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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#1
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633964/sampling-methods-for-recovery-of-human-enteric-viruses-from-environmental-surfaces
#2
REVIEW
Nicole L Turnage, Kristen E Gibson
Acute gastroenteritis causes the second highest infectious disease burden worldwide. Human enteric viruses have been identified as leading causative agents of acute gastroenteritis as well as foodborne illnesses in the U.S. and are generally transmitted by fecal-oral contamination. There is growing evidence of transmission occurring via contaminated fomite including food contact surfaces. Additionally, human enteric viruses have been shown to remain infectious on fomites over prolonged periods of time. To better understand viral persistence, there is a need for more studies to investigate this phenomenon...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633888/burden-of-acute-gastroenteritis-caused-by-norovirus-in-china-a-systematic-review
#3
Hong-Lu Zhou, Shan-Shan Zhen, Jin-Xia Wang, Can-Jing Zhang, Chao Qiu, Song-Mei Wang, Xi Jiang, Xuan-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: To understand the epidemiology and disease burden of norovirus (NoVs) gastroenteritis in China, a systematic review was conducted. METHODS: Studies on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by NoVs from mainland China, published before 2017 were searched. All retrieved articles were screened and reviewed by a standardized algorithm. NoVs detection rates as well as strain variations by ages, seasonal variations and geographic locations were analyzed using random-effects model...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619124/multiplex-tests-to-identify-gastrointestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-parasites-in-people-with-suspected-infectious-gastroenteritis-a-systematic-review-and-economic-analysis
#4
Karoline Freeman, Hema Mistry, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Pam Royle, Noel McCarthy, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Rohini Manuel, James Mason
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a common, transient disorder usually caused by infection and characterised by the acute onset of diarrhoea. Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify common bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens using molecular testing. By providing test results more rapidly than conventional testing methods, GPP tests might positively influence the treatment and management of patients presenting in hospital or in the community. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for GPP tests [xTAG(®) (Luminex, Toronto, ON, Canada), FilmArray (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and Faecal Pathogens B (AusDiagnostics, Beaconsfield, NSW, Australia)] and to develop a de novo economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of GPP tests with conventional testing in England and Wales...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584458/epidemiology-of-rotavirus-in-the-iranian-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari, Shima Hadifar, Shayan Mostafaei, Ali Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Farhad Babaei, Mohsen Moghoofei
Rotavirus is associated with increased risk for severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence rate of rotavirus from different parts of Iran and provide an overall relative frequency (RF) for Iran. We performed a systematic literature review from several databases including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, OVID, MAG IRAN, IranMedex, and Iranian Scientific Information Database. We searched the following keywords: "rotavirus," "rotavirus infection," "acute gastroenteritis," "diarrhea," "children," "infant," and "Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556448/non-typhoidal-salmonella-infections-in-children-review-of-literature-and-recommendations-for-management
#6
REVIEW
Sophie Ch Wen, Emma Best, Clare Nourse
Non-typhoidal Salmonellae are a major cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide and can cause invasive diseases, including bacteraemia, meningitis and osteomyelitis. Young or immunocompromised children and those with underlying conditions such as sickle cell disease are particularly vulnerable to invasive disease. There has been an increase in the rate of resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella, which is associated with invasive disease and hospitalisation. The intracellular nature of non-typhoidal Salmonella protects against extracellular antibiotics and can facilitate disease relapse, particularly meningitis...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552104/microsporidiosis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azim Rezamand, Nayyereh Aminisani, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Reza Berahmat, Tahereh Mikaeili-Galeh
OBJECTIVE: To examine all evidence about Microsporidia infection in vertebrate/invertebrate hosts and Iranian populations distributed in different regions of the country. METHODS: All published articles up to December 2015, including descriptive and cross-sectional studies related to the prevalence and genotyping of Microsporidia infection in Iran, was considered in this systematic review. The meta-analysis was done using the random-effects model and Stats Direct statistical software...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551933/-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-acute-gastroenteritis-in-israel-update-2017
#8
Firas Rinawi, Shai Ashkenazi, Michael Wilschanski, Eli Somekh, Raanan Shamir
AIMS: The aim of these guidelines is to update and extend evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Israel, based on new data and the recently published European update. METHODS: The recommendations, which are based on a systematic review of the literature, were graded by the level of evidence. The guidelines were endorsed by the Israeli societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Israeli Association of Pediatrics...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540296/evaluation-of-the-complex-nomenclature-of-the-clinically-and-veterinary-significant-pathogen-salmonella
#9
REVIEW
Michael P Ryan, Jean O'Dwyer, Catherine C Adley
Salmonella encompasses a vast and highly related population of clinically and veterinary significant pathogens. The genus is responsible for an array of diseases such as typhoid fever and salmonellosis (a variety of illnesses including gastroenteritis), which cause public health issues globally. Even with the global recognition of Salmonella as a significant human and veterinary pathogen, the highly complex and evolving nomenclature system of Salmonella is problematic for clinicians, veterinarians, and microbiologists to comprehend...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523062/role-of-antimicrobials-in-the-treatment-of-adult-patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-acute-gastroenteritis-a-mini-review
#10
REVIEW
Omar Abbas Ahmed Malik
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis is generally considered a self-limiting illness that does not require the use of antibiotics. However, many emergency departments in the country frequently prescribe antibiotics to patients presenting with diarrhoea. This review attempts to determine whether this practice is reasonable. Our objective was to determine the role of antimicrobials in the empiric management of acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The online data base "PubMed", as well as the World Wide Web, were searched for relevant articles (RCTs, Reviews, Prospective studies, etc...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521520/corrigendum
#11
(no author information available yet)
Falszewska A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H. The diagnostic accuracy of Clinical Dehydration Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis: a systematic review. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2014;53:1181-8. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0009922814538493 ).
