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vascular Calcification Chronic Kidney Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331722/effect-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-serum-sclerostin-levels-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ashok Kumar Yadav, Vivek Kumar, Debasish Banerjee, Krishan Lal Gupta, Vivekanand Jha
Vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular disease and abnormal bone mineral metabolism are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Abnormal bone mineral metabolism has been linked to vascular calcification in CKD. Sclerostin has emerged as an important messenger in cross talk between bone-vascular axis. We analyzed sclerostin in subjects who participated in the randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial investigating the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular function in non-diabetic CKD stage G3-4 and vitamin D ≤20ng/ml [CTRI/2013/05/003648]...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304096/exogenous-bmp7-in-aortae-of-rats-with-chronic-uremia-ameliorates-expression-of-profibrotic-genes-but-does-not-reverse-established-vascular-calcification
#2
Eva Gravesen, Maria Lerche Mace, Anders Nordholm, Jacob Hofman-Bang, Keith Hruska, Carsten Haagen Nielsen, Andreas Kjær, Klaus Olgaard, Ewa Lewin
Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301790/chronic-kidney-disease-circulating-calciprotein-particles-and-extracellular-vesicles-promote-vascular-calcification-a-role-for-grp-gla-rich-protein
#3
Carla S B Viegas, Lúcia Santos, Anjos L Macedo, António A Matos, Ana P Silva, Pedro L Neves, An Staes, Kris Gevaert, Rute Morais, Cees Vermeer, Leon Schurgers, Dina C Simes
OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of mineral crystal formation is a crucial step in ectopic calcification. Serum calciprotein particles (CPPs) have been linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD) calcification propensity, but additional knowledge is required to understand their function, assemblage, and composition. The role of other circulating nanostructures, such as extracellular vesicles (EVs) in vascular calcification is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the association of GRP (Gla-rich protein) with circulating CPP and EVs and the role of CKD CPPs and EVs in vascular calcification...
January 4, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236239/abdominal-aorta-and-pelvic-artery-calcifications-on-plain-radiographs-may-predict-mortality-in-chronic-kidney-disease-hemodialysis-and-renal-transplantation
#4
Sinee Disthabanchong, Kotcharat Vipattawat, Bunyong Phakdeekitcharoen, Chagriya Kitiyakara, Vasant Sumethkul
PURPOSE: Vascular calcification is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and predicts poor patient outcomes. While computed tomography is the gold standard for evaluation of vascular calcification, plain radiograph offers a simpler and less costly alternative. The calcification of abdominal aorta, iliac and femoral arteries has been evaluated by plain radiograph, but the data on their outcome predictabilities are still limited. The present study investigated the role of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and pelvic arterial calcification (PAC) in predicting overall morality in non-dialysis CKD stages 2-5 (CKD 2-5), maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and long-term kidney transplant (KT) patients...
December 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228345/mechanisms-and-mediators-of-hypertension-induced-by-erythropoietin-and-related-molecules
#5
Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension is a common but frequently overlooked adverse effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Underreporting of hypertension with EPO is likely due to either more aggressively managing hypertension through the prescription of antihypertensive drugs or closer attention to dry weight. The purpose and focus of this review is to critically evaluate the mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension. Preclinical data are considered first, followed by clinical data where available. Mediated by a variety of molecules, there is an imbalance in the vascular tone favoring net vasoconstriction that mediates EPO-induced hypertension...
December 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227975/high-phosphate-induced-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-is-associated-with-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#6
Daohai Zhang, Xianjin Bi, Yong Liu, Yinghui Huang, Jiachuan Xiong, Xinli Xu, Tangli Xiao, Yanlin Yu, Wei Jiang, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Bo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hyperphosphatemia is one of the most notable features of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have found that high serum phosphate concentrations are associated with calcification in the coronary arteries. However, the mechanisms underlying the vascular calcification induced by high phosphate have not been understood fully. METHODS: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured in high-phosphate media to induce vascular calcification, which was detected by Alizarin red S staining...
