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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110241/autopsy-tissues-as-biological-monitors-of-human-exposure-to-environmental-pollutants-a-case-study-concentrations-of-metals-and-pcdd-fs-in-subjects-living-near-a-hazardous-waste-incinerator
#1
José L Domingo, Francisco García, Martí Nadal, Marta Schuhmacher
Human biomonitoring is of tremendous importance to prevent potential adverse effects derived from human exposure to chemicals. Blood and urine are among the biological monitors more frequently used. However, biological matrices such as breast milk, hair, nails, saliva, feces, teeth, and expired air are also often used. In addition, and focused mainly on long-term exposure, adipose tissue and other human tissues like bone, liver, brain or kidney, are also used as biological monitors of certain substances, especially for long-term biomonitoring...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110016/spatial-characteristics-of-urinary-btex-concentrations-in-the-general-population
#2
Xanthi Tsangari, Xanthi D Andrianou, Agapios Agapiou, Pawel Mochalski, Konstantinos C Makris
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) are ubiquitous outdoor and indoor air pollutants associated with both environmental and health effects. The objective of this exploratory study was to determine the magnitude and variability of urinary BTEX levels among residents of two areas located in the same city (Nicosia, Cyprus). The two areas differed with respect to their proximity to an industrial cluster and an intercity-highway. First morning urine voids were collected during a random campaign from selected households in the two urban areas (n = 48)...
January 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109728/the-utility-of-hair-cortisol-concentrations-in-the-prediction-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-traumatic-physical-injury
#3
Maria L Pacella, Bryce Hruska, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Richard L George, Douglas L Delahanty
RATIONALE: Although cortisol alterations have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS), the direction of association is mixed. Cortisol which is measured in blood, saliva, or urine is subject to transient factors that may confound results. Recent advances in cortisol sampling techniques provide novel opportunities to address these inconsistencies. Hair cortisol sampling is a non-invasive method for the retrospective assessment of long-term integrated cortisol, yet its utility at predicting PTSS has not been assessed in acute injury victims...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109710/univariate-predictors-of-maternal-concentrations-of-environmental-chemicals-the-mirec-study
#4
Antoine Lewin, Tye E Arbuckle, Mandy Fisher, Chun Lei Liang, Leonora Marro, Karelyn Davis, Nadia Abdelouahab, William D Fraser
BACKGROUND: The developing fetus and pregnant woman can be exposed to a variety of environmental chemicals that may adversely affect their health. Moreover, environmental exposure and risk disparities are associated with different social determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic indicators. Our aim was to investigate whether and how maternal concentrations of a large panel of persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals vary according to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in a large pregnancy and birth cohort...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109588/tea-saponin-reduced-methanogenesis-in-vitro-but-increased-methane-yield-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#5
J Guyader, M Eugène, M Doreau, D P Morgavi, C Gérard, C Martin
The effect of tea saponin supplementation in the ruminant diet on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestive processes is still under debate. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this plant extract on methanogenesis, total-tract digestibility, and lactating performances of dairy cows. The work included 2 independent and successive experiments. First, the effect of 7 tea saponin doses (from 0 to 0.50 g/L) on methane emissions and protozoa concentrations was tested in 2 repeated in vitro batch culture incubations using bovine rumen contents as inoculum and a cereal mixture as substrate...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109429/body-fluid-degradomics-and-characterization-of-basic-n-terminome
#6
F Sabino, O Hermes, U Auf dem Keller
Rapid improvements in instrumentation and data analysis make mass spectrometry-based proteomics the method of choice for global characterization of proteomes and discovery of protein-based biomarkers. On the contrary to tissue biopsies, body fluids-e.g., blood, wound fluid, urine, and saliva-are noninvasive and easy to collect and process. However, they are very complex and present high dynamic ranges of protein concentrations, rendering direct shotgun proteomics analysis as inefficient for identification of low-abundance proteins in these specimens...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109072/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-renal-fibrosis-after-renal-ischemia-protocols-in-cats
#7
Vanna M
In an attempt to identify a feline model of acute or chronic kidney disease, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of 15 or 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia (RI) and 60 min of unilateral RI with delayed contralateral nephrectomy as models of acute kidney injury and chronic interstitial fibrosis in cats. Adult, purpose-bred, USDA Class A cats (n = 14) were randomly assigned to receive bilateral RI for 15 min (n = 3) or 30 min (n = 3), unilateral RI for 60 min with a delayed (2 wk) contralateral nephrectomy (n = 5), or sham unilateral RI with a delayed contralateral nephrectomy (n = 3)...
