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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323968/impaired-glycine-mia-in-type-2-diabetes-and-potential-mechanisms-contributing-to-glucose-homeostasis
#1
Richard Yan-Do, Patrick E MacDonald
The onset and/or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be prevented if intervention is early enough. As such, much effort has been placed on the search for indicators predictive of pre-diabetes and disease onset or progression. An increasing body of evidence suggests that changes in plasma glycine may be one such biomarker. Circulating glycine levels are consistently low in patients with T2D. Levels of this non-essential amino acid correlate negatively with obesity and insulin resistance. Plasma glycine correlates positively with glucose disposal, and rises with interventions such as exercise and bariatric surgery that improve glucose homeostasis...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323676/impact-of-elimination-diets-on-nutrition-and-growth-in-children-with-multiple-food-allergies
#2
Carina Venter, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Kate Maslin, Carlo Agostoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Growth and nutritional intake of children with cows' milk allergy and other food allergens has been thoroughly investigated in recent years across many different countries and age groups. An impaired growth in atopic children should not be attributed only to a high number of allergens and foods to be avoided, but to a general condition of 'sub-inflammation', which unfavorably affects the absorption and utilization of fuel and substrates. Atopic study participants may represent a good target for personalized nutrition and in this review we sought to outline many of the issues that should be taken into account when dietitians advise patients regarding food avoidance and expected effects on growth...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323574/the-effects-of-an-increased-calorie-breakfast-consumed-prior-to-simulated-match-play-in-academy-soccer-players
#3
Marc A Briggs, Liam D Harper, Ged McNamee, Emma Cockburn, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Mark Russell
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (Bhab; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (Binc; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats)...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319671/amelioration-of-oxidative-stress-by-dietary-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum-l-seeds-is-potentiated-by-onion-allium-cepa-l-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#4
Seetur R Pradeep, Krishnapura Srinivasan
Oxidative stress has a crucial role in the progression of diabetes and its complications. Soluble fibre-rich fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are understood to have a beneficial effect in the management of diabetes. Previously, we have shown that the amelioration of diabetic hyperglycemia and related metabolic abnormalities was potentiated by onion (Allium cepa L.) in experimental rats. The present study evaluated the additive beneficial effect of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3%) on oxidative stress in diabetic rats...
March 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319655/meeting-nutritional-needs-in-the-first-1000-days-a-place-for-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#5
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Anna Lartey, Kathryn G Dewey
The first 1000 days of life is marked by intense metabolic activity and tissue deposition. The increased nutritional needs during this period, and the challenges to meeting them, are often not understood or appreciated. Here, we describe the nutritional needs during the first 1000 days, highlight the challenges to meeting these needs in developing countries, outline intervention strategies, and examine the consumption of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) as a promising strategy. In low-income settings, the challenge to meeting nutritional needs during the first 1000 days is worsened by overreliance on cereal-based diets of low nutrient density and high prevalence of infections and infestations...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319596/medium-term-effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-systolic-and-diastolic-blood-pressure-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Ammar W Ashor, Jose Lara, Mario Siervo
OBJECTIVES: Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) particularly in short-term clinical trials. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term remains to be established. The objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined whether dietary nitrate supplementation for more than 1 week has beneficial effects on SBP and DBP. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception until May 2016...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319484/nonpharmacologic-management-of-hypertension-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#7
Cemal Ozemek, Shane A Phillips, Dejana Popovic, Deepika Laddu-Patel, Ibra S Fancher, Ross Arena, Carl J Lavie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonpharmacologic lifestyle modification interventions (LMIs), such as increasing physical activity, dietary modification, weight-loss, reducing alcohol consumption and smoking cessation, are effective strategies to lower resting blood pressures (BPs) in prehypertensive or hypertensive patients. However, the limited time shared between a physician and a patient is not adequate to instill an adoption of LMI. The purpose of this review is to therefore highlight evidence-based BP lowering, LMI strategies that can feasibly be implemented in clinical practices...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319154/effectiveness-of-community-based-complementary-food-supplement-yingyangbao-distribution-in-children-aged-6-23-months-in-poor-areas-in-china
#8
Jie Wang, Suying Chang, Liyun Zhao, Wentao Yu, Jian Zhang, Qingqing Man, Li He, Yifan Duan, Hui Wang, Robert Scherpbier, Shi-An Yin
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319109/the-broad-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-using-a-whole-food-plant-based-diet-in-the-community-for-obesity-ischaemic-heart-disease-or-diabetes
#9
N Wright, L Wilson, M Smith, B Duncan, P McHugh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is little randomised evidence using a whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet as intervention for elevated body mass index (BMI) or dyslipidaemia. We investigated the effectiveness of a community-based dietary programme. Primary end points: BMI and cholesterol at 6 months (subsequently extended). SUBJECTS: Ages 35-70, from one general practice in Gisborne, New Zealand. Diagnosed with obesity or overweight and at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319105/link-of-dietary-patterns-with-metabolic-syndrome-analysis-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#10
M Mazidi, S Pennathur, F Afshinnia
