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Small group learning

Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Peter James Holland, Olivier Codol, Joseph M Galea
Despite increasing interest in the role of reward in motor learning, the underlying mechanisms remain ill-defined. In particular, the contribution of explicit processes to reward-based motor learning is unclear. To address this, we examined subject's (n=30) ability to learn to compensate for a gradually introduced 25⁰ visuomotor rotation with only reward-based feedback (binary success/failure). Only two-thirds of subjects (n=20) were successful at the maximum angle. The remaining subjects initially followed the rotation but after a variable number of trials began to reach at an insufficiently large angle and subsequently returned to near baseline performance (n=10)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ruth L F Leong, Shirley Y J Koh, Jesisca Tandi, Michael W L Chee, June C Lo
Prospective memory is defined as remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future and may be modulated by sleep. Here, we investigated whether multiple nights of partial sleep deprivation would affect the successful retrieval of intentions. Fifty-nine adolescents (mean age ± SD: 16.1 ± 0.6 years) were instructed to remember to press specific keys in response to the target words presented during a semantic categorization task in the future. Their memory was tested after five nights of either 5-h (sleep restriction group) or 9-h time-in-bed (control group)...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Michail Sideris, John Hanrahan, Georgios Tsoulfas, Iakovos Theodoulou, Fatema Dhaif, Vassilios Papalois, Savvas Papagrigoriadis, George Velmahos, Patricia Turner, Apostolos Papalois
BACKGROUND: Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC) is a novel 3-day international undergraduate surgical masterclass. Its current curriculum (Cores integrated for Research-Ci4R) is built on a tetracore, multiclustered architecture combining high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulation-based learning (SBL), with applied and basic science case-based workshops, and non-technical skills modules. We aimed to report our experience in setting up ESMSC during the global financial crisis...
March 8, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Li-Ang Lee, Shu-Ling Wang, Yi-Ping Chao, Ming-Shao Tsai, Li-Jen Hsin, Chung-Jan Kang, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Wei-Chieh Chao, Chung-Guei Huang, Hsueh-Yu Li, Cheng-Keng Chuang
BACKGROUND: The use of mobile technology in e-learning (M-TEL) can add new levels of experience and significantly increase the attractiveness of e-learning in medical education. Whether an innovative interactive e-learning multimedia (IM) module or a conventional PowerPoint show (PPS) module using M-TEL to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders is feasible and efficient in undergraduate medical students is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a novel IM module with a conventional PPS module using M-TEL for emergent ORL-HNS disorders with regard to learning outcomes, satisfaction, and learning experience...
March 8, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
Jianfei Ye, Shudong Zhang, Xiaojun Tian, Guoliang Wang, Lei Zhao, Lulin Ma
Objective Laparoscopic knot-tying and suturing are the most difficult steps in shortening the warm ischemia time and learning curve of laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery. This study was performed to demonstrate the safety, oncological efficacy, and technical tips of sutureless retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery (RPNSS). Methods This retrospective study included 78 cases of RPNSS using a sutureless technique and 126 cases of RPNSS using a single-layer barbed self-retaining suture technique performed from December 2012 to December 2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Kerry Wilbur, Alaa Elmubark, Sara Shabana
INTRODUCTION: The standardized patient (SP) has assumed a fundamental role in undergraduate medical education since first conceived over 50 years ago. While widely used in student training and assessment of communication and clinical examination across health disciplines, little is known how SPs enhance knowledge or skill development among professionals. We conducted a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of SPs in continuing medical education (CME) programs. METHODS: Authors independently searched for studies published between 1966 and 2016, describing CME initiatives using SP encounters as practice for participants compared with those which did not...
January 2018: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Jessica M Goldonowicz, Michael S Runyon, Mark J Bullard
BACKGROUND: To investigate the value of a novel simulation-based palliative care educational intervention within an emergency medicine (EM) residency curriculum. METHODS: A palliative care scenario was designed and implemented in the simulation program at an urban academic emergency department (ED) with a 3-year EM residency program. EM residents attended one of eight high-fidelity simulation sessions, in groups of 5-6. A standardized participant portrayed the patient's family member...
March 7, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Rashmi A Kusurkar, Hester E Daelmans, Anton Horrevoets, Marian de Haan, Margreeth van der Meijde, Gerda Croiset
BACKGROUND: At VUmc School of Medical Sciences, major curricular reforms occurred in 2005 and 2015, related to the introduction of a Bachelor-Master structure, a new legislation from the Ministry of Education, the changing societal context, and taking note of students' and teachers' needs. Summary of work: Along with the introduction of the Bachelor-Master system, the period between 2005 and 2009 saw the movement from traditional lecture-based teaching to small group teaching in a competency-based curriculum, in which the students were responsible for their learning...