January 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108549/relation-of-renal-dysfunction-with-incident-atrial-fibrillation-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-the-prevend-study
#8
Ernaldo G Marcos, Bastiaan Geelhoed, Pim Van Der Harst, Stefan J L Bakker, Ron T Gansevoort, Hans L Hillege, Isabelle C Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra
AIMS: Renal dysfunction is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality. However, the exact pathobiology linking different renal dysfunction measures, such as albumin excretion or glomerular filtration rate (GFR), to cardiovascular- and AF risk are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of several renal function measures and incident AF, and whether the relation between renal measures and outcomes is modified by AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 8265 individuals (age 49 ± 13 years, 50% women) included in the PREVEND study...
January 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107947/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-sers-as-a-method-for-the-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids
#9
Thaddeus Mostowtt, Bruce McCord
Synthetic cannabinoids (K2, spice) present problems in forensic investigations because standard presumptive methods, such as immunoassays, are insufficiently specific for the wide range of potential target compounds. This issue can lead to problems with low sensitivity and yield false negative results. A potential solution to this problem is surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In this study we demonstrate the analysis of a set of structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids using SERS. The procedure involves mixing the analyte with gold nanoparticles prepared in a solution containing alkali or alkaline earth salt solutions...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107919/selective-nano-sensing-approach-for-the-determination-of-inorganic-phosphate-in-human-urine-samples
#10
Alaa A Fadhel, Madeleine Johnson, Khang Trieu, Eda Koculi, Andres D Campiglia
A novel sensing approach is presented for the analysis of phosphate ions in human urine samples. The new sensor is based on the fluorescence energy transfer between a luminescent probe ([Tb-EDTA](-1)) and gold nanoparticles capped with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Au NPs-CTAB). The strong affinity between CTAB receptors and phosphate ions results in a highly selective assay with minimum sample preparation steps. Possible chemical interference is monitored on real-time basis via luminescence lifetime analysis...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107904/redox-based-chemiluminescence-assay-of-aminothiols-in-human-urine-a-fundamental-study
#11
Mohamed Saleh Elgawish, Naoya Kishikawa, Naotaka Kuroda
The biological importance of aminothiols is well recognized with the concentration of these compounds within biological fluids such as plasma and urine functioning as valuable biomarkers in a number of clinical circumstances and a wide variety of diseases. Herein, for the first time, chromatographic coupled chemiluminescent assay was used for simultaneous determination of aminothiols in human urine. The method exploits nucleophilic nature of aminothiols to form adducts in the existence of quinones. The released adducts retain the redox-cycling capability of parent quinones and able to liberate reactive oxygen species (ROS) when come in contact with dithiothreitol (DTT)...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105335/detection-of-stanozolol-in-the-urine-of-athletes-at-a-pg-level-the-possibility-of-passive-exposure
#12
Christina Tsitsimpikou, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104821/the-urine-preservative-acetic-acid-degrades-urine-protein-implications-for-urine-biorepositories-and-the-aask-cohort-study
#13
Salem Almaani, Lee A Hebert, Brad H Rovin, Daniel J Birmingham
Patients enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study who exhibited overt proteinuria have been reported to show high nonalbumin proteinuria (NAP), which is characteristic of a tubulopathy. To determine whether African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension nephropathy (AASK-N) is a tubulopathy, we obtained urine samples of 37 patients with AASK-N, with 24-hour protein-to-creatinine ratios (milligrams per milligram) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0, from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Kidney Diseases repository and tested for seven markers of tubular proteinuria...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104519/load-ratio-determines-the-ammonia-recovery-and-energy-input-of-an-electrochemical-system
#14
Mariana Rodríguez Arredondo, Philipp Kuntke, Annemiek Ter Heijne, Hubertus V M Hamelers, Cees J N Buisman
Complete removal and recovery of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) from wastewaters in (bio)electrochemical systems has proven to be a challenge. The system performance depends on several factors, such as current density, TAN loading rate and pH. The interdependence among these factors is not well understood yet: insight is needed to achieve maximum ammonium recovery at minimal energy input. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of current density and TAN loading rate on the recovery efficiency and energy input of an electrochemical cell (EC)...
