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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092742/short-term-in-vivo-exposure-to-graphene-oxide-can-cause-damage-to-the-gut-and-testis
#1
Marta Dziewięcka, Julia Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Maria Augustyniak, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska
Graphene oxide (GO) has unique physicochemical properties and also has a potentially widespread use in every field of daily life (industry, science, medicine). Demand for nanotechnology is growing every year, and therefore many aspects of its toxicity and biocompatibility still require further clarification. This research assesses the in vivo toxicity of pure and manganese ion-contaminated GO that were administrated to Acheta domesticus with food (at 200mgkg(-1) of food) throughout their ten-day adult life...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092603/gut-microbiota-isolated-from-the-european-pond-turtle-emys-orbicularis-and-its-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
M Ruzauskas, S Misyte, L Vaskeviciute, Z Mikniene, R Siugzdiniene, I Klimiene, A Pikuniene, J Kucinskiene
The aim of the study was to isolate cultivable gut microbiota from European pond turtles kept at the Lithuanian Zoo and to determine antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. The study subjects included 8 elderly turtles living at the Lithuanian Zoo for about 50 years as well as their offspring - 24 young individuals (1-2 years old) that were hatched at the same zoo. Animals were not exposed by treatment with antimicrobials during the last 3 years. Gut samples were taken from the cloaca and inoculated onto universal media...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092310/new-insights-into-the-gut-as-the-driver-of-critical-illness-and-organ-failure
#4
Mei Meng, Nathan J Klingensmith, Craig M Coopersmith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut has long been hypothesized to be the 'motor' of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This review serves as an update on new data elucidating the role of the gut as the propagator of organ failure in critical illness. RECENT FINDINGS: Under basal conditions, the gut absorbs nutrients and serves as a barrier that prevents approximately 40 trillion intraluminal microbes and their products from causing host injury. However, in critical illness, gut integrity is disrupted with hyperpermeability and increased epithelial apoptosis, allowing contamination of extraluminal sites that are ordinarily sterile...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092309/microbiota-targeted-therapies-on-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
Bastiaan W Haak, Marcel Levi, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The composition and diversity of the microbiota of the human gut, skin, and several other sites is severely deranged in critically ill patients on the ICU, and it is likely that these disruptions can negatively affect outcome. We here review new and ongoing studies that investigate the use of microbiota-targeted therapeutics in the ICU, and provide recommendations for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: Practically every intervention in the ICU as well as the physiological effects of critical illness itself can have a profound impact on the gut microbiota...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092151/issues-in-nutrition-carbohydrates
#6
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092150/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-supplements
#7
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091879/new-medical-therapies-on-the-horizon-oral-octreotide
#8
REVIEW
Nienke R Biermasz
Somatostatin analog treatment is first line medical treatment in patients with acromegaly. This drug is currently mainly administered by monthly depot preparations of octreotide and lanreotide. With the innovative transient permeability enhancer, a technology enabling the absorption of drug molecules via transient opening of the tight junctions of the gut epithelium, it is possible to achieve therapeutic octreotide levels after oral ingestion. The present review summarized the preclinical work and the recently reported phase I and III study on oral octreotide capsules in patients with acromegaly...
