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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222352/status-of-pharmaceuticals-in-african-water-bodies-occurrence-removal-and-analytical-methods
#1
REVIEW
Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Nikita Tawanda Tavengwa, Luke Chimuka
In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221723/animal-component-free-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-cultivation-media-for-better-gmp-compliance-increases-biomass-yield-and-pharmaceutical-protein-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#2
Marcel Houdelet, Anna Galinski, Tanja Holland, Kathrin Wenzel, Stefan Schillberg, Johannes Felix Buyel
Transient expression systems allow the rapid production of recombinant proteins in plants. Such systems can be scaled up to several hundred kilograms of biomass, making them suitable for the production of pharmaceutical proteins required at short notice, such as emergency vaccines. However, large-scale transient expression requires the production of recombinant Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains with the capacity for efficient gene transfer to plant cells. The complex media often used for the cultivation of this species typically include animal-derived ingredients that can contain human pathogens, thus conflicting with the requirements of good manufacturing practice (GMP)...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221274/pharmacy-use-in-the-first-year-of-the-veterans-choice-program-a-mixed-methods-evaluation
#3
Walid F Gellad, Francesca E Cunningham, Chester B Good, Joshua M Thorpe, Carolyn T Thorpe, Brandi Bair, KatieLynn Roman, Susan L Zickmund
BACKGROUND: The Veterans Choice Program (VCP) was created to ensure timely access to health care in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Under this program, medications may be ordered by select non-VA clinicians to be dispensed by VA pharmacies, creating new challenges in ensuring medication safety. OBJECTIVES: To examine pharmaceutical use during the first year of the VCP and to understand barriers and facilitators for VA pharmacists to dispensing medications under the VCP...
February 17, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221043/radiolabeled-111-in-fgf-2-is-suitable-for-in-vitro-ex-vivo-evaluations-and-in-vivo-imaging
#4
Alessandra Moscaroli, Gabriel Jones, Tessa Lühmann, Lorenz Meinel, Stephanie Wälti, Alain Blanc, Eliane Fischer, Manuel Hilbert, Roger Schibli, Martin Béhé
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent modulator of cell growth and regulation, with improper FGF-2 signaling being involved in impaired responses to injury or even cancer. Therefore, the exploitation of FGF-2 as a therapeutic drives the prerequisite for effective insight into drug disposition kinetics. In this article, we present an (111)In-radiolabeled FGF-2 derivative for noninvasive imaging in small animals deploying single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (111)In-FGF-2 is equally well suitable for in vitro and ex vivo investigations as (125)I-FGF-2...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221039/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-via-iron-iii-catalyzed-carbonyl-olefin-metathesis
#5
Christopher C McAtee, Paul S Riehl, Corinna S Schindler
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are important structural motifs in organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials science. The development of a new synthetic strategy toward these compounds is described based on the design principle of iron(III)-catalyzed carbonyl-olefin metathesis reactions. This approach is characterized by its operational simplicity, high functional group compatibility, and regioselectivity while relying on FeCl3 as an environmentally benign, earth-abundant metal catalyst. Experimental evidence for oxetanes as reactive intermediates in the catalytic carbonyl-olefin ring-closing metathesis has been obtained...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#6
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220480/quality-and-stability-of-extemporaneous-pyridoxal-phosphate-preparations-used-in-the-treatment-of-paediatric-epilepsy
#7
Abeer H A Mohamed-Ahmed, Matthew P Wilson, Maedelyn Albuera, Ting Chen, Philippa B Mills, Emma J Footitt, Peter T Clayton, Catherine Tuleu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) content and stability of extemporaneous PLP liquids prepared from dietary supplements used for the treatment of vitamin B6 -dependent epilepsy. METHODS: Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate liquids were prepared in accordance with the guidelines given to patients from marketed 50 mg PLP dietary capsules and tablets. The PLP content and its stability were evaluated under conditions resembling the clinical setting using reverse phase HPLC and mass spectrometry...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220199/-novel-pharmaceutical-treatment-approaches-for-gastric-cancer
#8
F Lordick
This review article delineates novel approaches for the pharmaceutical treatment of gastric cancer. A newly developed molecular classification of gastric cancer based on histology, genetic, epigenetic and proteomic characteristics has evolved. It provides a road map for development of new drugs and combinations as well as for patient stratification in clinical research and it is expected to be introduced into clinical practice in the near future. Anti-HER2 targeted treatment is a validated strategy for treatment of metastatic gastric cancer and is now also being studied in the perioperative setting to increase response rates and ultimately survival in patients undergoing curative surgery; however, the resistance mechanisms of HER2-targeted treatment are poorly understood and optimal patient selection remains challenging...
