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Abul-Fotouh Ahmed, Mahmoud Shaban, Abdullah Daoud, Nagah Mohamed, Ahmed Solyman, Ahmed Fahim
In this study, we evaluated the relationship between haemodialysis (HD) duration and erectile function status and gonadal hormones serum levels in adult men with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A total of 118 men with ESRD on chronic HD were eligible for analysis. The erectile dysfunction (ED) was defined and graded according to the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score. The serum levels of follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone (TST), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) were measured using the standard laboratory technique...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
Michael C Salling, Mary Jane Skelly, Elizabeth Avegno, Samantha Regan, Tamara Zeric, Elcoma Nichols, Neil L Harrison
Periodic episodes of excessive alcohol consumption ("binge drinking") occur frequently among adolescents, and early binge drinking is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders later in life. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes significant development during adolescence and hence may be especially susceptible to the effects of binge drinking. In humans and in animal models, adolescent alcohol exposure is known to alter PFC neuronal activity and produce deficits in PFC-dependent behaviors such as decision making, response inhibition, and working memory...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Angela Beatrice Scardovi, Renata De Maria
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare cardiac disease that manifests itself in the final stage of pregnancy and in the first months after delivery in women with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. The incidence of PPCM varies widely across geographic areas and seems to be on the rise as a result of increased awareness and socioeconomic changes. PPCM recognizes a still partially undefined multifactorial etiology. Various pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed, that range from autoimmune mechanisms to myocarditis to the hormonal hypothesis for aberrant, antiangiogenic and cardiotoxic prolactin (PRL) production, apoptosis, prolonged exposure to tocolytic drugs, malnutrition and genetic predisposition...
April 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Bo Fu, Shao-Nan Wen, Kun Wang, Shao-Jun Liu, Ji-Yan Zhang, Bin Wang
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the process of sensory discrimination. In this study, we examined the local field potential (LFP) activity response to the different stages of pain in the Prl, which is a sub-region of the mPFC. Recent studies revealed extensive information about neural oscillations, but there is limited information on the LFP profiles for acute or chronic pain, particularly in freely moving animals. This study showed that acute mechanical pain increases alpha oscillation, and decreases beta and gamma oscillations before spared nerve injury (SNI) surgery...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
Bo Chen, Qiu-Qiu Shi, Kai-Lun Liang, Yu-Yue Xu, Ying-Ying Fang, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lyu
This experiment focuses on the effect of Yunkang oral liquid on abortion rate, endocrine system and VEGF signal pathway in Clark classical recurrent abortion model mice. RSA mice were randomly divded into model group, low, middle and high-dose groups and progesterone group. The normal pregnancy mice were included into normal group. Since the first day of pregnancy, the normal group and the RSA model group were given the same dose of distilled water, while low, middle and high-dose groups were given Yunkang oral liquid at the dose of 9, 18, 36 mL·kg¹·d⁻¹; progesterone group were given progesterone by 0...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ma Ludivina Robles-Osorio, Renata García-Franco, Carlos D Núñez-Amaro, Ximena Mira-Lorenzo, Paulina Ramírez-Neria, Wendy Hernández, Ellery López-Star, Thomas Bertsch, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Jakob Triebel, Carmen Clapp
Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are potentially blinding, microvascular retinal diseases in people with diabetes mellitus. Preclinical studies support a protective role of the hormone prolactin (PRL) due to its ocular incorporation and conversion to vasoinhibins, a family of PRL fragments that inhibit ischemia-induced retinal angiogenesis and diabetes-derived retinal vasopermeability. Here, we describe the protocol of an ongoing clinical trial investigating a new therapy for DR and DME based on elevating the circulating levels of PRL with the prokinetic, dopamine D2 receptor blocker, levosulpiride...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels of sex steroids are high during pregnancy in contrast to untreated or replaced hypogonadism in most patients with a prolactinoma and hypogonadism may confer increased risk of MetS in hyperPRL. Dopamine-D2-agonist therapy can improve MetS in patients with a prolactinoma and lower glucose levels in patients with T2D...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Sandhya Santharam, Athanasios Fountas, Metaxia Tampourlou, Wiebke Arlt, John Ayuk, Neil Gittoes, Andrew Toogood, Niki Karavitaki