March 7, 2018: Medical Teacher
Shuh Shing Lee, Chaoyan Dong, Su Ping Yeo, Matthew Ce Gwee, Dujeepa D Samarasekera
PURPOSE: Faculty development (FD) is essential to prepare faculty members to become effective teachers to meet the challenges in medical education. Despite the growth of FD programmes, most evaluations were often conducted using short questionnaires to assess participants' satisfaction immediately after they attended a programme. Consequently, there were calls for more rigorous evaluations based on observed changes in participants' behaviours. Hence, this study aims to explore how the FD workshops run by the Centre for Medical Education, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore have impacted behavioural changes in the educators...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
James F B Houston, Jessica E Morgan
Purpose Close collaboration between NHS clinicians and managers is essential in providing effective healthcare, but relationships between the two groups are often poor. Paired learning is a peer-peer buddying tool that can break down barriers, increase knowledge and change attitudes. Paired learning has been used with doctors and managers but not for multi-professional clinicians. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether a paired learning programme (PLP) can improve knowledge and attitudes between multi-professional NHS clinicians and managers...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Alexander D Tang, William Bennett, Claire Hadrill, Jessica Collins, Barbora Fulopova, Karen Wills, Aidan Bindoff, Rohan Puri, Michael I Garry, Mark R Hinder, Jeffery J Summers, Jennifer Rodger, Alison J Canty
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is commonly used to modulate cortical plasticity in clinical and non-clinical populations. Clinically, rTMS is delivered to targeted regions of the cortex at high intensities (>1 T). We have previously shown that even at low intensities, rTMS induces structural and molecular plasticity in the rodent cortex. To determine whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alters behavioural performance, daily intermittent theta burst LI-rTMS (120 mT) or sham was delivered as a priming or consolidating stimulus to mice completing 10 consecutive days of skilled reaching training...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Linda L Pierce, Kristina M Reuille
BACKGROUND: In flipped or blended classrooms, instruction intentionally shifts to a student-centered model for a problem-based learning approach, where class time explores topics in greater depth, creating meaningful learning opportunities. METHOD: This article describes instructor-created activities focused on research processes linked to evidence-based practice that engage undergraduate nursing research students. In the classroom, these activities include individual and team work to foster critical thinking and stimulate student discussion of topic material...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Tsu-Hsin Howe, Ching-Fan Sheu, Jim Hinojosa
Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Jing Wang, Chun-Lin Li, Lu-Lu Bai, Qiang-Hu Tang, Rui-Yuan Zhang, Ting-Li Han, Yu-Ming Guo, Philip N Baker, Yin-Yin Xia, Bai-Jie Tu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in endogenous small molecule metabolites after benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure in rat cerebral cortex and explore the mechanism of B[a]P neurotoxicity. METHODS: Five-day-old SD rats were subjected to gavage administration of 2 mg/kg B[a]P for 7 consecutive weeks. After the exposure, the rats were assessed for spatial learning ability using Morris water maze test, ultrastructural changes of the cortical neurons under electron microscope, and metabolite profiles of the cortex using GC/MS...
February 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Luis Muñoz-Bellvis, María Del Carmen Esteban, Manuel Iglesias, Luis González, Juan Ignacio González-Muñoz, Cristina Muñoz-González, José E Quiñones, Guadalupe Tabernero, Rosa Ana Iglesias, José María Sayagués, Pilar Fraile
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation for patients with type 1 diabetes and end-stage chronic renal disease is widely performed. However, the rate of surgical morbidity from pancreatic complications remains high. The aim of this study was to describe the development and results of a new program, from the point of view of the pancreatic surgeon. METHODS: We analyzed 53 simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantations performed over a period of seven years (2009-2016), with a median follow up of 39 months (range: 1-86 months)...
February 28, 2018: Cirugía Española
Baozhou Sun, Dao Lam, Deshan Yang, Kevin Grantham, Tiezhi Zhang, Sasa Mutic, Tianyu Zhao
PURPOSE: Clinical treatment planning systems for proton therapy currently do not calculate monitor units (MUs) in passive scatter proton therapy due to the complexity of the beam delivery systems. Physical phantom measurements are commonly employed to determine the field-specific output factors (OFs) but are often subject to limited machine time, measurement uncertainties and intensive labor. In this study, a machine learning based approach was developed to predict output (cGy/MU) and derive MUs, incorporating the dependencies on gantry angle and field size for a single-room proton therapy system...
March 3, 2018: Medical Physics
Carol McDonald Connor, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Terri Kurz, Elizabeth C Crowe, Elizabeth L Tighe, Taffeta S Wood, Frederick J Morrison
Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills...
February 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Hope T Jackson, Monica T Young, H Alejandro Rodriguez, Andrew S Wright
BACKGROUND: Facebook is a popular online social networking platform increasingly used for professional collaboration. Literature regarding use of Facebook for surgeon professional development and education is limited. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) has established a Facebook group dedicated to discussion of surgery of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine-the "SAGES Foregut Surgery Masters Program." The aim of this study is to examine how this forum is used for professional development, education, and quality improvement...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Daniela Costa-Silva, Juliana A Côrtes, Rober F Bachinski, Carolina N Spiegel, Gutemberg G Alves
Although the discipline of cell biology (CB) is part of the curricula of predoctoral dental schools, students often fail to recognize its practical relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a practical-theoretical project-based course in closing the gaps among CB, scientific research, and dentistry for dental students. A project-based learning course was developed with nine sequential lessons to evaluate 108 undergraduate dental students enrolled in CB classes of a Brazilian school of dentistry during 2013-16...
March 2018: Journal of Dental Education
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