February 20, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219993/low-prevalence-of-substandard-and-falsified-antimalarial-and-antibiotic-medicines-in-public-and-faith-based-health-facilities-of-southern-malawi
#9
Felix Khuluza, Stephen Kigera, Lutz Heide
Substandard and falsified antimalarial and antibiotic medicines represent a serious problem for public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. However, information on the prevalence of poor-quality medicines is limited. In the present study, samples of six antimalarial and six antibiotic medicines were collected from 31 health facilities and drug outlets in southern Malawi. Random sampling was used in the selection of health facilities. For sample collection, an overt approach was used in licensed facilities, and a mystery shopper approach in nonlicensed outlets...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219992/a-new-handheld-device-for-the-detection-of-falsified-medicines-demonstration-on-falsified-artemisinin-based-therapies-from-the-field
#10
Benjamin K Wilson, Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Anthony Lozama, David Bell
Poor-quality medicines are a major problem for health-care systems in resource-poor settings as identifying falsified medicines requires a complex laboratory infrastructure such as a Medicines Quality Control Laboratory. We report here an evaluation of a low-cost, handheld near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) device by analyzing a library of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) medicines to determine its usefulness as a drug-screening tool. The "SCiO" research prototype device was used to collect NIR spectra of a library of ACT and artesunate monotherapy medicine samples previously collected in Bioko Island and Equatorial Guinea and Kintampo, Ghana...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219852/linear-correlation-between-rheological-mechanical-and-mucoadhesive-properties-of-polycarbophil-polymer-blends-for-biomedical-applications
#11
Sabrina Barbosa De Souza Ferreira, Jéssica Bassi Da Silva, Fernanda Belincanta Borghi-Pangoni, Mariana Volpato Junqueira, Marcos Luciano Bruschi
Polycarbophil is widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations, mainly for their strong ability to adhere to the epithelial and mucous barriers (bio/mucoadhesion). On the other hand, its association with the thermoresponsive polymer (poloxamer 407) has been poorly explored. This work investigates the rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of polymer blends containing polycarbophil and poloxamer 407, in order to select the best formulations for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219795/enantiomeric-separation-of-the-antiuremic-drug-colchicine-by-electrokinetic-chromatography-method-development-and-quantitative-analysis
#12
Nuria Menéndez-López, Jesús Valimaña-Traverso, María Castro-Puyana, Antonio Salgado, María Ángeles García, María Luisa Marina
Two analytical methodologies were developed by CE enabling the enantiomeric separation of colchicine, an antiuremic drug commercialized as pure enantiomer. Succinyl-γ-CD and Sulfated-γ-CD were selected as chiral selectors after a screening with different anionic CDs. Under the optimized conditions, chiral resolutions of 5.6 in 12min and 3.2 in 8min were obtained for colchicine with Succinyl-γ-CD and Sulfated-γ-CD, respectively. An opposite enantiomeric migration order was observed with these two CDs being S-colchicine the first-migrating enantiomer with Succinyl-γ-CD and the second-migrating enantiomer with Sulfated-γ-CD...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219295/no-blank-slates-pre-existing-schemas-about-pharmaceuticals-predict-memory-for-side-effects
#13
Monika K Heller, Sarah C E Chapman, Rob Horne
OBJECTIVES: Attribution of symptoms as medication side effects is informed by pre-existing beliefs about medicines and perceptions of personal sensitivity to their effects (pharmaceutical schemas). We tested whether (1) pharmaceutical schemas were associated with memory (recall/recognition) for side effect information (2) memory explained the attribution of a common unrelated symptom as a side effect. DESIGN: In this analogue study participants saw the patient leaflet of a fictitious asthma drug listing eight side effects...
