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gastroenteritis review

Adalet Elçin Yıldız, Hülya Maraş Genç, Esra Gürkaş, Havva Akmaz Ünlü, İbrahim Halil Öncel, Alev Güven
PURPOSE: We aimed to present clinical and radiologic characteristics of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) in children. METHODS: Eight children (5 boys and 3 girls; median age, 5.9 years; age range, 8 months to 14.1 years) diagnosed with MERS between September 2015 and June 2017 were included in the study. We reviewed the patient's data, including demographic characteristics, prodromal and neurologic symptoms, neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography findings, laboratory findings, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
George Osei-Adjei, Xinxiang Huang, Yiquan Zhang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative bacterium, inhabits marine and estuarine environments and it is a major pathogen responsible globally for most cases of seafood-associated gastroenteritis in humans and acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome in shrimps. There has been a dramatic worldwide increase in V. parahaemolyticus infections over the last two decades. The pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus has been linked to the expression of different kinds of virulence factors including extracellular proteases, such as metalloproteases and serine proteases...
May 11, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Matthew E Coldiron, Ousmane Guindo, Rockyath Makarimi, Issaka Soumana, Amadou Matar Seck, Souna Garba, Emilie Macher, Sheila Isanaka, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Asghar Abdoli, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Faezeh Forouzanfar
Autophagy signaling pathway is involved in cellular homeostasis, developmental processes, cellular stress responses, and immune pathways. The aim of this review is to summarize the relationship between autophagy and viruses. It is not possible to be fully comprehensive, or to provide a complete "overview of all viruses". In this review, we will focus on the interaction of autophagy and viruses and survey how human viruses exploit multiple steps in the autophagy pathway to help viral propagation and escape immune response...
April 30, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Pascal Beaudeau
Time series studies (TSS) can be viewed as an inexpensive way to tackle the non-epidemic health risk from fecal pathogens in tap water in urban areas. Following the PRISMA recommendations, I reviewed TSS addressing the endemic risk of acute gastroenteritis risk according to drinking water operation conditions in urban areas of developed countries. Eighteen studies were included, covering 17 urban sites (seven in North-America and 10 in Europe) with study populations ranging from 50,000 to 9 million people. Most studies used general practitioner consultations or visits to hospitals for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) as health outcomes...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Robert J Cybulski, Allen C Bateman, Lori Bourassa, Andrew Bryan, Barb Beail, Jason Matsumoto, Brad T Cookson, Ferric C Fang
Background: Molecular syndromic diagnostic panels can enhance pathogen identification in the approximately 2-4 billion episodes of acute gastroenteritis that occur annually worldwide. However, the clinical utility of these panels has not been established. Methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center study to investigate the impact of the BioFire FilmArray™ Gastrointestinal PCR panel on clinical diagnosis and decision-making and compared the clinical acuity of patients with positive results obtained exclusively with the FilmArray™ with those detected by conventional stool culture...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ayesha Khan, Bradley T Penoff, Elizabeth A Pirrotta, Robert Hosang
Background The global agenda does not address a significant amount of preventable death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While illnesses requiring acute care are increasing at an alarming rate in these countries, there are inadequate numbers of physicians or nurses to deal with the growing burden. Many people feel that emergency systems are too expensive and restricted in scope to have public health implications in resource-limited areas. Little empirical data exists to suggest otherwise. The goal of this study was to delineate the type and frequency of emergency conditions and define a novel method to estimate the burden of emergency diseases in Fort Liberte, Haiti...
February 22, 2018: Curēus
Lu Ren, Min Yang, Lanlan Geng, Peiyu Chen, Huan Chen, Sitang Gong, Ding-You Li
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is a common cause for acute bacterial gastroenteritis in children in China. There have been no reports of the prevalence of lactose intolerance or food allergies in children with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to characterize nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis in a tertiary children's hospital and evaluate clinical presentation, lactose intolerance, and food allergies in children with prolonged nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Bo Ram Kim, Ga Eun Choi, Young Ok Kim, Min Ji Kim, Eun Song Song, Young Jong Woo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rotavirus was detected in 40-50% of patients with benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) before the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in late 2000. However, the rate of rotavirus positivity has decreased since 2010 while the prevalence of norovirus has gradually increased. We investigated the incidence of norovirus-associated CwG during a recent 3-year period and additionally compared the characteristics of norovirus-associated CwG with those of rotavirus-associated CwG...
