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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351422/body-mass-specific-na-k-atpase-activity-in-the-medullary-thick-ascending-limb-implications-for-species-dependent-urine-concentrating-mechanisms
#1
Mun Aw, Tamara M Armstrong, C Michele Nawata, Sarah N Bodine, Jeeeun J Oh, Guojun Wei, Kristen K Evans, Mohammad Shahidullah, Timo Rieg, Thomas L Pannabecker
In general, mammalian whole body mass-specific metabolic rate correlates positively with maximal urine concentration (Umax) irrespective of whether or not the species have adapted to arid or mesic habitat. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the thick ascending limb (TAL) of a rodent with markedly higher whole body mass-specific metabolism than rat exhibits a substantially higher TAL metabolic rate as estimated by Na+, K+-ATPase activity and Na+, K+-ATPase α1 gene and protein expression. The kangaroo rat inner stripe of the outer medulla exhibits significantly higher mean Na+, K+-ATPase activity (~70%) compared to 2 rat strains (Sprague-Dawley and Munich-Wistar), extending prior studies showing rat activity exceeds rabbit...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349906/pregnancy-greatly-affect-the-steroidal-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#2
Jenny Mullen, Yifat Gadot, Emma Eklund, Alexander Andersson, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Anders Rane, Lena Ekström
Concentrations of urinary steroids are measured in anti-doping test programs to detect doping with endogenous steroids. These concentrations are combined into ratios and followed over time in the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The most important ratio in the ABP is the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio but this ratio is subject to intra-individual variations, especially large in women, which complicates interpretation. In addition there are other factors affecting T/E, pregnancy for example is known to affect the urinary excretion rate of epitestosterone and hence the T/E ratio...
January 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348315/whole-body-biodistribution-and-dosimetry-of-the-dopamine-transporter-radioligand-18f-fe-pe2i-in-human-subjects
#3
Helena Lizana, Lennart Johansson, Jan E Axelsson, Anne Larsson Strömvall, Mattias Ögren, Jan Linder, Christer Halldin, Andrea Varrone, Susanna Jakobson Mo
18F-(E)-N-(3-iodoprop-2-enyl)-2β-carbofluoroethoxy-3β-(4'-methyl-phenyl) nortropane (18F-FE-PE2I) was recently developed and has shown adequate affinity and high selectivity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Previous studies have shown promising results for 18F-FE-PE2I as a suitable radioligand for DAT-imaging. In this study, we investigate the whole body biodistribution and dosimetry of 18F-FE-PE2I in healthy volunteers to support the utility of it as a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for the DAT...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346367/assessment-of-serum-pharmacokinetics-and-urinary-excretion-of-albendazole-and-its-metabolites-in-human-volunteers
#4
Laura Ceballos, Alejandro Krolewiecki, Marisa Juárez, Laura Moreno, Fabian Schaer, Luis I Alvarez, Rubén Cimino, Judd Walson, Carlos E Lanusse
BACKGROUND: Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections negatively impact physical and mental development in human populations. Current WHO guidelines recommend morbidity control of these infections through mass drug administration (MDA) using albendazole (ABZ) or mebendazole. Despite major reductions in STH associated morbidity globally, not all programs have demonstrated the expected impact on prevalence of parasite infections. These therapeutic failures may be related to poor programmatic coverage, suboptimal adherence or the exposure of parasites to sub-therapeutic drug concentrations...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343609/polymorphic-human-sulfotransferase-2a1-mediates-the-formation-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-3-o-sulfate-a-major-circulating-vitamin-d-metabolite-in-humans
#5
Timothy Wong, Zhican Wang, Brian D Chapron, Mizuki Suzuki, Katrina G Claw, Chunying Gao, Robert S Foti, Bhagwat Prasad, Alenka Chapron, Justina Calamia, Amarjit Chaudhry, Erin G Schuetz, Ronald L Horst, Qingcheng Mao, Ian H de Boer, Timothy A Thornton, Kenneth E Thummel
Metabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) plays a central role in regulating the biological effects of vitamin D in the body. Although cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylation of 25OHD3 has been extensively investigated, limited information is available on the conjugation of 25OHD3. In the present study, we report that 25OHD3 is selectively conjugated to 25OHD3-3-O-sulfate by human sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) and that the liver is a primary site of metabolite formation. At a low (50 nM) concentration of 25OHD3, 25OHD3-3-O-sulfate was the most abundant metabolite, with an intrinsic clearance approximately 8-fold higher than the next most efficient metabolic route...
