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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335454/porcine-rotaviruses-epidemiology-immune-responses-and-control-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Anastasia N Vlasova, Joshua O Amimo, Linda J Saif
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A-I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288937/incidence-of-fatal-snake-bite-in-australia-a-coronial-based-retrospective-study-2000-2016
#2
Ronelle Welton, Danny Liew, George Braitberg
INTRODUCTION: It has been over 20 years since a national review of recorded deaths from snake envenoming. The present study aimed to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of deaths from snake bites in Australia. METHODS: Deaths were identified from January 2000 to December 2016 from the National Coronial Information System. Cases identified due to snakes were extracted with data on coronial findings, autopsy and police records. RESULTS: Thirty five deaths (2...
March 10, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272692/gelatin-tannate-and-tyndallized-probiotics-a-novel-approach-for-treatment-of-diarrhea
#3
L Lopetuso, C Graziani, A Guarino, A Lamborghini, S Masi, V Stanghellini
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal permeability impairment is implicated in many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Chronic diarrhea, defined as the presence of diarrhea for more than 3 weeks in adults and 2 weeks in children, requires a different diagnostic and therapeutic work-up than acute diarrhea. Gelatin tannate, by reducing the clinical activity of acute colitis and the proinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is emerging as a mucosal barrier protector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: New therapeutic strategies focusing on the physiological function of the intestinal barrier, may offer an innovative approach for the clinical improvement of highly debilitating chronic GI diseases...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262041/acute-infections-caused-by-tropheryma-whipplei
#4
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult
Tropheryma whipplei is the causative bacterium of Whipple's disease. Its first culture has led to an enlargement of the field of the caused infections. Here, we comprehensively review acute T. whipplei infections. In a cohort study featuring 4000 children, T. whipplei was significantly more common in patients with diarrhea (4%) than in those without (1.7%). A case-controlled study highlighted 58 patients suffering from pneumonia with the detection of T. whipplei in their bronchoalveolar fluids. Finally, a recent study detected T...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253337/agreement-between-gastrointestinal-panel-testing-and-standard-microbiology-methods-for-detecting-pathogens-in-suspected-infectious-gastroenteritis-test-evaluation-and-meta-analysis-in-the-absence-of-a-reference-standard
#5
Karoline Freeman, Alexander Tsertsvadze, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Noel McCarthy, Hema Mistry, Rohini Manuel, James Mason
OBJECTIVE: Multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) tests simultaneously identify bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens from the stool samples of patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis presenting in hospital or the community. We undertook a systematic review to compare the accuracy of GPP tests with standard microbiology techniques. REVIEW METHODS: Searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library were undertaken from inception to January 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249998/whole-genome-sequencing-in-the-epidemiology-of-campylobacter-jejuni-infections
#6
Ann-Katrin Llarena, Eduardo Taboada, Mirko Rossi
This review provides the current state of knowledge on the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. We describe how WGS has increased our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of this pathogen and how WGS has the potential to improve surveillance and outbreak detection. We have identified hurdles towards the full implementation of WGS in public health settings. However, despite these challenges, we believe that ample evidence is available to support the benefit of integrating WGS in the routine monitoring of C...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247277/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Abe, Yu Sasaki, Makoto Yagi, Takao Yaoita, Shoichi Nishise, Yoshiyuki Ueno
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and abnormal Th2 type immunological response characterized by intense eosinophilic inflammation localized within the esophagus. This leads to esophageal dysfunction and remodeling accompanied by subepithelial fibrosis. Recently, EoE has been recognized as one of the major causes of dysphagia or food impaction in adults. The prevalence of EoE has been increasing over the past several decades, particularly in Western countries. EoE should be differentiated from secondary esophageal eosinophilia (EE) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis, involving the entire gastrointestinal tract...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226019/hospitalizations-of-brazilian-children-under-fiver-years-old-a-systematic-review
#8
Dixis Figueroa Pedraza, Erika Morganna Neves de Araujo
Objective: to describe the causes of hospitalization of Brazilian children under five years old. Methods: this is a systematic review of articles published from 2008 to 2015, searched in the databases Medline and LILACS; selected studies were critically analyzed through a validated instrument. Results: eleven articles were included, four of them are ecological and seven are cross-sectional studies; respiratory diseases (n=5), parasitic infections (n=4) and perinatal diseases (n=2) were the main causes for hospitalizations in the reviwed articles; in the studies that analyzed the sensitive conditions, pneumonia (n=6), gastroenteritis (n=5), and asthma (n=5) were the mais causes pointed out...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218712/epidemiology-of-classic-and-novel-human-astrovirus-gastroenteritis-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Diem-Lan Vu, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó, Susana Guix
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216959/prescription-patterns-and-appropriateness-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-cough-cold-and-diarrhea-in-a-rural-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#10
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Sadiqa Malik, Guru Prasad Mohanta, S Parimalakrishnan, Isha Patel, Sameer Dhingra