December 31, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103874/pharmacokinetics-and-in-vitro-efficacy-of-salicylic-acid-after-oral-administration-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-in-horses
#15
Kathrin Buntenkötter, Maren Osmers, Ina Schenk, Wilhelm Schänzer, Marc Machnik, Michael Düe, Manfred Kietzmann
BACKGROUND: Although acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is not frequently used as a therapeutic agent in horses, its metabolite SA is of special interest in equestrianism since it is a natural component of many plants used as horse feed. This led to the establishment of thresholds by horse sport organizations for SA in urine and plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma and urine concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) after oral administration of three different single dosages (12...
January 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103129/the-role-of-urinary-kim-1-ngal-ca19-9-and-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-in-the-assessment-of-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-in-adults
#16
Eduardo P Miranda, Ricardo Jordão Duarte, José de Bessa, Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Victor Srougi, Hiury Silva Andrade, Rodolfo Ast Bandeira, Marco Antônio Arap, Anuar Ibrahim Mitre, Nayara Izabel Viana, Sabrina Thalita Dos Reis, Kátia Ramos Moreira Leite, Miguel Srougi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic properties of urinary biomarkers in adults with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: KIM-1, NGAL, CA19-9, and β2-microglobulin. We also assessed urinary biomarker concentrations following pyeloplasty. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied adults from December 2013 to February 2015. We included 47 patients with a mean age of 38.6 ± 12.7 years. Each patient provided four samples of voided urine for biomarker measurement, one at preoperative consultation and the others at 1, 3 and 6 months of postoperative follow-up...
January 19, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102586/creatinine-in-urine-a-method-comparison
#17
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann
Drug screening in urine is widely applied in forensic toxicology. Contrary to blood analysis, excessive or reduced fluid intake can substantially alter the concentration of substances in urine. As a standard to detect urinary dilution, creatinine concentrations are analyzed. A sample with a concentration below 20 mg/dL is generally defined as too diluted to provide a valid result in abstinence control samples. This work investigates the potential of three different methods for the determination of creatinine concentrations in urine samples: A ZIC-HILIC based LC-MS/MS method, a spectrophotometric method on an AU 480 chemistry system, and a portable, immunoassay based point-of-care testing device was compared by measuring 200 urine samples...
January 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101652/alteration-of-metabolomic-markers-of-amino-acid-metabolism-in-piglets-with-in-feed-antibiotics
#18
Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Kaifan Yu, Miao Yu, Chuanjian Zhang, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed...
January 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100278/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-undernutrition-among-schoolchildren-in-the-plateau-central-and-centre-ouest-regions-of-burkina-faso
#19
Séverine Erismann, Astrid M Knoblauch, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Boubacar Savadogo, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Multiple factors determine children's nutritional status, including energy and nutrient intake, recurrent infectious diseases, access (or lack thereof) to clean water and improved sanitation, and hygiene practices, among others. The "Vegetables go to School: improving nutrition through agricultural diversification" (VgtS) project implements an integrated school garden programme in five countries, including Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and its risk factors among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso before the start of the project...
January 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100054/efficacy-of-silver-hydrophilic-poly-p-xylylene-on-preventing-bacterial-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-urinary-catheters
#20
Hamideh Heidari Zare, Viktorija Juhart, Attila Vass, Gerhard Franz, Dieter Jocham
Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), caused by several strains of bacteria, are a common complication for catheterized patients. This may eventually lead to a blockage of the catheter due to the formation of a crystalline or amorphous biofilm. Inhibiting bacteria should result in a longer application time free of complaints. This issue has been investigated using an innovative type of silver-coated catheter with a semipermeable cap layer to prevent CAUTI. In this work, two different types of silver catheters were investigated, both of which were capped with poly(p-xylylene) (PPX-N) and exhibited different surface properties that completely changed their wetting conduct with water...
January 18, 2017: Biointerphases
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