January 17, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342250/pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia-detected-by-serotype-specific-urinary-antigen-detection-assays
#6
Richard G Wunderink, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Robert Balk, Sherene Fakhran, Daniel Mark Courtney, Chao Qi, Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Cynthia G Whitney, Matthew R Moore, Anna Bramley, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards, Carlos G Grijalva
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered the leading bacterial cause of pneumonia in adults. Yet, it was not commonly detected by traditional culture-based and conventional urinary testing in a recent multicenter etiology study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (SSUAD) assays to determine whether pneumococcal cases were missed by traditional testing. Methods: We studied adult patients hospitalized with CAP at 5 hospitals in Chicago and Nashville (2010-2012) and enrolled in the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340704/delayed-conception-in-women-with-low-urinary-iodine-concentrations-a-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#7
J L Mills, G M Buck Louis, K Kannan, J Weck, Y Wan, J Maisog, A Giannakou, Q Wu, R Sundaram
STUDY QUESTION: Is iodine deficiency associated with decreased fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate to severe iodine deficiency is associated with a 46% decrease in fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Iodine deficiency is common in women of childbearing age but its effect on fecundability has not been investigated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The LIFE Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 501 women who had discontinued contraception within 2 months to become pregnant between 2005 and 2009...
January 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340465/variability-in-the-clinical-distributions-of-candida-species-and-the-emergence-of-azole-resistant-non-candida-albicans-species-in-public-hospitals-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#8
Karine Mattos, Luana Carbonera Rodrigues, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Pedro Fernando Diniz, Luiza Inahê Marques, Adriana Almeida Araujo, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS: Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#9
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339394/population-pharmacokinetics-of-finafloxacin-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#10
Max Taubert, Mark Lückermann, Andreas Vente, Axel Dalhoff, Uwe Fuhr
Background: Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity at acidic pH and reduced susceptibility to several resistance mechanisms. A phase II study revealed a good efficacy/safety profile in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) while pharmacokinetics was characterized by highly variable concentration vs. time profiles, suggesting the need for an elaborated pharmacokinetic model.Methods: Data from three clinical trials were evaluated; 127 healthy volunteers were dosed orally (N=77) or intravenously (N=50) and 139 patients with cUTI received finafloxacin intravenously...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338949/relation-between-cadmium-exposure-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Yuling Xing, Wei Xia, Bin Zhang, Aifen Zhou, Zheng Huang, Hongling Zhang, Hongxiu Liu, Yangqian Jiang, Chen Hu, Xiaomei Chen, Shunqing Xu, Yuanyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) has been associated with type 2 diabetes in general population. However, the role of Cd in the occurrence of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our study was aimed at investigating whether Cd exposure during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of GDM. METHODS: Cd concentrations were measured in urine samples from 6837 pregnant women in Wuhan, China, from 2012 to 2014. A "modified Poisson" model with a robust error variance was used to examine the association of GDM with continuous natural logarithm (ln) transformed urinary Cd or quartiles of urinary Cd levels...
January 12, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336388/assessment-the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-incidence-of-paradoxical-hypertension-after-surgical-repair-of-aortic-coarctation-in-pediatric-patients
#12
Rabie Soliman, Dalia Saad
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on the incidence of paradoxical hypertension in patients undergoing aortic coarctation repair. DESIGN: Randomized observational study. SETTING: University hospital and cardiac center. PATIENTS: The study included 108 pediatric patients with isolated aortic coarctation. METHODS: The patients were classified into two groups (each = 54): Group D: the patients received dexmedetomidine as a loading dose of 0...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333866/offline-derivatization-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-estimation-of-vanillin-and-vanillic-acid-in-guinea-pig-plasma
#13
Priyadeep Bhutani, Senthilkumar Murugesan, Anoop Kumar, Murali Subramanian, Koiram Rajanna Prabhakar
AIM: Vanillin used as a positive control substrate of aldehyde oxidase activity gets metabolized to vanillic acid. Low MW and low sensitivity in negative ion mode are challenges with these analytes. Our objective was to develop a simple offline derivatization LC-MS/MS method to address these challenges. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: A simple dansyl chloride derivatization of the phenolic groups on vanillin and vanillic acid was adopted to enable easy ionization in commonly used acidic mobile phases...
