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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521253/differences-in-cognitive-deficits-in-individuals-with-subthreshold-syndromes-with-and-without-family-history-of-bipolar-disorder
#1
Kangguang Lin, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Ting Li, Weicong Lu, Jiehua Kong, Guiyun Xu
Little is known about the development of cognitive deficits prior to the official onset of bipolar disorder (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate neurocognitive performance in two early stages of BP. This high-risk design study recruited a group of offspring of parents with BP (n = 58), aged 8-28 years. Based on the subthreshold syndromes, the "unaffected" offspring were further divided into high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages. For comparison, a group of individuals with subthreshold symptoms but without family history of psychiatric disorder (n = 17) and 48 healthy controls (HCs) were included...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516340/social-studying-and-learning-among-medical-students-a%C3%A2-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
Daniela Keren, Jocelyn Lockyer, Rachel H Ellaway
INTRODUCTION: Medical students study in social groups, which influence their learning, but few studies have investigated the characteristics of study groups and the impacts they have on students' learning. A scoping review was conducted on the topic of informal social studying and learning within medical education with the aim of appraising what is known regarding medical student attitudes to group study, the impact of group study on participants, and the methods that have been employed to study this...
May 17, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510210/brain-connectivity-during-encoding-and-retrieval-of-spatial-information-individual-differences-in-navigation-skills
#3
Greeshma Sharma, Klaus Gramann, Sushil Chandra, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal
Emerging evidence suggests that the variations in the ability to navigate through any real or virtual environment are accompanied by distinct underlying cortical activations in multiple regions of the brain. These activations may appear due to the use of different frame of reference (FOR) for representing an environment. The present study investigated the brain dynamics in the good and bad navigators using Graph Theoretical analysis applied to low-density electroencephalography (EEG) data. Individual navigation skills were rated according to the performance in a virtual reality (VR)-based navigation task and the effect of navigator's proclivity towards a particular FOR on the navigation performance was explored...
May 16, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502358/is-there-anything-to-learn-from-a-national-joint-registry
#4
REVIEW
Dawson Muir
National joint registries (NJRs) have been established in Northern Europe for over 20 years. Since then, many other countries have begun collecting and reporting national data for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). With relatively small numbers implanted, a large variety of available designs, and with any long-term reports dominated by designer groups, TAA is ideally placed to benefit from large national or even pooled national registries. This article reviews the existing registry-based literature with respect to what is already known...
June 2017: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499617/community-based-outcomes-of-open-versus-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy
#5
Annika Herlemann, Janet E Cowan, Peter R Carroll, Matthew R Cooperberg
BACKGROUND: Identifying the optimal surgical approach for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) managed in the community setting remains controversial due to the lack of robust, prospective data. OBJECTIVE: To assess surgical outcomes and changes in urinary and sexual quality of life (QOL) over time in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Our study included patients enrolled in Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), a large, prospective, mostly community-based, nationwide PCa registry, who underwent RP between 2004 and 2016...
May 9, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494627/problem-based-learning-in-occupational-therapy-curriculum-implications-and-challenges
#6
Michal Avrech Bar, Margalit Pade, Tal Jarus, Sarah Gat, Yael Kaufman Cohen, Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky
PURPOSE: Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational method that fosters self-directed study in small groups. The purpose of this study was to describe the Tel Aviv University's occupational therapy (OT) program and the challenges implementing such program. In addition, the study compared the PBL grades obtained by students who are native Hebrew speakers with those students who are native Arabic speakers; and, assessed the correlation between the grades in the PBL course and the grades in the clinical fieldwork studies...