OBJECTIVE: Discontinuation of dopamine agonist (DA) treatment in women with prolactinoma after menopause is a potential approach; studies systematically assessing long-term outcomes are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the natural history of prolactinoma in this group. DESIGN/PATIENTS: Retrospective cohort study of women with prolactinoma diagnosed before menopause and who after menopause were not on DA. RESULTS: Thirty women were included...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Etienne M Schönbach, Rupert W Strauss, Xiangrong Kong, Beatriz Muñoz, Mohamed A Ibrahim, Janet S Sunness, David G Birch, Gesa-Astrid Hahn, Fadi Nasser, Eberhart Zrenner, SriniVas R Sadda, Sheila K West, Hendrik P N Scholl
PURPOSE: To investigate the natural history of Stargardt disease (STGD1) using fixation location and fixation stability. DESIGN: Multicenter, international, prospective cohort study. METHODS: Fixation testing was performed using the Nidek MP-1 microperimeter as part of the prospective, multicenter, natural history study on the Progression of Stargardt disease (ProgStar). A total of 238 patients with ABCA4-related STGD1 were enrolled at baseline (bilateral enrollment in 86...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Ying Zeng, Di Hu, Wei Yang, Emi Hayashinaka, Yasuhiro Wada, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Qunli Zeng, Yilong Cui
Placebo analgesia is the beneficial effect that follows despite a pharmacologically inert treatment. Modern neuroimaging studies in humans have delineated the hierarchical brain regions involved in placebo analgesia. However, because of the lack of proper approaches to perform molecular and cellular manipulations, the detailed molecular processes behind it have not been clarified. To address this issue, we developed an animal model of placebo analgesia in rats and analyzed the placebo analgesia related brain activity using small-animal neuroimaging method...
June 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Jean-Baptiste Bernard, Susana T L Chung
SIGNIFICANCE: Little is known about how the preferred retinal locus (PRL) develops in patients with macular disease. We found that acuity is worse at the PRL than at other retinal locations around the scotoma, suggesting that the selection of the PRL location is unlikely to be based on optimizing acuity. PURPOSE: Following the onset of bilateral macular disease, most patients adopt a retinal location outside the central scotoma, the PRL, as their new retinal location for visual tasks...
June 6, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
María Andrea Camilletti, Jimena Ferraris, Alejandra Abeledo-Machado, Aubrey Converse, Erika Faraoni, Daniel Pisera, Silvina Gutierrez, Peter Thomas, Graciela Díaz-Torga
The membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε) are known to mediate rapid non-genomic progesterone functions in different cell types. However, the functions of these receptors in the pituitary have not been reported to date. Here we show that the expression of mPRα was the highest among the mPRs in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Immunostaining of mPRα was detected in somatotrophs, gonadotrophs and lactotrophs. Interestingly, 63% of mPRα-positive cells within the pituitary were lactotrophs suggesting that mPRα is involved in controlling prolactin (PRL) secretion in the pituitary...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Delia Botezatu, Mihaela Tovaru, Simona-Roxana Georgescu, Antoanela Curici, Calin Giurcaneanu
Background: Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory hyper-proliferative disease of the skin, scalp, nails, and joints. It has been hypothesized that prolactin (PRL) may modulate the skin immune system and be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Psoriasis exerts significant, negative impact on patients' quality of life. Relatively high rates of depression are reported in patients with psoriasis. Objectives: The aim of this work was to study the possible role of PRL in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and its correlation with the disease activity, clinically, molecular and emotional status of patients...