January 15, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333862/pharmacokinetic-determination-and-analysis-of-nortriptyline-based-on-gc-ms-coupled-with-hollow-fiber-drop-to-drop-solvent-microextraction-technique
#14
Pratik Kumar Jagtap, Kavita Tapadia
AIM: A simple, sensitive and robust technique of hollow-fiber drop-to-drop solvent microextraction coupled with GC-MS has been successfully developed for the detection of antidepressant drug nortriptyline in human blood and urine samples. The recoveries of the drug from the spiked samples are found to be well within the range and appropriate to support the method. RESULTS: The LOD for the drug was obtained to be 0.007, 0.009 and 0.021 μg ml-1 in deionized water, urine and blood samples of human subjects, respectively...
January 15, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333503/the-effect-of-a-vegan-versus-aha-diet-in-coronary-artery-disease-evade-cad-trial-study-design-and-rationale
#15
Binita Shah, Lisa Ganguzza, James Slater, Jonathan D Newman, Nicole Allen, Edward Fisher, John Larigakis, Francisco Ujueta, Eugenia Gianos, Yu Guo, Kathleen Woolf
Background: Multiple studies demonstrate the benefit of a vegan diet on cardiovascular risk factors when compared to no intervention or usual dietary patterns. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a vegan diet versus the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on inflammatory and glucometabolic profiles in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: This study is a randomized, open label, blinded end-point trial of 100 patients with CAD as defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in a coronary artery ≥2 mm in diameter on invasive angiography...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333145/moving-toward-standardization-of-urine-albumin-measurements
#16
Jesse C Seegmiller, W Greg Miller, Lorin M Bachmann
Measurement of urine albumin is important for detecting and monitoring kidney disease. At the present time, measurement of urine albumin is not standardized due to the lack of a reference system, which includes both a reference measurement procedure and certified reference materials. Developing a reference system will provide a means for clinical laboratory measurement procedures to become standardized and will enable successful use of uniform clinical decision points. Currently, urine albumin results vary in excess of 40% depending on which commercially available measurement procedure is utilized for measurement...
December 2017: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332492/safety-and-efficacy-of-photoselective-vaporization-of-the-prostate-using-the-180-w-greenlight-xps-laser-system-in-patients-taking-oral-anticoagulants
#17
Alper Eken, Bülent Soyupak
Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the 180-W GreenLight XPS laser system for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients taking oral anticoagulants. Methods All consecutive patients admitted for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from November 2012 to October 2016 and who underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate with the 180-W GreenLight XPS laser were included in the study. The perioperative outcomes examined were the operating time, laser time, energy usage, and duration of postoperative catheterization...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331486/prenatal-exposure-to-acetaminophen-and-children-s-language-development-at-30-months
#18
C-G Bornehag, A Reichenberg, M Unenge Hallerback, S Wikstrom, H M Koch, B A Jonsson, S H Swan
OBJECTIVE: To examine prenatal APAP exposure in relation to language development in offspring at 30 months of age. METHOD: A population-based pregnancy cohort study including 754 women who enrolled in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study in pregnancy week 8-13. Two exposure measures were used: (1) maternally reported number of APAP tablets taken between conception and enrollment; (2) APAP urinary concentration at enrollment...
November 10, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331275/low-level-cadmium-exposure-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-elderly-australian-women-a-cohort-study
#19
Kane E Deering, Anna C Callan, Richard L Prince, Wai H Lim, Peter L Thompson, Joshua R Lewis, Andrea L Hinwood, Amanda Devine
BACKGROUND: Cadmium has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in observational studies, however there has been a limited focus on this relationship in women. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of urinary cadmium (UCd) concentrations with CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality in elderly Western Australian (WA) women. METHODS: UCd excretion was measured at baseline in 1359 women, mean age 75.2 ± 2...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330897/cyclodextrin-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-preconcentration-of-carbamazepine-and-clobazam-with-subsequent-sweeping-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography
#20
Szu-Ying Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Sarah Y Chang
A new version of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, namely, cyclodextrin-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, with subsequent sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography has been developed for the preconcentration and sensitive detection of carbamazepine and clobazam. α-Cyclodextrin and chloroform were used as the dispersive agent and extraction solvent, respectively. After the extraction, carbamazepine and clobazam were analyzed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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