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gastroenteritis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159172/examining-the-link-between-biofilm-formation-and-the-ability-of-pathogenic-salmonella-strains-to-colonize-multiple-host-species
#1
REVIEW
Keith D MacKenzie, Melissa B Palmer, Wolfgang L Köster, Aaron P White
Salmonella are important pathogens worldwide and a predominant number of human infections are zoonotic in nature. The ability of strains to form biofilms, which is a multicellular behavior characterized by the aggregation of cells, is predicted to be a conserved strategy for increased persistence and survival. It may also contribute to the increasing number of infections caused by ingestion of contaminated fruits and vegetables. There is a correlation between biofilm formation and the ability of strains to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149805/observational-cohort-study-safety-outcomes-in-children-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-or-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists
#2
Eline Houben, Saga Johansson, Péter Nagy, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVE: Acid suppression with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended for children with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. In this retrospective, observational postauthorization study, we aimed to assess and compare safety outcomes in pediatric first-time users of esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs. METHODS: Data on children (aged 0-18 years) first dispensed esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs between September 2008 and August 2011 were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143685/available-studies-fail-to-provide-strong-evidence-of-increased-risk-of-diarrhea-mortality-due-to-measles-in-the-period-4-26%C3%A2-weeks-after-measles-rash-onset
#3
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135827/norovirus-and-rotavirus-disease-severity-in-children-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Margarita Riera-Montes, Miguel O'Ryan, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) and Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common causes of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. It is generally accepted that RV causes severe AGE in a higher proportion of cases compared with NoV. To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing the severity of NoV and RV disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies reporting data for NoV and RV medically-attended disease severity in children. We included studies where all children had been tested for both NoV (RT-PCR) and RV (ELISA or RT-PCR) and that reported disease severity using the Vesikari or modified Vesikari score, or provided clinical information on severity...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126448/the-epidemiology-of-norovirus-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-mena-region-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Khalil Kreidieh, Rana Charide, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nada M Melhem
Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Consequently, we conducted an extensive systematic literature review on articles studying NoV in the 24 countries of the MENA region during the past 15 years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 PRISMA-P and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO)...
November 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102999/prospective-cohort-study-to-investigate-the-burden-and-transmission-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-care-homes-a-study-protocol
#6
Thomas Inns, Anna Pulawska-Czub, John P Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Jonathan M Read, Nicholas J Beeching, David J Allen, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah J O'Brien
INTRODUCTION: Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups, but illness is more severe and causes excess mortality in the elderly, particularly those in long-term care. The total burden of norovirus disease in the elderly in the UK is poorly defined; no current surveillance programmes systematically or accurately quantify norovirus infection in those living in care homes. The aim of this study is to evaluate an enhanced surveillance system for acute gastroenteritis among the elderly in care homes...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089317/diagnostic-accuracy-of-three-clinical-dehydration-scales-a-systematic-review
#7
Anna Falszewska, Hania Szajewska, Piotr Dziechciarz
OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS), the WHO Scale and the Gorelick Scale in identifying dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). DESIGN: Three databases, two registers of clinical trials and the reference lists from identified articles were searched for diagnostic accuracy studies in children with AGE. The index tests were the CDS, WHO Scale and Gorelick Scale, and reference standard was the percentage loss of body weight...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063893/a-case-of-sterile-pyuria-caused-by-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-mycoplasma-hominis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#8
Agrima Mian, Sujeesh Sebastian, Nazneen Arif, Manish Soneja, Benu Dhawan
Sterile pyuria is a highly prevalent condition with a wide aetiological spectrum, which often challenges the diagnostician. We describe the case of a middle-aged female admitted to the medical Intensive Care Unit for acute gastroenteritis, whose urinalysis revealed persistent sterile pyuria. Polymerase chain reaction assay in urine was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. She responded to antimicrobial therapy. We hereby reflect on the approach to a case of sterile pyuria and review the available literature on this entity...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057220/iatrogenic-dysnatremias-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#9
Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Stephen B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR). Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048711/rotavirus-virus-like-particles-rv-vlps-vaccines-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Harish Changotra, Avni Vij
Rotaviruses (RVs) cause over 0.2 million deaths annually and are reported to be the foremost cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. Vaccination against RVs is the most successful and unsurpassed strategy to combat infection to date. Although the 2 current vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have dramatically reduced the disease burden, still there is a need for new vaccines. In this context, RV virus-like particles (RV-VLPs) represent potential vaccine candidates as they are noninfectious and effective nonreplicating immunogens that may reduce the risk of side effects related to the conventional vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037579/rotarix%C3%A2-and-rotateq%C3%A2-administration-to-preterm-infants-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-review-of-available-evidence
#11
Susanna Esposito, Lorenza Pugni, Fabio Mosca, Nicola Principi