May 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487650/neuropsychological-testing-and-machine-learning-distinguish-alzheimer-s-disease-from-other-causes-for-cognitive-impairment
#7
Pavel Gurevich, Hannes Stuke, Andreas Kastrup, Heiner Stuke, Helmut Hildebrandt
With promising results in recent treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it becomes increasingly important to distinguish AD at early stages from other causes for cognitive impairment. However, existing diagnostic methods are either invasive (lumbar punctures, PET) or inaccurate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This study investigates the potential of neuropsychological testing (NPT) to specifically identify those patients with possible AD among a sample of 158 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia for various causes...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484696/collaborating-with-communities-and-higher-education-to-address-the-health-care-needs-of-individuals-with-disabilities-in-ecuador
#8
Donna J Cech, Zully J Alvarado
Individuals with disabilities experience inequities in access to health care, education, employment, and social inclusion. Causes for Change International (CCI), a non-governmental Organization (NGO), using a community-based rehabilitation approach has worked for 20 years to build self-sufficiency, improve health-care services, and education for women, children, and persons with disabilities in Ecuador. CCI initially addressed health; advocacy for individuals with disabilities; and promoted educational opportunities for children with disabilities, starting in one rural community...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484687/gastroenterology-curriculum-in-the-canadian-medical-school-system
#9
ThucNhi Tran Dang, Clarence Wong, Lana Bistritz
Background and Purpose. Gastroenterology is a diverse subspecialty that covers a wide array of topics. The preclinical gastroenterology curriculum is often the only formal training that medical students receive prior to becoming residents. There is no Canadian consensus on learning objectives or instructional methods and a general lack of awareness of curriculum at other institutions. This results in variable background knowledge for residents and lack of guidance for course development. Objectives. (1) Elucidate gastroenterology topics being taught at the preclinical level...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483741/recruitment-of-community-college-students-into-a-web-assisted-tobacco-intervention-study
#10
Scott McIntosh, Tye Johnson, Andrew F Wall, Alexander V Prokhorov, Karen Sue Calabro, Duncan Ververs, Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, Deborah J Ossip
BACKGROUND: United States college students, particularly those attending community colleges, have higher smoking rates than the national average. Recruitment of such smokers into research studies has not been studied in depth, despite a moderate amount information on study recruitment success with smokers from traditional four-year colleges. Recruitment channels and success are evolving as technology evolves, so it is important to understand how to best target, implement, and evaluate recruitment strategies...
May 8, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480231/an-interprofessional-curriculum-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-improves-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-appropriate-antimicrobial-use-and-collaboration
#11
Conan MacDougall, Brian S Schwartz, Lisa Kim, Mari Nanamori, Sharmin Shekarchian, Peter V Chin-Hong
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use can threaten patient safety and is the focus of collaborative physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewardship teams. However, antimicrobial stewardship is not comprehensively taught in medical or pharmacy school curricula. Addressing this deficiency can teach an important concept as well as model interprofessional healthcare. METHODS: We created an antimicrobial stewardship curriculum consisting of an online learning module and workshop session that combined medical and pharmacy students, with faculty from both professions...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476615/deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice-following-acute-low-or-moderate-levels-of-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-during-gastrulation-or-neurulation
#12
Uta B Schambra, C Nicole Lewis, Theresa A Harrison
Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined...
May 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475101/binary-markov-random-fields-and-interpretable-mass-spectra-discrimination
#13
Ao Kong, Robert Azencott
For mass spectra acquired from cancer patients by MALDI or SELDI techniques, automated discrimination between cancer types or stages has often been implemented by machine learning algorithms. Nevertheless, these techniques typically lack interpretability in terms of biomarkers. In this paper, we propose a new mass spectra discrimination algorithm by parameterized Markov Random Fields to automatically generate interpretable classifiers with small groups of scored biomarkers. A dataset of 238 MALDI colorectal mass spectra and two datasets of 216 and 253 SELDI ovarian mass spectra respectively were used to test our approach...
February 11, 2017: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474385/disrupted-topological-organization-of-structural-networks-revealed-by-probabilistic-diffusion-tractography-in-tourette-syndrome-children
#14
Hongwei Wen, Yue Liu, Islem Rekik, Shengpei Wang, Jishui Zhang, Yue Zhang, Yun Peng, Huiguang He
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder. Although previous TS studies revealed structural abnormalities in distinct corticobasal ganglia circuits, the topological alterations of the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks remain poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion MRI probabilistic tractography and graph theoretical analysis to investigate the topological organization of WM networks in 44 drug-naive TS children and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy children. The WM networks were constructed by estimating inter-regional connectivity probability and the topological properties were characterized using graph theory...
