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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#1
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775773/trimeprazine-is-enantioselectively-degraded-by-an-activated-sludge-in-ready-biodegradability-test-conditions
#2
Laura Escuder-Gilabert, Yolanda Martín-Biosca, Mireia Perez-Baeza, Salvador Sagrado, María José Medina-Hernández
A great number of available pharmaceuticals are chiral compounds. Although they are usually manufactured as racemic mixtures, they can be enantioselectively biodegraded as a result of microbial processes. In this paper, a biodegradability assay in similar conditions to those recommended in OECD tests of enantiomers of trimeprazine (a phenothiazine employed as a racemate) is carried out. Experiments were performed in batch mode using a minimal salts medium inoculated with an activated sludge (collected from a Valencian Waste Water Treatment Plant, WWTP) and supplemented with the racemate...
May 9, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775691/pain-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-a-multicenter-study
#3
Tatiana Talya Fleishman, Jacob Dreiher, Pesach Shvartman
CONTEXT: Pain is a common complaint in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, yet is often inadequately assessed and undertreated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence, characteristics, intensity, and impact of pain in MHD patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted between 2013 and 2015, 336 MHD patients from five hemodialysis units in hospitals owned by Clalit were interviewed and evaluated. Study tools included the Brief Pain Inventory, The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale, demographic and clinical characteristics...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775071/strategy-for-overcoming-full-reversibility-of-intermolecular-radical-addition-to-aldehydes-tandem-c-h-and-c-o-bonds-cleaving-cyclization-of-phenoxymethyl-arenes-with-carbonyls-to-benzofurans
#4
Hong-Xing Zheng, Xiang-Huan Shan, Jian-Ping Qu, Yan-Biao Kang
An intermolecular addition of carbon radicals enabled by a cascade radical coupling strategy is developed. It includes an intermolecular alkyl radical addition to a carbonyl group followed by an intramolecular alkoxy radical addition to haloarenes and produces substituted benzofurans in high yields. The radical nature of this reaction is explored by radical trapping experiments and EPR analysis. The mechanism is investigated by KIE experiments and control experiments. This method could provide rapid and practical access to the key intermediate of TAM-16, a safe and potent antibacterial agent for treating tuberculosis, and, therefore, is of great importance for organic synthesis and the pharmaceutical industry...
May 18, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774351/diversity-of-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-and-saprotrophic-fungi-of-the-ascomycete-order-xylariales
#5
REVIEW
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774137/saudi-anti-human-cancer-plants-database-sacpd-a-collection-of-plants-with-anti-human-cancer-activities
#6
Ateeq Ahmed Al-Zahrani
Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD)...
January 30, 2018: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773891/assessing-the-feasibility-of-neutralizing-osteopontin-with-various-therapeutic-antibody-modalities
#7
Vahid Farrokhi, Jeffrey R Chabot, Hendrik Neubert, Zhiyong Yang
Osteopontin is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that is highly implicated in many physiological and pathological processes such as biomineralization, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, cell survival, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antibodies against osteopontin have been actively pursued as potential therapeutics for various diseases by pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of osteopontin inhibition in a variety of preclinical models of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but clinical utility has not yet been demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773700/implications-of-involving-pharmacy-technicians-in-obtaining-a-best-possible-medication-history-from-the-perspectives-of-pharmaceutical-medical-and-nursing-staff-a-qualitative-study
#8
Andrea Niederhauser, Chantal Zimmermann, Liat Fishman, David L B Schwappach
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, the involvement of pharmacy technicians in medication reconciliation has increasingly been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the implications on professional roles and collaboration when a best possible medication history (BPMH) at admission is obtained by pharmacy technicians. DESIGN: Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. SETTING: Internal medicine units in two mid-sized Swiss hospitals...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773533/healing-an-ailing-pharmaceutical-system-prescription-for-reform-for-united-states-and-canada
#9
Adam Gaffney, Joel Lexchin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773401/optimization-of-orodispersible-and-conventional-tablets-using-simplex-lattice-design-relationship-among-excipients-and-banana-extract
#10
Sureewan Duangjit, Pakorn Kraisit
The objective of this study was focused on the optimization of the pharmaceutical excipients and banana extract in the preparation of orally disintegrating banana extract tablets (OD-BET) and conventional banana extract tablets (CO-BET) using a simplex lattice design. Various ratios of banana extract (BE), dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used to prepare banana extract tablets (BET). The results indicated that the optimal OD-BET and CO-BET consisted of BE: DCP: MCC at 10...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773345/t-cells-and-their-immunometabolism-a-novel-way-to-understanding-sepsis-immunopathogenesis-and-future-therapeutics
#11
REVIEW
V Kumar
Sepsis has always been considered as a big challenge for pharmaceutical companies in terms of discovering and designing new therapeutics. The pathogenesis of sepsis involves aberrant activation of innate immune cells (i.e. macrophages, neutrophils etc.) at early stages. However, a stage of immunosuppression is also observed during sepsis even in the patients who have recovered from it. This stage of immunosuppression is observed due to the loss of conventional (i.e. CD4+ , CD8+ ) T cells, Th17 cells and an upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#12
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773067/in-silico-molecular-docking-and-adme-studies-of-1-3-4-thiadiazole-derivatives-in-relation-to-in-vitro-pon1-activity
#13
Belgin Sever, Kaan Kucukoglu, Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu, Mehlika Dilek Altintop
BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a paraoxonase, arylesterase and lactonase associated with protection of lipoproteins and cell membranes against oxidative modification. OBJECTIVE: Based on antioxidative properties of PON1 and widely usage of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and materials chemistry, herein we aimed to evaluate PON1 activator potentials of 1,3,4-thiadiazole based compounds. METHOD: 2-[[5-(2,4-Difluoro/dichlorophenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]thio] acetophenone derivatives (1-18), previously synthesized by our research group, were in vitro evaluated for their activator effects on PON1 which was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation (60-80%) and DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange chromatography...
