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vascular Calcification Chronic Kidney Disease

Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Noha A Osman, Nevine El-Abd, Mohamed Nasrallah
Vitamin K is necessary for the carboxylation of clotting factors and matrix Gla protein (MGP). Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) is the enzyme responsible for recirculation of Vitamin K increasing its tissue availability. Polymorphisms of VKOR may alter the function of MGP, thereby influencing vascular calcification. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship of VKORC1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) to vascular calcification and clinically overt cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis (HD)...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Paola Ciceri, Francesca Elli, Paola Braidotti, Monica Falleni, Delfina Tosi, Gaetano Bulfamante, Geoffrey A Block, Mario Cozzolino
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High phosphate-induced vascular calcification (VC) and iron deficiency-induced anemia are two major contributors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Since phosphate (Pi) control and iron replacement are common therapies in CKD, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of iron on high Pi-induced VC in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: We treated VSMCs with 5 mM Pi and iron citrate (Fe(3+)) to evaluate Ca deposition by Alizarin Red destaining, DNA fragmentation by ELISA, gene expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot...
September 30, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Christian Freise, Nadja Kretzschmar, Uwe Querfeld
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcifications such as arteriosclerosis, which is characterized by a calcificiation of the tunica media, represent major comorbidities e.g. in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). An essential step during the development of arteriosclerosis is the transdifferentiation/calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) resembling osteogenesis. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 were shown to promote these VSMC calcifications and their inhibition is of therapeutic value to prevent arteriosclerosis in preclinical studies...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Juan Manuel Buades Fuster, Pilar Sanchís Cortés, Joan Perelló Bestard, Félix Grases Freixedas
Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential...
September 30, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
Cristina Căpuşa, Gabriel Stefan, Simona Stancu, Andrea Ilyes, Nicoleta Dorobanţu, Gabriel Mircescu
INTRODUCTION: Since 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the hemodialysis population, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D level and markers of subclinical CVD in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional, single-center study prospectively enrolled 87 clinically stable CKD patients (median age: 61 (57-66) years, 51% male, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 32 (27-37) ml/min)...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Xiao-Qin Wang, Xin-Rong Zou, Yuan Clare Zhang
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Toshifumi Sugatani, Olga A Agapova, Yifu Fang, Alycia G Berman, Joseph M Wallace, Hartmut H Malluche, Marie-Claude Faugere, William Smith, Victoria Sung, Keith A Hruska
Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes...
September 22, 2016: Kidney International
Andrea Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Sayo Koike, Shozo Yano, Sayuri Tanaka, Abdullah M Sheikh, Atsushi Nagai, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cláudia Ribeiro, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães Penido, Milena Maria Moreira Guimarães, Marcelo de Sousa Tavares, Bruno das Neves Souza, Anderson Ferreira Leite, Leonardo Martins Caldeira de Deus, Lucas José de Campos Machado
AIM: To evaluate the parathyroid ultrasonography and define parameters that can predict poor response to treatment in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure. METHODS: This cohort study evaluated 85 patients with chronic kidney disease stage V with parathyroid hormone levels above 800 pg/mL. All patients underwent ultrasonography of the parathyroids and the following parameters were analyzed: Demographic characteristics (etiology of chronic kidney disease, gender, age, dialysis vintage, vascular access, use of vitamin D), laboratory (calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase), and the occurrence of bone changes, cardiovascular events and death...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Usama Abdel Azim Sharaf El Din, Mona Mansour Salem, Dina Ossama Abdulazim
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are endangered with the highest mortality rate compared to other chronic diseases. Cardiovascular events account for up to 60% of the fatalities. Cardiovascular calcifications affect most of the CKD patients. Most of this calcification is related to disturbed renal phosphate handling. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and klotho deficiency were incriminated in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification through different mechanisms including their effects on endothelium and arterial wall smooth muscle cells...