March 2018: Mædica
Masaki Nakano, Itaru Hasunuma, Atsuko Minagawa, Shawichi Iwamuro, Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Sakae Kikuyama, Takeo Machida, Tetsuya Kobayashi
In amphibians, thyrotropin (TSH), corticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin (PRL) are regarded as the major pituitary hormones involved in metamorphosis and known to be controlled by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasotocin (AVT), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), respectively. It is also known that thyrotropes and corticotropes are equipped with CRF type-2 receptor and AVT V1b receptor, respectively. As for PRL cells, information about the type of receptor for TRH (TRHR) through which the action of TRH is mediated to induce the release of PRL is lacking...
June 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Anusha Kamesh, Emily A E Black, Alastair V Ferguson
Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone which performs over 300 biological functions including those that require binding to prolactin receptor (PRL-R) in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS)1 . To enter the CNS, circulating PRL must overcome the blood-brain barrier. As such, areas of the brain that do not possess a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), are optimally positioned to interact with systemic PRL. The SFO has been classically implicated in energy and fluid homeostasis but has the potential to influence estrous cyclicity and gonadotropin release, which are also functions of PRL2-4 ...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Min Wei, Konstantin V Kortokov, Jessica S Blackburn
The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A (PTP4A), are dual-specificity phosphatases with largely unknown cellular functions. However, accumulating evidence indicates that PRLs are oncogenic across a broad variety of human cancers. PRLs are highly expressed in advanced tumors and metastases compared to early stage cancers or matched healthy tissue, and high expression of PRLs often correlates with poor patient prognosis. Consequentially, PRLs have been considered potential therapeutic targets in cancer...
May 30, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kieran Rea, Fiona McGowan, Louise Corcoran, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The emotional processing and coordination of top-down responses to noxious and conditioned aversive stimuli involves the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Evidence suggests that subregions of the mPFC, (infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PrL), anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices), differentially alter the expression of contextually-induced fear and nociceptive behaviour. We investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system in the IL, PrL and ACC in formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) and conditioned fear in the presence of nociceptive tone...
May 30, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Eleni Magdalini Kyritsi, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Anna Angelousi, Hiten Mehta, Amjad Shad, Maria Mytilinaiou, Gregory Kaltsas, Harpal S Randeva
BACKGROUND: To identify a serum prolactin (PRL) cut-off value indicative of a PRL-producing adenoma in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and hyperprolactinemia and characterize such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present retrospective case-control study the medical records of 528 PCOS women were reviewed. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in PCOS patients with PRL levels ≥94.0 ng/mL and/or symptoms suspicious of a pituitary adenoma (PA)...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wen-Hao Tang, Shan-Jie Zhou, Shi-De Song, Hui-Ying He, Han Wu, Zhe Zhang, Yu-Zhuo Yang, Hong-Liang Zhang, Jia-Ming Mao, De-Feng Liu, Lian-Ming Zhao, Hao-Cheng Lin, Kai Hong, Lu-Lin Ma, Xin-Jie Zhuang, Hui Jiang
To evaluate and compare left and right testicular tissue histopathology and Johnsen score, and to investigate the necessity for bilateral testicular biopsy. We recruited180 patients with non-obstructiveazoospermia (NOA) on testicular biopsy who had undergonetesticular sperm aspiration (TESA). Pathological sections of testicular tissue were diagnosed by specially-assigned doctors, who evaluated pathological findings, determined the Johnsen score and confirmed for the presence or absence of sperm. Sperm positive rates for left and right testicular histopathology were 55...
May 8, 2018: Oncotarget
Rüdiger Nave, Stefan Jodl, Anja Hoffmann, Isabella Gashaw, Frank Zollmann, Matthias Berse, Joachim Höchel, Jörn Krätzschmar, Beate Rohde
BAY 1158061 is a potent monoclonal prolactin (PRL) receptor antibody, blocking PRL receptor (PRLR)-mediated signaling in a noncompetitive manner, which was tested in a randomized, placebo-controlled multiple dose study in postmenopausal women. The objective was to investigate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and effects of BAY 1158061 on serum PRL level. The study consisted of 4 parallel groups receiving up to 3 subcutaneous (sc) administrations of BAY 1158061 or placebo in 2 different dosing regimens...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
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