BACKGROUND: Population-based interventions aimed at halting the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) require thorough understanding of dietary interplays. Objective is to identify the independent dietary nutrients associated with MetS and its components using dietary pattern identification and the single-nutrient approaches in The United States. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observation. Participants are selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometrical data from 2001 to 2012...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318873/factors-associated-with-changes-in-fruit-intake-during-young-adulthood-a-classification-and-regression-tree-analysis-of-longitudinal-data
#11
David Lohrmann, Wasantha Jayawardene, Mohammad Torabi
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether distinct participant groupings for changes in fruit intake (FI) levels between ages 23 and 31 years are identifiable based on both time-varying and time-invariant sociodemographic and behavioral variables. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1997, US. Change in FI frequency constituted the dependent variable. For 21 variables, changes and averages in 2007-2011 were calculated. Classification and regression tree analysis was conducted using Generalized, Unbiased, Interaction Detection, and Estimation software...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318687/protein-intake-distribution-pattern-does-not-affect-anabolic-response-lean-body-mass-muscle-strength-or-function-over-8-weeks-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Il-Young Kim, Scott Schutzler, Amy M Schrader, Horace J Spencer, Gohar Azhar, Robert R Wolfe, Arny A Ferrando
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In our recent acute metabolic study, we found no differences in the anabolic response to differing patterns of dietary protein intake. To confirm this in a chronic study, we investigated the effects of protein distribution pattern on functional outcomes and protein kinetics in older adults over 8 weeks. METHODS: To determine chronic effects of protein intake pattern at 1.1 g protein/kg/day in mixed meals on lean body mass (LBM), functional outcomes, whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) over 8-week respective dietary intervention, fourteen older subjects were randomly divided into either EVEN or UNVEN group...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318464/effects-of-a-dietary-crude-fibre-concentrate-on-growth-in-weaned-piglets
#13
P Superchi, R Saleri, P Borghetti, G Ferrarini, V Cavalli, M Sereni, S Zavattini, A Sabbioni
Many fibre sources can help the adaptation of piglets at weaning, improving the growth. In this study, the effects of a dietary crude fibre concentrate (CFC) on piglet's growth was investigated. From 31 to 51 days of age, 108 weaned piglets (D×(Lw×L)), had access to two isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, supplemented with 1% of CFC (CFC group) or not (control (CON) group). From days 52 to 64 all piglets received the same starter diet. During the dietary treatment period the CFC group showed higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency (P<0...
March 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318388/impact-of-nutritional-intervention-on-length-of-hospital-stay-and-mortality-among-hospitalized-patients-with-malnutrition-a-clinical-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Edgar A Cano-Torres, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Luis A Morales-Garza, José M Ramos-Delgado, Mirthala M Reyes-Gonzalez, Victor M Sánchez-Nava, Abel de J Barragán-Berlanga, Ignacio Rangel-Rodríguez, Fernando Guerrero-Romero
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention on hospital stay and mortality among hospitalized patients with malnutrition. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of malnutrition were enrolled and randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group received an individualized nutrition plan according to energy and protein (1.0-1.5 g/kg) intake requirements as well as dietary advice based on face-to-face interviews with patients and their caregivers or family members...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317485/defective-insulin-signalling-mediated-by-inflammation-connects-obesity-to-alzheimer-disease-relevant-pharmacological-therapies-and-preventive-dietary-interventions
#15
Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo Toledano
Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317084/dietary-interventions-and-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Ghadah Altowaijri, Allison Fryman, Vijayshree Yadav
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, disabling neurologic disease that has its onset in young adulthood. While the knowledge about underlying pathogenesis of MS has improved significantly over the last few decades, the exact cause still eludes us. Despite the availability of several United States Food and Drug Administration-approved disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for MS in the last two decades, the disease remains disabling for many. DMT use is limited by its partial effectiveness, significant side effects in many cases, and high cost that leads people with MS (PwMS) to look for alternative management options...
March 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316908/exploring-childhood-obesity-prevention-among-diverse-ethnic-groups-in-schools-and-places-of-worship-recruitment-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-data-collection-and-intervention-components
#17
Maria Maynard, Graham Baker, Seeromanie Harding
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316232/in-vitro-reduction-of-arsenic-bioavailability-using-dietary-strategies
#18
M J Clemente, V Devesa, D Velez
The main route of human exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) is through consumption of food and water. Continued exposure to inorganic As [As(III) and As(V)] may cause a variety of diseases, including various types of cancer. Removal of As from these sources is complex, especially for food. One way to decrease As exposure could be by reducing intestinal absorption of it. The aim of this study is to seek dietary strategies (pure compounds, extracts, or supplements) that are capable of reducing the amount of As that is absorbed and reaches the systemic circulation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316036/targeting-the-microbiome-in-heart-failure
#19
REVIEW
Allyson Zabell, W H Wilson Tang
Heart failure is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world today. While there have been major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure over the past decades, disease progression remains inevitable in the majority of patients and effective therapies to prevent heart failure are still lacking. Research has turned to better understand the gut microbiome because alterations in their ecosystems have been associated with various downstream chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#20
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
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