January 16, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091678/pepsin-egg-white-hydrolysate-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-obese-rats
#9
Teresa Requena, Marta Miguel, Marta Garcés-Rimón, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Rosina López-Fandiño, Carmen Peláez
There is limited information that relates the intake of food-derived bioactive peptides and the gut microbiota. We have previously described a pepsin hydrolysate of egg white (EWH) that ameliorates fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, while reducing oxidative stress and inflammation markers in obese Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to associate the beneficial effects of EWH with gut microbiota changes in these animals. Obese Zucker rats received daily 750 mg kg(-1) EWH in drinking water for 12 weeks and faeces were analysed for microbial composition and metabolic compounds in comparison with Zucker lean rats and obese controls...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091546/prebiotic-galactooligosaccharides-activate-mucin-and-pectic-galactan-utilization-pathways-in-the-human-gut-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron
#10
Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Marieke Mulder, Sander van Leeuwen, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic carbohydrates that impart changes in the gut bacterial composition of formula-fed infants to more closely resemble that of breast-fed infants. Consuming human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) provides specific bacterial strains with an advantage for colonizing the infant intestine. These same effects are seen in infants after GOS consumption, however GOS are very complex mixtures and the underlying molecular mechanisms of how GOS mimic HMOs are relatively unknown. Here we studied the effects of GOS utilization on a prominent gut symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which has been previously shown to consume HMOs via mucin O-glycan degradation pathways...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091525/a-fibrolytic-potential-in-the-human-ileum-mucosal-microbiota-revealed-by-functional-metagenomic
#11
Orlane Patrascu, Fabienne Béguet-Crespel, Ludovica Marinelli, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Anne-Laure Abraham, Marion Leclerc, Christophe Klopp, Nicolas Terrapon, Bernard Henrissat, Hervé M Blottière, Joël Doré, Christel Béra-Maillet
The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090679/effect-of-prucalopride-on-intestinal-gas-tolerance-in-patients-with-functional-bowel-disorders-and-constipation
#12
Carolina Malagelada, Adoración Nieto, Sara Mendez, Anna Accarino, Javier Santos, Juan-R Malagelada, Fernando Azpiroz
BACKGROUND: Patients with functional bowel disorders develop gas retention and symptoms in response to intestinal gas loads that are well tolerated by healthy subjects. Stimulation of 5HT-4 receptors in the gut has both prokinetic and antinociceptive effects. AIM: To determine the effect of prucalopride, a highly selective 5HT-4 agonist, on gas transit and tolerance in women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation. METHODS: Twenty-four women with functional bowel disorders complaining of constipation were included in the study...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#13
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#14
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089669/exposure-to-gdnf-enhances-the-ability-of-enteric-neural-progenitors-to%C3%A2-generate-an-enteric-nervous-system
#16
Sonja J McKeown, Mitra Mohsenipour, Annette J Bergner, Heather M Young, Lincon A Stamp
Cell therapy is a promising approach to generate an enteric nervous system (ENS) and treat enteric neuropathies. However, for translation to the clinic, it is highly likely that enteric neural progenitors will require manipulation prior to transplantation to enhance their ability to migrate and generate an ENS. In this study, we examine the effects of exposure to several factors on the ability of ENS progenitors, grown as enteric neurospheres, to migrate and generate an ENS. Exposure to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) resulted in a 14-fold increase in neurosphere volume and a 12-fold increase in cell number...
January 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089601/corrigendum-to-behavioural-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-chronic-gut-microbiota-depletion-during-adulthood-in-the-rat-neuroscience-339-2016-463-477
#17
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089247/-mid-gut-neuroendocrine-tumors-news-on-medical-treatment
#18
Marie Dior, Johann Dreanic, Caroline Prieux-Klotz, Bertrand Brieau, Catherine Brezault, Romain Coriat
CONTEXT: Mid gut neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare tumors whose incidence is increasing. Curative surgery remains the gold standard for the treatment of NETs of the small intestine. Surgery should be considered as soon as possible even if a metastatic stage is diagnosed. The management of unresectable well-differentiated metastatic NETs of the small intestine recently changed with the publication of trials demonstrating the benefit of targeted therapies and metabolic radiotherapy, leading to a change of practices and update of French and international recommendations...
January 11, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#19
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088653/immune-stimulation-during-chemotherapy-increases-incidence-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-study-on-behalf-of-sfgm-tc-and-alfa
#20
Lining Wang, Emmanuel Raffoux, Xavier Thomas, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Jean-Henri Bouhris, Stéphane de Botton, Mauricette Michallet, Stéphanie Nguyen Quoc, Xavier Troussard, Eric Deconinck, Denis Caillot, Pascal Turlure, Stéphane Vigouroux, Arnaud Pigneux, Anne Huynh, Jean-Valère Malfuson, Michael Loschi, Gerard Socie, Hervé Dombret, Régis Peffault de la Tour, Thomas Cluzeau
60-70% of AML patients have an indication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) during their treatment. Graft versus host disease (GvHD), the major cause of mortality and comorbidities post-transplantation, develops by immunological mechanism and decides greatly prognosis and quality of life (QoL) of graft recipient. Current GvHD prophylaxis is not personalized. Infections, toxicities and leukemic infiltration complicate the first chemotherapy phases prior to allo-HSCT. They, to certain extent, induce local immune stimulation...
January 5, 2017: Leukemia Research
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