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209468/characteristics-of-nontyphoidal-salmonella-gastroenteritis-in-taiwanese-children-a-9-year-period-retrospective-medical-record-review
#11
Yeh-Ting Hung, Chorng-Jang Lay, Chun-Lung Wang, Malcolm Koo
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is among the most common causes of acute pediatric gastroenteritis in Taiwan. It is important to study antibiotic resistance patterns in nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of serogroups and susceptibility to antimicrobial nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from Taiwanese children with gastroenteritis. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients aged under 18 years with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis at a regional hospital located in southern Taiwan from August 2000 to August 2009 was conducted...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192635/risk-factors-for-hospitalization-of-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#12
Ming Yang, Perrin C White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are prone to potentially life-threatening adrenal crises. We tried to identify risk factors for post-diagnosis hospitalization for children with the salt wasting form of CAH. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all children who presented to Children's Medical Center Dallas from 1999 to 2013 with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ICD-9 code 255.2). RESULTS: 522 unique patients were coded for ICD-9 code of 255...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163914/recent-advances-in-understanding-noroviruses
#13
REVIEW
Eric Bartnicki, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Abimbola O Kolawole, Christiane E Wobus
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151435/limiting-swimming-pool-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-the-roles-of-regulations-staff-patrons-and-research
#14
Una Ryan, Sheleigh Lawler, Simon Reid
Cryptosporidium is the leading cause of swimming pool outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Transmission occurs through the ingestion of oocysts that are passed in the faeces of an infected person or animal when an accidental faecal release event occurs. Cryptosporidium parasites present specific challenges for infection control as oocysts are highly resistant to chlorine levels used for pool disinfection, infected individuals can shed large numbers of oocysts, there is a long incubation period and shedding of oocysts occurs even after symptom resolution...
February 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124965/-bacteremia-caused-by-ciprofloxacin-resistant-salmonella-serotype-kentucky-a-case-report-and-the-review-of-literature
#15
Tuba Müderris, Fatma Yekta Ürkmez, Şeref Alp Küçüker, Muhammet Fethi Sağlam, Gül Ruhsar Yılmaz, Rahmet Güner, Revasiye Güleşen, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz
Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Ciprofloxacin resistance is rarely seen in non-typhoid Salmonella enterica isolates, and only in S...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118289/utility-of-gastric-and-duodenal-biopsies-during-follow-up-endoscopy-in-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#16
Sunpreet Kaur, John M Rosen, Alyssa A Kriegermeier, Joshua B Wechsler, Amir F Kagalwalla, Jeffrey B Brown
OBJECTIVES: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-mediated immune disorder of the esophagus. Consensus guidelines recommend obtaining esophageal, gastric and duodenal biopsies at diagnostic endoscopy when EoE is suspected. The utility of repeated gastric and duodenal biopsies during follow-up endoscopy in patients previously diagnosed with EoE is not established. The aim of this study was to explore the role of gastric and duodenal biopsies in children with an established diagnosis of EoE undergoing repeat endoscopy to assess histological response to treatment...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110441/human-cryptosporidiosis-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Reza Berahmat, Adel Spotin, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azim Rezamand, Nayyereh Aminisani, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Tahereh Mikaeili-Galeh
Cryptosporidiosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp. is an important parasitic disease that can be life-threatening for children and immunocompromised patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection and related risk factors among the Iranian general population. We searched electronic databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Proquest for articles in English and SID, Magiran, IranMedex, and IranDoc for articles in Persian...
January 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#18
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042824/the-immune-response-to-astrovirus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Shauna A Marvin
Astroviruses are one of the leading causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide and are clinically importantly pathogens in the elderly and immunocompromised populations. Although the use of cell culture systems and small animal models have enhanced our understanding of astrovirus infection and pathogenesis, little is known about the immune response to astrovirus infection. Studies from humans and animals suggest that adaptive immunity is important in restricting classic and novel astrovirus infections, while studies from animal models and cell culture systems suggest that an innate immune system plays a role in limiting astrovirus replication...
December 30, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041960/structure-s-function-s-and-inhibition-of-the-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-of-noroviruses
#20
REVIEW
Jerome Deval, Zhinan Jin, Ying-Chih Chuang, C Cheng Kao
Noroviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family of single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The genus Norovirus includes seven genogroups (designated GI-GVII), of which GI, GII and GIV infect humans. Human noroviruses are responsible for widespread outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and represent one of the most common causes of foodborne illness. No vaccine or antiviral treatment options are available for norovirus infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of noroviruses is a key enzyme responsible for transcription and replication of the viral genome...
December 29, 2016: Virus Research
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