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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166663/a-general-model-for-predicting-the-binding-affinity-of-reversibly-and-irreversibly-dimerized-ligands
#1
Kenneth W Foreman
Empirical data has shown that bivalent inhibitors can bind a given target protein significantly better than their monomeric counterparts. However, predicting the corresponding theoretical fold improvements has been challenging. The current work builds off the reacted-site probability approach to provide a straightforward baseline reference model for predicting fold-improvements in effective affinity of dimerized ligands over their monomeric counterparts. For the more familiar irreversibly linked bivalents, the model predicts a weak dependence on tether length and a scaling of the effective affinity with the 3/2 power of the monomer's affinity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166624/impact-of-processing-methods-on-the-dissolution-of-artemether-from-two-non-ordered-mesoporous-silicas
#2
Hira Tahir, Yasser Shahzad, Laura J Waters, Talib Hussain, Abid Mehmood Yousaf, Tariq Mahmood, Rizwan Sheikh
Poor aqueous solubility is often linked with a poor dissolution rate and ultimately, limited bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. This study describes the application of mesoporous materials (Syloid 244 and Syloid AL1) in improving the dissolution rate of a drug with poor aqueous solubility, namely artemether, utilising different processing methods including physical mixing, co-grinding and solid dispersions prepared by solvent evaporation and the lyophilisation technique. The prepared formulations were extensively characterised for their solid-state properties and the drug release attributes were studied...
November 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166618/ipsc-based-compound-screening-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-trials-identify-a-synergistic-anti-amyloid-%C3%AE-combination-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Takayuki Kondo, Keiko Imamura, Misato Funayama, Kayoko Tsukita, Michiyo Miyake, Akira Ohta, Knut Woltjen, Masato Nakagawa, Takashi Asada, Tetsuaki Arai, Shinobu Kawakatsu, Yuishin Izumi, Ryuji Kaji, Nobuhisa Iwata, Haruhisa Inoue
In the process of drug development, in vitro studies do not always adequately predict human-specific drug responsiveness in clinical trials. Here, we applied the advantage of human iPSC-derived neurons, which offer human-specific drug responsiveness, to screen and evaluate therapeutic candidates for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD patient neurons with nearly 100% purity from iPSCs, we established a robust and reproducible assay for amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a pathogenic molecule in AD, and screened a pharmaceutical compound library...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166563/mechanochemical-synthesis-of-pharmaceutical-cocrystal-suspensions-via-hot-melt-extrusion-enhancing-cocrystal-yield
#4
Shu Li, Tao Yu, Yiwei Tian, Colette Lagan, David S Jones, Gavin P Andrews
Pharmaceutical cocrystals have attracted increasing attention over the past decade as an alternative way to modify the physicochemical properties and hence improve the bioavailability of a drug, without sacrificing thermodynamic stability. Our previous work has demonstrated the viability of in-situ formation of ibuprofen/isonicotinamide cocrystal suspensions within a matrix carrier via a single-step hot-melt extrusion (HME) process. The key aim of the current work is to establish optimised processing conditions to improve cocrystal yield within extruded matrices...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166445/regular-access-and-adherence-to-medications-of-the-specialized-component-of-pharmaceutical-services
#5
Janaína Soder Fritzen, Fabiane Raquel Motter, Vera Maria Vieira Paniz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the adherence to the medications of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Services and its association with regular access in users of these medications in the municipality of São Leopoldo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with adults aged 20 years and over, who are users of medications of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Services. Sampling was carried out consecutively for users who accessed the service of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Services during the period from December 2014 to March 2015...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165784/interventions-for-managing-skeletal-muscle-spasticity-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Anneliese Synnot, Marisa Chau, Veronica Pitt, Denise O'Connor, Russell L Gruen, Jason Wasiak, Ornella Clavisi, Loyal Pattuwage, Kate Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle spasticity is a major physical complication resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can lead to muscle contracture, joint stiffness, reduced range of movement, broken skin and pain. Treatments for spasticity include a range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, often used in combination. Management of spasticity following TBI varies from other clinical populations because of the added complexity of behavioural and cognitive issues associated with TBI...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165783/after-action-review-of-the-2009-10-h1n1-influenza-outbreak-response-ohio-s-public-health-system-s-performance
#7
William A Mase, Beth Bickford, Casey L Thomas, Shamika D Jones, Michael Bisesi
OBJECTIVE: In early 2009, H1N1 influenza was identified within the human population. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials responded with focused assessment, policy development, and assurances. The response was mobilized through efforts including procurement of adequate vaccine supply, local area span of control, materials acquisition, and facilities and resource identification. METHODS: Qualitative evaluation of the assurance functions specific to the system's ability to assure safe and healthy conditions are reported...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165715/virus-induced-silencing-of-key-genes-leads-to-differential-impact-on-withanolide-biosynthesis-in-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera
#8
Aditya Vikram Agarwal, Deeksha Singh, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Rahul Michael, Parul Gupta, Deepak Chandra, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesised in medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis...