September 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Chu Zhou, Fang Wang, Jin-Wei Wang, Lu-Xia Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mineral and bone disorder (MBD), especially hyperphosphatemia, is an independently risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, CKD-MBD among Chinese population was poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate the status of MBD and its association with cardiovascular parameters in Chinese patients with predialysis CKD. METHODS: Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is a prospective multicenter cohort study involving predialysis CKD patients in China...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Markus Ketteler, Orfeas Liangos, Patrick H Biggar
INTRODUCTION: Hyperphosphatemia is a hallmark of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with adverse outcomes. Preclinical and epidemiological studies strongly support a causal relationship between hyperphosphatemia and mortality as well as cardiovascular complications, especially including vascular, valvular and soft-tissue calcifications. Thus, appropriate phosphate lowering is considered to play a major role in health and longevity of CKD patients. In this respect, phosphate binders are the most powerful therapeutic option, while dietary phosphate restriction and intensified dialysis are valuable supportive approaches...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Wei Ling Lau, Branko N Huisa, Mark Fisher
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease, particularly small vessel disease which can manifest in a variety of phenotypes ranging from lacunes to microbleeds. Small vessel disease likely contributes to cognitive dysfunction in the CKD population. Non-traditional risk factors for vascular injury in uremia include loss of calcification inhibitors, hyperphosphatemia, increased blood pressure variability, elastinolysis, platelet dysfunction, and chronic inflammation...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Zeynep Biyik, Nedim Yilmaz Selcuk, Halil Zeki Tonbul, Melih Anil, Mehmet Uyar
PURPOSE: Vascular calcifications that may cause cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to determine abdominal aorta calcifications (AAC) in predialysis and hemodialysis patients by lateral lumbar radiography and to investigate factors that were associated with the calcifications. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine adult chronic hemodialysis patients, 300 predialysis CKD patients and 60 healthy subjects with normal kidney function as a control group were enrolled in the study...
September 12, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Rafael Kramann, Claudia Goettsch, Janewit Wongboonsin, Hiroshi Iwata, Rebekka K Schneider, Christoph Kuppe, Nadine Kaesler, Monica Chang-Panesso, Flavia G Machado, Susannah Gratwohl, Kaushal Madhurima, Joshua D Hutcheson, Sanjay Jain, Elena Aikawa, Benjamin D Humphreys
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells reside in the vascular wall, but their role in vascular regeneration and disease is poorly understood. Here, we show that Gli1(+) cells located in the arterial adventitia are progenitors of vascular smooth muscle cells and contribute to neointima formation and repair after acute injury to the femoral artery. Genetic fate tracing indicates that adventitial Gli1(+) MSC-like cells migrate into the media and neointima during athero- and arteriosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice with chronic kidney disease...
August 29, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Lyndsay A Harshman, Diana Zepeda-Orozco
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is an irreversible process that, in some cases, may lead to end-stage renal disease. The majority of children with CKD have a congenital disorder of the kidney or urological tract arising from birth. There is strong evidence for both a genetic and epigenetic component to progression of CKD. Utilization of gene-mapping strategies, ranging from genome-wide association studies to single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, serves to identify potential genetic variants that may lend to disease variation...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Takehiro Nakahara, Keiko Kawai-Kowase, Hiroki Matsui, Hiroaki Sunaga, Toshihiro Utsugi, Tatsuya Iso, Masashi Arai, Shouichi Tomono, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, both clinical and basic research have demonstrated conflicting evidence regarding the pathophysiological role of FGF23 in vascular calcification. The aim of this study was to determine the role of FGF23 in the osteoblastic gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS: We transduce human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) expressing klotho and FGF receptors with the adenovirus expressing human FGF23 (Ad-FGF23)...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
Sharon M Moe
Disordered calcium balance and homeostasis are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Such alterations are commonly associated with abnormal bone remodeling, directly and indirectly. Similarly, positive calcium balance may also be a factor in the pathogenesis of extra skeletal soft tissue and arterial calcification. Calcium may directly affect cardiac structure and function through direct effects to alter cell signaling due to abnormal intracellular calcium homeostasis 2) extra-skeletal deposition of calcium and phosphate in the myocardium and small cardiac arterioles, 3) inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through calcium and hormone activation of NFAT signaling mechanisms, and 4) increased aorta calcification resulting in chronic increased afterload leading to hypertrophy...
August 27, 2016: Bone
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