April 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219047/strategies-in-the-designing-of-prodrugs-taking-into-account-the-antiviral-and-anticancer-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Monika A Lesniewska-Kowiel, Izabela Muszalska
Prodrugs are a wide group of substances of low or no pharmacological activity. The search for prodrugs is aimed at obtaining drugs characterized by better pharmacokinetic properties, pharmaceutical availability and selective activity of the active substance. Prodrug strategies involve chemical modifications and syntheses of new structures as well as the establishment of systems that deliver active substances for therapeutic aims that is prodrug-based treatments. The paper describes decisive factors in prodrug designing, such as enzymes participating in their activation, concepts of chemical modifications in the group of antiviral drugs and new anticancer treatments based on prodrugs (ADEPT, GDEPT, LEAPT)...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218404/topical-medication-instillation-techniques-for-glaucoma
#15
REVIEW
Li Xu, Xuemei Wang, Meijing Wu
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension...
February 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218330/predicting-the-phospholipophilicity-of-monoprotic-positively-charged-amines
#16
S T J Droge, J L M Hermens, S Gutsell, J Rabone, G Hodges
The sorption affinity of eighty-six charged amine structures to phospholipid monolayers (log KIAM) was determined using immobilized artificial membrane high-performance liquid chromatography (IAM-HPLC). The amine compounds covered the most prevalent types of polar groups, widely ranged in structural complexity, and included forty-seven pharmaceuticals, as well as several narcotics and pesticides. Amine type specific corrective increments were used to align log KIAM data with bilayer membrane sorption coefficients (KMW(IAM))...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217928/fast-determination-of-codeine-orphenadrine-promethazine-scopolamine-tramadol-and-paracetamol-in-pharmaceutical-formulations-by-capillary-electrophoresis
#17
Rafael R Cunha, Michelle M A C Ribeiro, Rodrigo A A Muñoz, Eduardo M Richter
Paracetamol is an active ingredient commonly found in pharmaceutical formulations in combination with one of the following compounds: codeine, orphenadrine, promethazine, scopolamine, and tramadol. In this work, we propose a unique analytical method for determination of these active ingredients in pharmaceutical samples. The method is based on capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The separation was achieved on a fused silica capillary (50 cm total length, 40 cm effective length, and 50 μm id) using an optimized background electrolyte composed of 20 mmol L(-1) β-alanine/4 mmol L(-1) sodium chloride/4 μmol L(-1) sodium hydroxide (pH = 9...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217862/preparation-of-monolithic-cation-exchange-material-with-hydrophilic-external-layers-by-two-step-reversible-addition-fragmentation-chain-transfer-polymerization
#18
Shen Lin, Yingying Zhang, Wei Huang, Xiangchao Dong
In recent years, the efficient analysis of biological samples has become more important due to the advances of life science and pharmaceutical research and practice. Because biological sample pretreatment is the bottleneck for fast process, material development for efficient sample process in the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis is highly desirable. In this research, a cation-exchange restricted access monolithic column was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization method...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217547/a-study-of-the-formation-of-magnetically-active-solid-dispersions-of-phenacetin-using-atomic-and-magnetic-force-microscopy
#19
Liana Stanislavovna Usmanova, Marat Akhmedovich Ziganshin, Valery Vilenovich Gorbatchuk, Sufia Askhatovna Ziganshina, Dmitry Anatolevich Bizyaev, Anastas Akhmetovich Bukharaev, Timur Anvarovich Mukhametzyanov, Alexander Vladimirovich Gerasimov
A lot of pharmaceutical substances have a poor solubility that limits their absorption and distribution to the targeted sites to elicit the desired action without causing untoward effects on healthy cells or tissues. For such drugs, new modes of delivery have to be developed for efficient and effective delivery of the drug to the target site. Formation of magnetically active solid dispersion of such drugs could be a useful approach to addressing this problem because they combine targeted delivery and good solubility...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217446/the-dangers-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-and-counterfeit-drugs-to-treat-erectile-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Jason Chiang, Faysal A Yafi, Philip J Dorsey, Wayne J G Hellstrom
Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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