November 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165586/extent-of-physician-pharmaceutical-industry-interactions-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#9
Racha Fadlallah, Lina Alkhaled, Hneine Brax, Mayse Nasser, Mhd Hashem Rajabbik, Hala Nass, Lara A Kahale, Elie A Akl
Background: Pharmaceutical companies spend large amounts of money promoting their products to physicians. There is evidence that physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies negatively affect their prescribing patterns. The objective of this study was to systematically review the extent of the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Studies assessing the extent of any type of interaction between practicing physicians and pharmaceutical companies were eligible...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165457/the-chemical-composition-nutritional-value-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-abelmoschus-esculentus-seeds
#10
Spyridon Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Ana Ciric, Marina Sokovic, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. The harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers' preferences and the fruit that does not meet market requirements is being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from the setting of the fruit to the harvest stage, the present study evaluates the nutritional value, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165402/quercetin-mitigates-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-mouse-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-through-suppression-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b
#11
Minsup Lee, Seohyeon Yun, Hyesook Lee, Jaewook Yang
Retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased by neovascularization is well known as a pathogenic factor in ocular neovascular diseases. However, it is still unclear how retinal neurons are damaged by VEGF. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the inflammatory protein expression regulated by VEGF using mouse photoreceptor-derived cells and the protective effect of quercetin against VEGF-induced inflammatory response. Expression and phosphorylation of protein and expression of mRNA were detected by immunoblot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165398/synthesis-of-spironucleosides-past-and-future-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Raquel G Soengas, Gustavo da Silva, Juan Carlos Estévez
Spironucleosides are a type of conformationally restricted nucleoside analogs in which the anomeric carbon belongs simultaneously to the sugar moiety and to the base unit. This locks the nucleic base in a specific orientation around the N-glycosidic bond, imposing restrictions on the flexibility of the sugar moiety. Anomeric spiro-functionalized nucleosides have gained considerable importance with the discovery of hydantocidin, a natural spironucleoside isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces hygroscopicus which exhibits potent herbicidal activity...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165100/phytochemicals-formulated-as-nanoparticles-inventions-recent-patents-and-future-prospects
#13
Namdeo Jadhav, Sameer Nadaf, Dipali Lohar, Pravin Ghagare, Trupti Powar
BACKGROUND: The quest to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of herbal drugs has driven rigorously the pharmaceutical research towards development of herbal nanoparticles. Till date, various approaches have been adopted for the design of herbal nanoparticles. METHODS: We carried out an organized search of bibliographic databases consisting of an ample number of published abstracts and research articles using a focused review questionaries and insertion/omission criteria...
November 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165094/potential-risks-and-mitigation-strategies-during-the-conduct-of-a-clinical-trial-an-industry-perspective
#14
Seema Bhagat, Vaibhavi Kapatkar, Sagar Katare, Ashish Mane, Colette Pinto, Kedar Pawar, Agam Shah, Hanmant Barkate
BACKGROUND: Every phase of a clinical trial should be designed in compliance with good clinical practices by following all relevant regulatory guidelines. Patient safety, data integrity and ethics are an integral part of a successful clinical trial which must be considered. Therefore risk monitoring is an essential tool to identify the risks associated with conduct of any trial. This article is a result of extensive research conducted by a reputed pharmaceutical company to identify the potential stages of risks associated with the conduct phase of trial that could impact the overall quality and safety of a trial...
