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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911435/detecting-biomarkers-of-secondhand-marijuana-smoke-in-young-children
#1
Karen M Wilson, Michelle R Torok, Binnian Wei, Lanqing Wang, Michelle Robinson, Connie S Sosnoff, Benjamin C Blount
BACKGROUND: The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. METHODS: We studied children ages 1 month to 2 years hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013-2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (LOD 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (LOD 0.015 ng/ml). RESULTS: A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis...
December 2, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910903/prostate-cancer-patients-negative-biopsy-controls-discrimination-by-untargeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-urine-by-lc-qtof-upstream-information-on-other-omics
#2
M A Fernández-Peralbo, E Gómez-Gómez, M Calderón-Santiago, J Carrasco-Valiente, J Ruiz-García, M J Requena-Tapia, M D Luque de Castro, F Priego-Capote
The existing clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis are far from ideal (e.g., the prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum level suffers from lack of specificity, providing frequent false positives leading to over-diagnosis). A key step in the search for minimum invasive tests to complement or replace PSA should be supported on the changes experienced by the biochemical pathways in PCa patients as compared to negative biopsy control individuals. In this research a comprehensive global analysis by LC-QTOF was applied to urine from 62 patients with a clinically significant PCa and 42 healthy individuals, both groups confirmed by biopsy...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909962/efficiency-of-osmotic-concentration-after-combined-treatment-with-vasopressin-and-blockage-of-prostaglandin-synthesis
#3
V A Lavrinenko, A V Babina
We performed a complex functional study of the effects of prostaglandin synthesis blockage with diclofenac on manifestation of the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin V2-receptor agonist desmopressin in the kidneys of Wistar rats with normal synthesis of endogenous vasopressin and homozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary impaired synthesis of neurohypophyseal hormone vasopressin. Blockage of prostaglandin synthesis led to more pronounced increase in urine osmolality in Brattleboro rats than in Wistar rats due to elevation of not only urine but also sodium gradient at the expense of elimination of the inhibitory effect of prostaglandins on sodium reabsorption and membrane permeability for urine...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909808/clinical-validation-of-a-novel-urine-based-metabolomic-test-for-the-detection-of-colonic-polyps-on-chinese-population
#4
Lu Deng, Hong Fang, Victor K Tso, Yuanyuan Sun, Rae R Foshaug, Spencer C Krahn, Fen Zhang, Yujie Yan, Huilin Xu, David Chang, Yong Zhang, Richard N Fedorak
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China. When detected early, with the removal of adenomatous polyps, precursors of colorectal cancer, it is preventable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel urine-based metabolomic diagnostic test for the detection of adenomatous polyps, PolypDx™, that was originally developed and validated using 1000 samples from Canadian Cohort, on Chinese population. METHODS: Prospective urine samples were collected from 1000 participants undergoing colonoscopy examination, from March 2013 to July 2014 at Minhang District, Shanghai Centre for Disease Control and Prevention...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908420/biological-effects-of-tolerable-level-chronic-boron-intake-on-transcription-factors
#5
Seda Orenay Boyacioglu, Mehmet Korkmaz, Erkan Kahraman, Hatice Yildirim, Selin Bora, Osman Yavuz Ataman
The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906636/urat1-uox-double-knockout-mice-are-experimental-animal-models-of-renal-hypouricemia-and-exercise-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Makoto Hosoyamada, Yu Tsurumi, Hidenori Hirano, Naoko H Tomioka, Yuko Sekine, Takayuki Morisaki, Shunya Uchida
Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906418/assessment-of-celecoxib-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoformulation-on-drug-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacokinetics-in-rats
#7
S Harirforoosh, K O West, D E Murrell, J W Denham, P C Panus, G A Hanley
OBJECTIVE:  Celecoxib (CEL) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) showing selective cycloxygenase-2 inhibition. While effective as a pain reducer, CEL exerts some negative influence on renal and gastrointestinal parameters. This study examined CEL pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics following drug reformulation as a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle (NP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were administered either vehicle (VEH) (methylcellulose solution), blank NP, 40 mg/kg CEL in methylcellulose, or an equivalent NP dose (CEL-NP)...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905562/occurrence-temporal-trends-and-half-lives-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-pfaas-in-occupational-workers-in-china
#8
Jianjie Fu, Yan Gao, Lin Cui, Thanh Wang, Yong Liang, Guangbo Qu, Bo Yuan, Yawei Wang, Aiqian Zhang, Guibin Jiang
Paired serum and urine samples were collected from workers in a fluorochemical plant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 302) to investigate the level, temporal trends, and half-lives of PFAAs in workers of a fluorochemical plant. High levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in serum with median concentrations of 764, 427, and 1725 ng mL(-1), respectively. The half-lives of PFAAs in workers were estimated by daily clearance rates and annual decline rates of PFAAs in serum by a first-order model...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#9
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902468/synthesis-of-a-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-and-mri-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#10
Chen Ding, Kaijie Wu, Weiyi Wang, Zhenfeng Guan, Lei Wang, Xinyang Wang, Rong Wang, Li Liu, Jinhai Fan
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract for which the accurate measurement of minimal residual disease is critical to treatment and determining prognosis. Although cystoscope examination and voided urine cytology remain the current standard of care for detecting residual disease, these approaches are limited by mechanical trauma and lack sensitivity. To develop a new accurate noninvasive method, we developed a novel contrast agent where the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles is functionalized with a bladder cancer-specific fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled cell penetrating peptide (CPP)-polyarginine peptides (R11) for active targeting and imaging...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902449/is-n-n-dimethylglycine-n-oxide-a-choline-and-betaine-metabolite
#11
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901544/quantitative-urinalysis-using-aggregation-induced-emission-bioprobes-for-monitoring-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Tong Chen, Ni Xie, Lucia Viglianti, Yabin Zhou, Hui Tan, Ben Zhong Tang, Youhong Tang
Early detection and appropriate management of chronic kidney disease can reduce the progression of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. The urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) test is a standard urine test for identifying individuals at high risk of developing progressive kidney disease. In this study, IDATPE, a novel fluorescent probe with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features, is successfully developed for creatinine detection and quantitation. An excellent correlation between fluorescent light intensity and creatinine concentration is achieved...
