmental-protective-and-risk-factors-involved
#14
Kimberley W J van der Sloot, Marzyeh Amini, Vera Peters, Gerard Dijkstra, Behrooz Z Alizadeh
Inflammatory bowel diseases consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to genetic susceptibility and disturbances of the microbiome, environmental exposures forming the exposome play an important role. Starting at birth, the cumulative effect of different environmental exposures combined with a predetermined genetic susceptibility is thought to cause inflammatory bowel disease. All these environmental factors are part of a Western lifestyle, suiting the high incidence rates in Europe and the United States...
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756066/prospects-and-challenges-in-the-development-of-a-norovirus-vaccine
#15
REVIEW
Nicolas W Cortes-Penfield, Sasirekha Ramani, Mary K Estes, Robert L Atmar
PURPOSE: Norovirus is the leading cause of acute epidemic gastroenteritis among children under the age of 5 years and adults in the United States and in adults worldwide, accounting for an estimated 20% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. No effective vaccine is presently available. This article provides an overview of the current state of norovirus vaccine development, emphasizing barriers and challenges in the development of an effective vaccine, correlates of protection used to assess vaccine efficacy, and the results of clinical trials of the major candidate vaccines...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746261/rotavirus-infection-in-the-auckland-region-following-the-implementation-of-universal-infant-rotavirus-vaccination-impact-on-hospitalisations-and-laboratory-implications
#16
Gary N McAuliffe, Susan L Taylor, Dragana Drinković, Sally A Roberts, Elizabeth M Wilson, Emma J Best
BACKGROUND: In July 2014, New Zealand introduced universal infant vaccination with Rotateq (Merk & Co.) administered as three doses at 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months of age. We sought to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the greater Auckland region and analyze changes in rotavirus testing in the period around vaccine introduction. METHODS: Hospitalizations, laboratory testing rates and methods were compared between the pre-vaccine period (2009-2013), post vaccine period (January-December 2015), and year of vaccine introduction (2014)...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742637/is-intussusception-a-middle-of-the-night-emergency
#17
Brooke S Lampl, Jonathan Glaab, Rama S Ayyala, Rania Kanchi, Carrie B Ruzal-Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Intussusception is the most common abdominal emergency in pediatric patients aged 6 months to 3 years. There is often a delay in diagnosis, as the presentation can be confused for viral gastroenteritis. Given this scenario, we questioned the practice of performing emergency reductions in children during the night when minimal support staff are available. Pneumatic reduction is not a benign procedure, with the most significant risk being bowel perforation. We performed this analysis to determine whether it would be safe to delay reduction in these patients until normal working hours when more support staff are available...
July 24, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732001/-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#18
Maryleen Muñoz-Guzmán, Andrea Hernández-Suyo, Joëlle Deriaz-Alvarez, Diana Rodríguez-Hurtado
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare primary disease distinguished by abundant eosinophilic infiltration of the intestinal mucosa. It concerns variable and nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms according to the depth of infiltration and may cause severe complications. We reported a case of a 52-year- old woman without prior diseases with 8-month history of diarrhea, abdominal pain, ascites and weight loss. After having performed routine tests and rolled out most common diseases, we get to the diagnosis. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis requires a high suspicion for the diagnosis; because of chronic symptoms, it shows a burden on the nutritional status and quality of life of patients...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731727/incidence-of-gastrointestinal-infections-among-u-s-active-component-service-members-stationed-in-the-u-s-compared-to-u-s-civilians-2012-2014
#19
Sarah E Hill, Daniela E Poss, Stic Harris
Gastrointestinal (GI) infections in the U.S. Armed Forces have consistently been among the most frequent disease and non-battle injury diagnoses. A retrospective analysis of surveillance data categorized as GI infections among active component service members during 2012-2014 was performed. During the study period, 99% of inpatient and outpatient GI encounters were reported as nonspecific GI infection (13,331 cases per 100,000 people), leaving only a small percentage of cases attributed to specific causes. The five most common organisms associated with GI infections were Campylobacter (10...
July 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725217/metagenomics-the-next-culture-independent-game-changer
#20
REVIEW
Jessica D Forbes, Natalie C Knox, Jennifer Ronholm, Franco Pagotto, Aleisha Reimer
A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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