December 8, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215755/apelin-apj-system-a-critical-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#7
REVIEW
Xuling Luo, Jiaqi Liu, Hong Zhou, Linxi Chen
APJ, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is first identified through homology cloning in 1993. Apelin is endogenous ligand of APJ extracted from bovine stomach tissue in 1998. Apelin/APJ system is widely expressed in many kinds of cells such as endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, especially vascular smooth muscle cell. Vascular smooth muscle cell, an integral part of the vascular wall, takes part in many normal physiological processes. Our experiment firstly finds that apelin/APJ system enhances VSMC proliferation by ERK1/2-cyclin D1 signal pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207225/-association-between-vertebral-fractures-and-vascular-calcifications
#8
REVIEW
Giovanni Piscopo, Luigi Morrone
Several cross-sectional and prospective studies highlight the existence of an association between bone fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications, especially if particularly severe and independent from confounders such as aging, smoking habits and diabetes. This phenomenon affects not only the general population but also patients with chronic kidney disease in which cortical bone lesions are prevalent. Moreover, bone fractures and aortic calcifications have been proved to be linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, both in the general populations and in patients with chronic kidney disease, who notoriously show elevated cardiovascular risks...
December 5, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197521/high-phosphate-induced-downregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-contributes-to-ckd-associated-vascular-calcification
#9
Liang Liu, Yong Liu, Ying Zhang, Xianjin Bi, Ling Nie, Chi Liu, Jiachuan Xiong, Ting He, Xinlin Xu, Yanlin Yu, Ke Yang, Jun Gu, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Zhiren Zhang, Bo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
Medial arterial calcification associated with hyperphosphatemia is a main cause of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying high phosphate-induced vascular calcification remain largely unknown. Here, we observed a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in calcified arteries both in CKD patients and in a mouse model of CKD with hyperphosphatemia. In vitro, high phosphate treatment led to a decreased expression of PPARγ in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VMSCs), accompanied by apparent osteogenic differentiation and calcification...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195902/indoxyl-sulfate-accelerates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-calcification-via-microrna-29b-dependent-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
Han Zhang, Jing Chen, Ziyan Shen, Yulu Gu, Linghan Xu, Jiachang Hu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xiaoqiang Ding
Vascular calcification (VC) is a very common phenomenon in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD) and it increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease and leads to high mortality in CKD patients. It has been reported that some microRNAs (miRs) play roles in vascular calcification as an epigenetic regulator. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin which has been proven as one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease in CKD. Here we investigated whether microRNA-29b (miR-29b) is involved in IS-induced vascular calcification...
November 28, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175269/sclerostin-deficiency-modifies-the-development-of-ckd-mbd-in-mice
#11
Nadine Kaesler, Anja Verhulst, Annelies De Maré, Annika Deck, Geert J Behets, Ayshe Hyusein, Pieter Evenepoel, Jürgen Floege, Nikolaus Marx, Anne Babler, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Rafael Kramann, Daniel Weis, Patrick C D'Haese, Vincent M Brandenburg
Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling and a strong inhibitor of bone formation. We present experimental data on the role of sclerostin in chronic kidney disease - bone mineral disorder (CKD-MBD). METHODS: We performed 5/6 nephrectomies in 36-week-old sclerostin-deficient (SOST-/-) B6-mice and in C57BL/6J wildtype (WT) mice. Animals received a high phosphate diet for 11weeks. The bones were analyzed by high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry...
November 21, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170076/association-of-interleukin-6-with-aortic-stiffness-in%C3%A2-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Marie-Pier Desjardins, Aboubacar Sidibé, Catherine Fortier, Fabrice Mac-Way, Karine Marquis, Sacha De Serres, Richard Larivière, Mohsen Agharazii
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aortic stiffness, a nontraditional risk factor, is associated with high rate of mortality in CKD. Using a CKD animal model with medial vascular calcification, we previously reported increased mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in calcified aorta. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between IL-6, TNF, IL-1β, and aortic stiffness in end-stage renal disease patients...
October 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168393/serum-sclerostin-in-vascular-calcification-and-clinical-outcome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Cong Zeng, Chunyuan Guo, Juan Cai, Chengyuan Tang, Zheng Dong
Sclerostin, a potent soluble inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, is known to inhibit bone formation by suppressing osteocytes differentiation and function. Patients with chronic kidney disease have high levels of serum sclerostin. Sclerostin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification, which may promote the cardiovascular events of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. However, the role of sclerostin in vascular calcification and clinical prognosis in chronic kidney disease remains elusive...