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (GE) in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RV were developed to reduce disease burden, hospitalization rates and health utilization costs. RV GE is a serious disease in preterm (PT) infants, and the administration of RV vaccine to these at-risk subjects at the proper time could have great clinical relevance. However, most data on the efficacy and safety of RV vaccinations were collected in healthy full-term infants, and few studies investigated PT infants...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022996/molecular-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-in-children-under-five-in-africa-2006-2016-a-systematic-review
#12
D Ouermi, D Soubeiga, W M C Nadembega, P M Sawadogo, T M Zohoncon, D Obiri-Yeboah, F W Djigma, J Nordgren, J Simpore
Group A human rotaviruses (RVA) are the most common causes of severe viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The available vaccines, while effective in Europe and North America have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. One issue raised is the genetic variability of RVA. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review of molecular epidemiology to determine the prevalence of RVA genotypes circulating in Africa so as to establish a mapping of reliable data on these various genotypes...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022924/listeriosis-in-pregnancy-under-diagnosis-despite-over-treatment
#13
Y Fouks, S Amit, A Many, A Haham, D Mandel, S Shinar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the symptomatology of pregnant women with suspected listeriosis to culture confirmed listeriosis. STUDY DESIGN: All cases of suspected and culture confirmed pregnancy-associated listeriosis from a single center were retrospectively reviewed assessing demographics, clinical, laboratory and pathological findings, and maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Listeriosis was identified in seven patients, none of whom belonged to the 117 women with suspected listeriosis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986034/update-on-the-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa
#14
REVIEW
Hassan Zaraket, Rana Charide, Khalil Kreidieh, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nada M Melhem
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Consequently, we conducted a systematic literature review on articles studying RV in the 25 countries of the MENA region during the past 15years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Our literature search identified 169 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984764/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-prevalence-of-norovirus-in-cases-of-gastroenteritis-in-developing-countries
#15
REVIEW
Gia Thanh Nguyen, Kevin Phan, Ian Teng, Jian Pu, Toru Watanabe
BACKGROUND: While norovirus (NoV) is well known as a leading causal pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in developed countries,structured data on prevalence in developing countries are not available thus far. This review aims to estimate the prevalence of NoV in cases of gastroenteritis in developing countries based on recently published reports. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Web of Science for the period January 1, 1990 through March 31, 2016...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962598/community-based-surveillance-of-norovirus-disease-a-systematic-review
#16
Thomas Inns, John Harris, Roberto Vivancos, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Sarah O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a common cause of infectious gastrointestinal disease. Despite the increased ability to detect norovirus in affected people, the number of reported cases and outbreaks in the community is still substantially underestimated. We undertook a systematic review to determine the nature, scope and scale of community-based surveillance systems which capture information on norovirus disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus for studies published between 01 January 1995 and 31 December 2015, using terms relating to norovirus and surveillance...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958989/an-ontology-to-improve-transparency-in-case-definition-and-increase-case-finding-of-infectious-intestinal-disease-database-study-in-english-general-practice
#17
Simon de Lusignan, Stacy Shinneman, Ivelina Yonova, Jeremy van Vlymen, Alex J Elliot, Frederick Bolton, Gillian E Smith, Sarah O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as "diarrheal disease" and "acute infectious gastroenteritis" are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding...
September 28, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958809/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-all-cause-diarrhea-and-rotavirus-hospitalizations-in-madagascar
#18
V L Rahajamanana, J L Raboba, A Rakotozanany, N J Razafindraibe, E J P R Andriatahirintsoa, A C Razafindrakoto, S A Mioramalala, C Razaiarimanga, G G Weldegebriel, E Burnett, J Mwenda, M Seheri, M J Mphahlele, A L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Madagascar in May 2014. We analyzed trends in prevalence of all cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalization in children <5years of age before and after vaccine introduction and assessed trend of circulating rotavirus genotypes at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mère Enfant Tsaralalàna (CHU MET). METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, we reviewed the admission logbook to observe the rate of hospitalization caused by gastroenteritis among 19619 children <5years of age admitted at the hospital...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948467/post-infectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Yeong Yeh Lee, Chandramouli Annamalai, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is characterized by persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea, typically following an episode of infectious gastroenteritis. The mechanisms that underlie IBS-D remain elusive, but PI-IBS provides a mechanistic model of this disorder. This review provides an up-to-date appraisal of the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management approaches for PI-IBS. RECENT FINDINGS: Disordered immune reactions and release of cytokines with resultant gut inflammation and dysfunction appear to be key features of PI-IBS...
September 25, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947466/randomised-controlled-trial-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-lgg-versus-placebo-in-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-acute-gastroenteritis-the-pecarn-probiotic-study-protocol
#20
David Schnadower, Phillip I Tarr, Casper T Charles, Marc H Gorelick, Michael J Dean, Karen J O'Connell, Prashant Mahajan, Thomas H Chun, Seema R Bhatt, Cindy G Roskind, Elizabeth C Powell, Alexander J Rogers, Cheryl Vance, Robert E Sapien, Feng Gao, Stephen B Freedman
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common and burdensome condition that affects millions of children worldwide each year. Currently available strategies are limited to symptomatic management, treatment and prevention of dehydration and infection control; no disease-modifying interventions exist. Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms beneficial to the host, have shown promise in improving AGE outcomes, but existing studies have sufficient limitations such that the use of probiotics cannot currently be recommended with confidence...
September 24, 2017: BMJ Open
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