November 30, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901385/concentrations-of-thromboxane-metabolites-in-feline-urine
#13
Brittany Heggem-Perry, Stephanie A Smith, Maureen A McMichael, Mauria O'Brien, Anne Saunders, Jason Tarricone
OBJECTIVE To determine the predominant thromboxane (TX) metabolite in urine of healthy cats, evaluate whether the method of sample collection would impact concentration of that metabolite, and propose a reference interval for that metabolite in urine of healthy cats. ANIMALS 17 cats (11 purpose-bred domestic shorthair cats, 5 client-owned domestic shorthair cats, and 1 client-owned Persian cat). PROCEDURES All cats were deemed healthy on the basis of results for physical examination, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900941/the-kidney-in-sickle-hemoglobinopathies%C3%A2
#14
Medha Airy, Garabed Eknoyan
With improvements in the care of patients with sickle hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell disease (SCD) has evolved from a disease that was fatal in childhood into one in which most survive past their 5th decade and some into old age. As a result, the renal complications of sickle hemoglobinopathies, which are age dependent, have emerged as a common and serious complication of SCD. Approximately 14 - 18% of mortality in SCD is attributed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which develops in 1/3 of individuals with SCD and progresses to end-stage renal disease in 4 - 18% of them...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900420/nmr-based-metabolomic-approach-to-study-urine-samples-of-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-patients
#15
Alessia Vignoli, Donatella Maria Rodio, Anna Bellizzi, Anatoly Petrovich Sobolev, Elena Anzivino, Monica Mischitelli, Leonardo Tenori, Federico Marini, Roberta Priori, Rossana Scrivo, Guido Valesini, Ada Francia, Manuela Morreale, Maria Rosa Ciardi, Marco Iannetta, Cristiana Campanella, Donatella Capitani, Claudio Luchinat, Valeria Pietropaolo, Luisa Mannina
The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approach was used as analytical methodology to study the urine samples of chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease (CIRD) patients. The urine samples of CIRD patients were compared to the ones of both healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), another immuno-mediated disease. Urine samples collected from 39 CIRD patients, 25 healthy subjects, and 26 MS patients were analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and the NMR spectra were examined using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899974/validation-of-the-diagnostic-utility-of-urinary-midkine-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer
#16
Dana Vu Van, Ulrike Heberling, Manfred P Wirth, Susanne Fuessel
As it has been demonstrated previously that midkine (also known as neurite growth-promoting factor 2) protein levels in urine of bladder cancer (BCa) patients are increased compared to healthy controls, the present study validated the diagnostic utility of midkine in an independent patient cohort and compared the observed values with voided urine cytology (VUC), which is the current reference standard for non-invasive diagnosis of BCa. Voided urine samples were prospectively collected from 92 BCa patients and 70 control subjects...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#17
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899216/poisoning-suicide-with-ingestion-of-the-pyrethroids-alpha-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-and-the-antidepressant-mirtazapine-a-case-report
#18
Vassiliki A Boumba, Georgios N Rallis, Theodore Vougiouklakis
This case report describes a death attributed to the intake of the pyrethroid insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, and the antidepressant mirtazapine. The autopsy findings showed absence of external traumatic injuries and internal generalized visceral congestion, edema and cyanosis. The toxicological results revealed the presence of a toxic concentration of mirtazapine (12.5mg/L and 10.7mg/L in blood and urine, respectively) and high concentrations of pyrethroids (2.46mg/L alpha-cypermethrin and 2...
November 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898972/intake-digestibility-performance-and-nitrogen-metabolism-of-feedlot-finished-young-bulls-fed-diets-containing-peanut-cake
#19
B R Correia, G G P de Carvalho, R L Oliveira, A J V Pires, O L Ribeiro, R R Silva, A G Leão, P A Oliveira
This aim of this study was to evaluate the use of peanut cake as a dietary substitute for soybean meal and to determine the effects on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and N metabolism in feedlot-finished young bulls. Thirty-two young Nellore bulls with an average initial BW of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design and individually housed in stalls. The young bulls were fed Tifton 85 hay and 4 concentrate mixes containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake replacing soybean meal...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898774/effects-of-feeding-encapsulated-nitrate-to-beef-cattle-on-ammonia-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-their-manure-in-a-short-term-manure-storage-system
#20
Chanhee Lee, Rafael C Araujo, Karen M Koenig, Michael L Hile, Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Karen A Beauchemin
A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
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