November 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153135/understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-vascular-calcification-%C3%A2-timing-is-everything
#14
W Charles O'Neill
A number of histologic changes are associated with the medial arterial calcification that occurs in chronic kidney disease, leading to several different hypotheses concerning the underlying mechanism. Careful timing of these changes in relation to the onset of the calcification, as reported in this issue of the journal, can shed light on which changes are pathogenic as opposed to secondary in reaction to the calcification.
December 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146232/parathyroidectomy-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-impacts-of-different-techniques-on-the-biochemical-and-clinical-evolution-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#15
Roxana de Fátima Camelo Albuquerque, Cinthia Esbrile Moraes Carbonara, Rita de Cássia T Martin, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Climério Pereira do Nascimento, Sérgio Samir Arap, Rosa M A Moysés, Vanda Jorgetti, Fábio L M Montenegro, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Parathyroidectomy (PTx) decreases the mortality rate of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism (rSHP) due to chronic kidney disease. A consensus regarding which techniques of PTx are associated with better outcomes is not available. The aims of this study are to evaluate the clinical and laboratory evolution of 49 hemodialysis patients with rSHP who underwent PTx using different techniques. METHODS: Patients underwent subtotal PTx (sub-PTx) or total PTx with autotransplantation (AT) of 45 (PTx-AT45) or 90 parathyroid fragments (PTx-AT90) and were followed for 12 months...
November 13, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142966/oral-magnesium-supplementation-in-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-3-and-4-efficacy-safety-and-effect-on-serum-calcification-propensity-a%C3%A2-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
Iain Bressendorff, Ditte Hansen, Morten Schou, Burton Silver, Andreas Pasch, Pierre Bouchelouche, Lise Pedersen, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Lisbet Brandi
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that increases in both serum and intracellular magnesium (Mg) can slow or even prevent the development of vascular calcification seen in CKD. Serum calcification propensity (T50) is a novel functional test, which is associated with all-cause mortality in CKD and measures the ability of serum to delay the formation of crystalline nanoparticles. Theoretically, increasing serum Mg should improve T50 and thereby reduce the propensity towards ectopic calcification...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137892/role-of-pyrophosphate-in-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Daniel Azpiazu, Sergio Gonzalo, Emilio González-Parra, Jesús Egido, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta
Vascular calcification is a pathology characterized by the deposition of calcium-phosphate in cardiovascular structures, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals, resulting in ectopic calcification. It is correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular smooth muscle cells are sensitive to changes in inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. They are able to adapt and modify some of their functions and promote changes which trigger calcification...
November 11, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134617/vascular-calcification-is-not-related-to-serum-fetuin-a-and-osteopontin-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
O Ulutas, M C Taskapan, A Dogan, T Baysal, H Taskapan
INTRODUCTION: Vascular calcification (VC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients is a sign of severe cardiovascular disease and can predict cardiovascular outcomes. Fetuin-A and osteopontin (OPN) inhibit VC. Serum fetuin-A levels are lower in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and in those who are on chronic HD therapy. However, there are limited data concerning OPN in patients who are on dialysis. The aim of our study was to determine VC in HD patients, the relationship between VC and 25-OH-vitamin D, fetuin-A, and OPN levels, and independent predictors of VC...
November 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133976/bisphosphonates-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-update-and-systematic-review-of-clinical-studies
#19
REVIEW
Carla Caffarelli, Andrea Montagnani, Ranuccio Nuti, Stefano Gonnelli
Background: Epidemiologic and clinical data have suggested the existence of a biologic linkage between the bone system and the vascular system. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are effective inhibitors of bone resorption and are currently considered the drugs of choice for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and related fractures. Data from several publications have suggested that BPs may also be effective in reducing the atherosclerotic process and vascular calcification, but the results of these studies are contrasting...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094215/insulin-resistance-and-glycine-metabolism-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
M Adeva-Andany, G Souto-Adeva, E Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C Fernández-Fernández, C Donapetry-García, A Domínguez-Montero
Plasma glycine level is low in patients with obesity or diabetes and the improvement of insulin resistance increases plasma glycine concentration. In prospective studies, hypoglycinemia at baseline predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and higher serum glycine level is associated with decreased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Consistently, plasma glycine concentration is lower in the lean offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycinemia occurs before clinical manifestations of the disease, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glycine deficit and its potential clinical repercussions are unclear...
November 1, 2017: Amino Acids
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