November 19, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165078/pharmaceutical-product-lead-optimization-for-better-in-vivo-bioequivalence-performance-a-case-study-of-diclofenac-sodium-extended-release-matrix-tablets
#15
Aliasgar Shahiwala, Aisha Zarar
BACKGROUND: In order to prove the validity of a new formulation, a considerable amount of efforts is required to study bioequivalence, not only increases the burden of carrying out a number of bioequivalence studies but eventually increase the cost of the optimization process. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop sustained release matrix tablets containing diclofenac sodium using natural polymers and to demonstrate step by step process of product development till the prediction of in vivo marketed product equivalence of the developed product...
November 20, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165065/electrochemical-nucleic-acid-based-biosensing-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals
#16
Susana Campuzano, Maia Pedrero, Jose M Pingarron
Nowadays, studies of the interactions of DNA with small molecular drugs, especially anti-tumor agents, antibiotics and drugs of abuse are currently performed to explore their mechanism of action and develop new drugs with lower side effects and high curative properties. Currently, electrochemical biosensors are considered a very promising alternative analytical tool to conventional more complex techniques for drug determination due to rapidness, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology, intuitively understandable design and simple operation mode...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165036/a-formative-qualitative-evaluation-to-inform-implementation-of-a-research-participation-enhancement-and-advocacy-training-program-for-diverse-seniors-the-dreams-program
#17
Molly M Perkins, Ariel Hart, Rebecca L Dillard, Ronald C Wincek, David E Jones, Madeleine E Hackney
This article reports on a formative qualitative evaluation conducted to identify potential barriers and facilitators prior to implementation of a two-part educational intervention designed to increase older adults' participation in clinical research. We conducted focus groups with 35 older adults from diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds (Mean age = 74.5 ± 7.4 years), and six clinical researchers involved in aging research. Two older adult patient stakeholder advisors participated as members of the research team...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164957/expectations-concerns-and-needs-of-patients-who-start-drugs-for-chronic-conditions-a-prospective-observational-study-among-community-pharmacies-in-serbia
#18
Katarina M Vučićević, Branislava R Miljković, Bojana C Golubović, Marija N Jovanović, Sandra D Vezmar Kovačević, Milica D Ćulafić, Milena M Kovačević, Johan J de Gier
BACKGROUND: During the initiation of treatment of a chronic disease, patients may have varying interests, expectations, concerns, and reasons to stop treatment, influencing compliance with prescribed treatment. Thus, healthcare professionals are expected to integrate these needs into medicines management. OBJECTIVES: To determine what information is important to patients; assess predictors of patients' interests, expectations, concerns, reasons to stop therapy; evaluate drug-related problems following initiation of therapy and summarize how pharmacists resolve them during patient-pharmacist counselling...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164899/from-physical-mixtures-to-co-crystals-how-the-coformers-can-modify-solubility-and-biological-activity-of-carbamazepine
#19
Alessandro Dalpiaz, Valeria Ferretti, Valerio Bertolasi, Barbara Pavan, Antonio Monari, Mariachiara Pastore
A combined experimental and computational study on the solubility and biological activity of carbamazepine (CBZ), three co-crystals (COCs) and their parent physical mixtures (MIXs) is carried out to shed light onto the possible modulation of the drug properties. Two of the considered co-crystals, CBZ with vanillic acid (VAN) and CBZ with 4-nitropyridine-N-oxyde (NPO), are newly synthesized, while the third, CBZ with succinic acid (SUC), is already known. While COC CBZ-VAN and MIX CBZ-NPO did not alter the CBZ dissolution profile, MIX CBZ-SUC, COCs CBZ-SUC and CBZ-NPO inhibit straightaway its solubility...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164777/formulation-and-characterization-of-poly-propylacrylic-acid-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-blend-microparticles-for-ph-dependent-membrane-disruption-and-cytosolic-delivery
#20
Lawrence P Fernando, Jamal S Lewis, Brian C Evans, Craig L Duvall, Benjamin G Keselowsky
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is widely used as a vehicle for delivery of pharmaceutically relevant payloads. PLGA is readily fabricated as a nano- or microparticle (MP) matrix to load both hydrophobic and hydrophilic small molecular drugs as well as biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. However, targeting such payloads to the cell cytosol is often limited by MP entrapment and degradation within acidic endolysosomes. Poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) is a polyelectrolyte polymer with membrane disruptive capability triggered at low pH...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
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