May 17, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773062/backbone-cyclized-peptides-a-critical-review
#14
Samuel J S Rubin, Nir Qvit
Backbone-cyclized peptides and peptidomimetics integrate the biological activity and pharmacological features necessary for successful research tools and therapeutics. In general, these structures demonstrate improved maintenance of bioactive conformation, stability and cell permeability compared to their linear counterparts, while maintaining support for a variety of side chain chemistries. We explain how backbone cyclization and cycloscan techniques allow scientists to cyclize linear peptides with retained or enhanced biological activity and improved drug-like features...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773056/nanocrystals-technology-for-pharmaceutical-science
#15
Zhongyao Cheng, Yumei Lian, Zul Kamal, Xin Ma, Jianjun Chen, Xinbo Zhou, Jing Su, Mingfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Nanocrystals technology is a promising method for improving the dissolution rate and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In recent years, it has been developing rapidly and applied to drug research and engineering. Nanocrystal drugs can be formulated into various dosage forms. OBJECTIVE: This review mainly focused on the nanocrystals technology and its application in pharmaceutical science. Firstly, different preparation methods of nanocrystal technology and the characterization of nanocrystal drugs are briefly described...
May 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773054/editorial-crystallization-for-pharmaceutical-and-food-science
#16
EDITORIAL
Hongxun Hao, Jian Zhong, Qiuxiang Yin, Xichang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#17
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Bonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772610/application-of-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-effective-separation-and-simultaneous-determination-of-11-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-samples-using-hplc-ms-ms
#18
Alina Diuzheva, József Balogh, József Jekő, Zoltán Cziáky
A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the simultaneous determination of 11 pharmaceuticals has been developed. The method is based on a microextraction procedure applied to wastewater samples from different regions of Hungary followed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The effect of the nature of the extractant, dispersive solvent, different additives and extraction time were examined on the extraction efficiently of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772462/photocatalytic-mineralization-and-degradation-kinetics-of-sulphamethoxazole-and-reactive-red-194-over-silver-zirconium-co-doped-titanium-dioxide-reaction-mechanisms-and-phytotoxicity-assessment
#19
Saraschandra Naraginti, Yi Li, Gianluca Li Puma
The photodegradation and phytotoxicity of the pharmaceutical antibiotic, sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the azo-dye reactive-red-194 (RR194) under visible-light irradiation of TiO2 nanoparticles modified by silver and zirconium was investigated. The results indicated that sulphamethoxazole and its toxic degradation by product, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole and RR-194 could be degraded efficiently by the co-doped Zr/Ag-TiO2 catalyst. PL studies and ROS generation results suggested that the effective charge separation was carried out while irradiation of the modified TiO2 nanoparticles...
May 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772285/new-prediction-methods-for-solubility-parameters-based-on-molecular-sigma-profiles-using-pharmaceutical-materials
#20
Andreas Niederquell, Nicole Wyttenbach, Martin Kuentz
Solubility parameters have been applied extensively in the chemical and pharmaceutical sciences. Particularly attractive is calculation of solubility parameters based on chemical structure and recently, new in silico methods have been proposed. Thus, screening charge densities of molecular surfaces (i.e. so-called σ-profiles) are used by the conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) and can be employed in a quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) to predict solubility parameters...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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