May 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470024/ovarian-endometrioma-superinfected-with-salmonella-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Max W Adelman, Jacob H Johnson, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Rajesh T Gandhi
We present the case of a 28-year-old woman with Salmonella serovar Schwarzengrund gastroenteritis acquired during foreign travel. Her case was complicated by superinfection of a pre-existing ovarian endometrioma with a quinolone-resistant organism; the resultant ovarian abscess ultimately required surgical removal for resolution. We review the key features of this case and the previous literature on Salmonella ovarian abscess. This report highlights (1) the potential for metastatic spread of Salmonella to the ovary in women with pre-existing cysts or endometriomas and (2) the increasing worldwide burden of quinolone-resistant Salmonella...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445504/correction-gastroenteritis-therapies-in-developed-countries-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Stephen B Freedman, Dion Pasichnyk, Karen J L Black, Eleanor Fitzpatrick, Serge Gouin, Andrea Milne, Lisa Hartling
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128754.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442437/characterization-of-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-the-massive-multi-pathogen-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-the-antofagasta-region-following-the-chilean-earthquake-2010
#14
David Montero, Maricel Vidal, Mirka Pardo, Alexia Torres, Eduardo Kruger, Mauricio Farfán, Miguel O'Ryan, Qingwei Luo, James Fleckenstein, Felipe Del Canto, Roberto Vidal
In March 2010, a massive outbreak of gastroenteritis started in the region of Antofagasta (northern Chile). The outbreak was mainly attributed to Norovirus genogroup II although ETEC strains were also isolated with high frequency from clinical samples. We review this outbreak and determined that ETEC was an underestimated etiologic agent.
April 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440714/hypereosinophilic-syndrome-endomyocardial-biopsy-versus-echocardiography-to-diagnose-cardiac-involvement
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph H Butterfield, Garvan C Kane, Catherine R Weiler
OBJECTIVE: To compare echocardiograms and endomyocardial biopsies to diagnose cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome. METHODS: We examined the agreement between echocardiography and endomyocardial biopsies to detect cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome by reviewing cases identified as hypereosinophilia or hypereosinophilic syndrome in Mayo Clinic databases from January 1978 through June 2009. Single-organ cases of eosinophilia such as eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis were excluded...
June 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414969/cytokines-in-the-management-of-rotavirus-infection-a-systematic-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#16
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Victor Santana Santos, Marina Denadai, Valdete Kaliane da Silva Calisto, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection...
April 14, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386253/current-and-potential-treatments-for-reducing-campylobacter-colonization-in-animal-hosts-and-disease-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
Tylor J Johnson, Janette M Shank, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367739/towards-understanding-clinical-campylobacter-infection-and-its-transmission-time-for-a-different-approach
#18
E Casey, E Fitzgerald, B Lucey
Campylobacter spp. are among the most commonly diagnosed causes of human infection. Methods for detection of the 29 campylobacter species have mainly focused on cultivation of the thermophilic species. More than 99% of clinical campylobacter isolates notified in the UK in the recent past have been from faecal samples and associated with gastroenteritis. Campylobacter enteritis notifications in temperate zones show a seasonal increase during the summer months with a sharp decrease in the winter months, a pattern which remains incompletely understood...
April 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360258/impact-of-maternal-antibodies-and-infant-gut-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-african-indian-and-european-infants-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Kuladaipalayam Natarajan C Sindhu, Nigel Cunliffe, Matthew Peak, Mark Turner, Alistair Darby, Nicholas Grassly, Melita Gordon, Queen Dube, Sudhir Babji, Ira Praharaj, Valsan Verghese, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Gagandeep Kang
INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteritis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young children living in resource-poor settings, majority of which is attributed to rotavirus. Rotavirus vaccination can therefore have a significant impact on infant mortality. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia is significantly lower than in high-income countries. Maternally derived antibodies, infant gut microbiota and concomitant oral polio vaccination have been proposed as potential reasons for poor vaccine performance in low-income settings...
March 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359707/evidence-based-practice-video-discharge-instructions-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#20
Elyssa B Wood, Gina Harrison, Amber Trickey, Mary Ann Friesen, Sarah Stinson, Erin Rovelli, Serena McReynolds, Kristina Presgrave
While a high quality discharge from a Pediatric Emergency Department helps caregivers feel informed and prepared to care for their sick child at home, poor adherence to discharge instructions leads to unnecessary return visits, negative health outcomes, and decreased patient satisfaction. Nurses at the Inova Loudoun Pediatric ED utilized the Johns Hopkins Model of Evidence Based Practice to answer the following question: Among caregivers who have children discharged from the ED, does the addition of video discharge instructions (VDI) to standard written/verbal discharge instructions (SDI) result in improved knowledge about the child's diagnosis, treatment, illness duration, and when to seek further medical care? METHODS: A multidisciplinary team reviewed available evidence and created VDI for three common pediatric diagnoses: gastroenteritis, bronchiolitis, and fever...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
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