May 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470159/-development-and-effects-of-a-children-s-sex-education-program-for-the-parents-of-lower-elementary-grade-students
#15
Eun Mi Lee, Hyunlye Kim
PURPOSE: This study was done to develop a children's sex education program for the parents of lower elementary grade students and to evaluate its effects on sexual knowledge, gender role attitude, parent efficacy for child's sex education, and marital consistency. METHODS: A quasi-experimental with a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. The participants were 29 couples (58 parents, experimental group=28, control group=30) from G city. The 5-week (5-session) program was developed based on 'A theory of protection: parents as sex educators' and used the case-based small group learning method...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469530/describing-the-implementation-of-an-innovative-intervention-and-evaluating-its-effectiveness-in-increasing-research-capacity-of-advanced-clinical-nurses-using-the-consolidated-framework-for-implementation-research
#16
Gabrielle McKee, Margaret Codd, Orla Dempsey, Paul Gallagher, Catherine Comiskey
BACKGROUND: Despite advanced nursing roles having a research competency, participation in research is low. There are many barriers to participation in research and few interventions have been developed to address these. This paper aims to describe the implementation of an intervention to increase research participation in advanced clinical nursing roles and evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: The implementation of the intervention was carried out within one hospital site...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469449/obstacles-and-opportunities-for-diffusion-of-integrated-pest-management-strategies-reported-by-bolivian-small-scale-farmers-and-agronomists
#17
REVIEW
Erik Jørs, Antonio Aramayo, Omar Huici, Flemming Konradsen, Gabriel Gulis
Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468651/perceptions-of-residents-medical-and-nursing-students-about-interprofessional-education-a-systematic-review-of-the-quantitative-and-qualitative-literature
#18
Cora L F Visser, Johannes C F Ket, Gerda Croiset, Rashmi A Kusurkar
BACKGROUND: To identify facilitators and barriers that residents, medical and nursing students perceive in their Interprofessional Education (IPE) in a clinical setting with other healthcare students. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceptions of medical students, residents and nursing students regarding IPE in a clinical setting. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC and PsycInfo were searched, using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to June 2014...
May 3, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450448/broadening-participation-in-biology-education-research-engaging-community-college-students-and-faculty
#19
Jeffrey N Schinske, Virginia L Balke, M Gita Bangera, Kevin M Bonney, Sara E Brownell, Robert S Carter, Douglas Curran-Everett, Erin L Dolan, Samantha L Elliott, Linnea Fletcher, Beatriz Gonzalez, Joseph J Gorga, James A Hewlett, Stacey L Kiser, Jenny L McFarland, Anjali Misra, Apryl Nenortas, Smith M Ngeve, Pamela A Pape-Lindstrom, Shannon B Seidel, Matthew C Tuthill, Yue Yin, Lisa A Corwin
Nearly half of all undergraduates are enrolled at community colleges (CCs), including the majority of U.S. students who represent groups underserved in the sciences. Yet only a small minority of studies published in discipline-based education research journals address CC biology students, faculty, courses, or authors. This marked underrepresentation of CC biology education research (BER) limits the availability of evidence that could be used to increase CC student success in biology programs. To address this issue, a diverse group of stakeholders convened at the Building Capacity for Biology Education Research at Community Colleges meeting to discuss how to increase the prevalence of CC BER and foster participation of CC faculty as BER collaborators and authors...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450218/financial-incentives-to-increase-advance-care-planning-among-medicaid-beneficiaries-lessons-learned-from-two-pragmatic-randomized-trials
#20
Amber E Barnato, Robert Moore, Charity G Moore, Neal D Kohatsu, Rebecca L Sudore
CONTEXT: Medicaid populations have low rates of advance care planning (ACP). Potential policy interventions include financial incentives. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of patient plus provider financial incentive compared to provider financial incentive alone for increasing ACP discussions among Medicaid patients. METHODS: Between April 2014-July 2015 we conducted two sequential assessor-blinded pragmatic randomized trials in a health plan that pays PCPs $100 to discuss ACP: 1) a parallel cluster trial (provider-delivered patient incentive); and 2) an individual-level trial (mail-delivered patient incentive)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
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