April 19, 2018: Brain & Development
Yuebang Yin, Daoguo Zhou
Salmonella are Gram-negative rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacteria that are comprised of over 2,000 serovars. They cause gastroenteritis (salmonellosis) with headache, abdominal pain and diarrhea clinical symptoms. Salmonellosis brings a heavy burden for the public health in both developing and developed countries. Antibiotics are usually effective in treating the infected patients with severe gastroenteritis, although antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella infection is vital to combat the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Maryam Ghazani, Gerard FitzGerald, Wenbiao Hu, Ghasem Sam Toloo, Zhiwei Xu
The objectives of this research are to review and assess the current state of knowledge of the association between environmental temperature and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. A review of the published literature was undertaken using standard approaches. Initially, four electronic databases including Embase, Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were chosen to retrieve studies published from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2017 based on selected keywords used in the primary search. After the elimination of duplicates, the titles were reviewed for relevance to the principal research question...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Edouard Ledent, Hugo Arlegui, Hubert Buyse, Peter Basile, Naveen Karkada, Nicolas Praet, Gaëlle Nachbaur
INTRODUCTION: Two vaccines against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in young children, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been available in Europe since 2006. Vaccination against rotaviruses significantly reduces the burden of RVGE, but it is also associated with a very small increased risk of intussusception. In a benefit-risk analysis, the prevented RVGE burden is weighed against the possible excess of intussusception. PURPOSE: The aim was to compare the estimated benefits and risks of Rotarix vaccination in France...
April 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Sakura Sato, Chizuko Sugizaki, Noriyuki Yanagida, Komei Ito, Yusei Ohshima, Naoki Shimojo, Takao Fujisawa, Motohiro Ebisawa
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been increasing for nearly a decade; however, several national guidelines do not recommend OIT as a standardized procedure. The aim of this study was to obtain insights into the current use and practice of OIT in Japan. METHODS: A first questionnaire was mailed to 524 training and teaching facilities of the Japan Pediatric Society. The first survey requested information on the implementation of OIT, whereas the second survey aimed to gather more detailed information on OIT, such as its safety...
March 20, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Maria F Gergen, Lauren M DiBiase, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, William A Rutala
BACKGROUND: Single outbreaks have often been reported in health care settings, but the frequency of outbreaks at a hospital over time has not been described. We examined epidemiologic features of all health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital during a 5-year period. METHODS: Health care-associated outbreak investigations at an academic hospital (2012-2016) were retrospectively reviewed through data on comprehensive hospital-wide surveillance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sandra Isabel, Rachel R Higgins, Adriana Peci, Marc R Isabel, Shelley L Deeks, Jonathan B Gubbay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ontario introduced a universal publicly-funded group A rotavirus (RVA) immunization program in August 2011, using monovalent vaccine. RVA immunization programs have decreased the incidence of RVA acute gastroenteritis in many countries but it is unclear if it will contribute to the emergence of certain genotypes. We monitored RVA trends and genotypes in Ontario before and after implementation of the publicly-funded immunization program. METHODS: RVA detection was conducted at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from January 2009 to December 2011 (pre-program period) and January 2012 to October 2015 (publicly-funded RVA immunization program period) and number of RVA-positive specimens and percent positivity were analysed...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
Max Teplitski, Marcos de Moraes
Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, linked to the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and sprouts, continue to capture the attention of the general public and scientists. The recurrence of these outbreaks, despite heightened producer and consumer awareness, combined with improved sanitation protocols and technology, can be explained by the hypothesis that enteric pathogens, such as nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. and enterovirulent Escherichia coli, have evolved to exploit plants as alternative hosts. This review explores the genetic and genomic context for this hypothesis...
March 1, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
R M Genta, A Sonnenberg, K Turner
BACKGROUND: The normal content of eosinophils in the adult duodenum remains undefined. Therefore, there is no foundation for evidence-based criteria to diagnose eosinophilic duodenitis. AIM: This study aimed at: (1) establishing the range of the eosinophil density in the mucosa of the duodenum of normal adults, and (2) determining the biopsy-based prevalence of isolated eosinophilic duodenitis in a large population of adults. METHODS: We counted intact eosinophils in three separate high-power fields (hpf area = 0...
April 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Dae Woon Song, Byung Kwan Park, Suk Won Suh, Seung Eun Lee, Jong Won Kim, Joong-Min Park, Hye Ryoun Kim, Mi-Kyung Lee, Yoo Shin Choi, Beom Gyu Kim, Yong Gum Park
PURPOSE: Essential treatment of acute appendicitis is surgical resection with the use of appropriate antibiotics. In order to effectively treat acute appendicitis, it is important to identify the microorganism of acute appendicitis and evaluate the effective antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 694 patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis and had positive microbial result between 2006 and 2015 were recruited. For microbial assessment, luminal contents of the appendix were swabbed after appendectomy...
April 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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