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gastroenteritis review

Kristen L Lokken, Gregory T Walker, Renée M Tsolis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars (NTS) are generally associated with gastroenteritis; however, the very young and elderly, as well as individuals with compromised immunity, are at risk of developing disseminated infection that can manifest as bacteremia or focal infections at systemic sites. Disseminated NTS infections can be fatal and are responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually. Most of these deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa, where multi-drug resistant NTS clones are currently circulating in a population with a high proportion of individuals that are susceptible to disseminated disease...
October 8, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Miguel O'Ryan, Margarita Riera-Montes, Benjamin Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis. Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. METHODS: We carried out a literature search in Medline, SciELO and LILACS...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael J Callahan, Jennifer M Talmadge, Robert D MacDougall, Patricia L Kleinman, George A Taylor, Carlo Buonomo
In our experience, questions about the appropriate use of enteric contrast media for pediatric fluoroscopic studies are common. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of enteric contrast media used for pediatric fluoroscopy, highlighting the routine use of these media at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital.
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Shefali Agrawal, Sandeep Vohra, Sangeeta Rawat, Vikas Kashyap
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Evans M Mpabalwani, Jason M Mwenda, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, are increasingly being introduced in national immunization programmes in Africa to prevent severe dehydrating acute gastroenteritis. A low-level risk of intussusception has been associated with rotavirus vaccines. We reviewed published data on intussusception in children <2 years of age in Africa. PubMed electronic database search was used to retrieve papers published on intussusception. The search was further refined to identify surveillance reports and case series conducted from 1980 to 2014, with at least 25 cases...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Lars Nelson, Rena C Moon, Andre F Teixeira, Manoel Galvão, Almino Ramos, Muhammad A Jawad
Background: Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) was introduced into bariatric surgery by Sanchez-Pernaute et al. as an advancement of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Aim: To evaluate the SADI-S procedure with regard to weight loss, comorbidity resolution, and complication rate in the super obese population. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on initial 72 patients who underwent laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic SADI-S between December 17th, 2013 and July 29th, 2015...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Anand Kumar, Dharanesh Gangaiah, Jordi B Torrelles, Gireesh Rajashekara
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium, is a predominant cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Despite its importance as a major foodborne pathogen, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying C. jejuni stress survival and pathogenesis is limited. Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) has been shown to play significant roles in bacterial resistance to stress and virulence in many pathogenic bacteria. C. jejuni contains the complete repertoire of enzymes required for poly P metabolism...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Shaza O H Kanan, Mohammed Osman Swar
This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Chen Xiaohong, X U Yiping, L U Meiping
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and etiology of hypereosinophilia in children. METHODS: Clinical data of 88 children with hypereosinophilia admitted in Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine during April 2009 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical manifestations, etiologies, and the correlation of disease severity with different etiologies were analyzed. RESULTS: The main clinical manifestations were fever, abdominal pain, cough and/or tachypnea, skin rash, hemafecia and diarrhea, which were observed in 19 (21...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Gábor Reuter, Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros
The salivirus, first discovered in the year 2009, is a member of the large and growing family Picornaviridae. At present, the genus Salivirus contains 1 species Salivirus A and 2 genotypes, Salivirus A1 and Salivirus A2. Salivirus has been identified in humans and chimpanzees and may cause acute gastroenteritis in humans, having been detected in 0% to 8.7% of fecal samples collected from gastroenteritis in different human populations. Salivirus is ubiquitous in wastewater of human origin and river water specimens worldwide and represents a potential indicator human RNA virus for monitoring of environmental samples...
September 19, 2016: Reviews in Medical Virology
A Sibelli, T Chalder, H Everitt, P Workman, S Windgassen, R Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: It is well established that people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have higher levels of anxiety and depression compared with controls. However, the role of these as risk factors is less clearly established. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate: (1) whether anxiety and/or depression predict IBS onset; (2) the size of the relative risk (RR) of anxiety versus depression in IBS onset. Subgroup analyses explored if methodological factors affected the overall findings...
September 8, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Julie Galea, Katherine M Burnand, Fiona L Dawson, Chandrasen K Sinha, Dean Rex, Bruce O Okoye
Aim Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a condition in which multiple gas-filled cysts form within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract in either the subserosa or submucosa. The presence of pneumoperitoneum in the presence of PI can present a therapeutic dilemma. The aim of our study was to review our experience and management of this condition. Methods A single-center retrospective study of consecutive children (> 1 year) presenting with a pneumoperitoneum and evidence of PI (2009-2015). Demographics, case notes, microbiology, and imaging were reviewed...
September 5, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ryan F Coates, Nicholas Ferrentino, Michelle X Yang
Russell body gastroenteritis has been reported as a reactive inflammatory process in most cases and many of the reports were from the upper gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach, which may be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and rarely associated with gastric carcinoma. Russell body containing Mott cells have been rarely seen in Barrett's esophagus and duodenum, and only 2 cases have been reported in colon, including a transplant patient with diarrhea and a rectal tubulovillous adenoma...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
S I Smith, A Seriki, A Ajayi
Salmonella infections in humans can range from self-limiting gastroenteritis typically associated with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to typhoidal fever, which can be life-threatening. Salmonellosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and has a significant socioeconomic impact worldwide. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate the situation of salmonellosis due to the non-availability of facilities capable of performing the tests essential for the diagnosis of typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella infections...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Tobias Tenenbaum, Klaus-Peter Becker, Bettina Lange, Anka Martin, Peter Schäfer, Stefan Weichert, Horst Schroten
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING General pediatric and pediatric surgery units. PATIENTS In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Sunheang Shin, Thi Phuong Mai Le, Dinh Thiem Vu, Thi Hien Anh Nguyen, Neal Alexander, Duc Anh Dang
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common etiology of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and clinic visits in Vietnamese children < 5 years old. To estimate the economic burden of rotavirus-associated formal healthcare encounters, an economic study was conducted. METHODS: A cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Data were collected from children below the age of five years who presented to a clinic or hospital with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis (AGE)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Annika Flint, Alain Stintzi, Lígia M Saraiva
Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are Gram-negative microaerophilic host-associated heterotrophic bacteria that invade the digestive tract of humans and animals. Campylobacter jejuni is the major worldwide cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans, while Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous in over half of the world's population causing gastric and duodenal ulcers. The colonisation of the gastrointestinal system by Helicobacter and Campylobacter relies on numerous cellular defences to sense the host environment and respond to adverse conditions, including those imposed by the host immunity...
August 1, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
J Zhang, X J Song, H Q Hou, G J Tan, G Y Bian, B Li, L P Chen, L Wang, L Guo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the electrophysiological subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and long-term prognosis in northeastern China. METHODS: One hundred and eighteen patients with GBS were recruited between 2010 and 2012 and retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: According to electrodiagnostic criteria, patients were classified as AMAN (49, 46...
July 5, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Adriana Luchs, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky
ABSTRACTThis article provides a review of immunity, diagnosis, and clinical aspects of rotavirus disease. It also informs about the changes in epidemiology of diarrheal disease and genetic diversity of circulating group A rotavirus strains following the introduction of vaccines. Group A rotavirus is the major pathogen causing gastroenteritis in animals. Its segmented RNA genome can lead to the emergence of new or unusual strains in human populations via interspecies transmission and/or reassortment events.RESUMOEste artigo fornece uma revisão sobre imunidade, diagnóstico e aspectos clínicos da doença causada por rotavírus...
April 2016: Einstein
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