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Small group learning

Adrian Viliami Bell, Daniel Hernandez
Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge...
October 22, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Jeroen Aerts, Annelies Laeremans, Laurens Minerva, Kurt Boonen, Budamgunta Harshavardhan, Rudi D'hooge, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman, Lutgarde Arckens
The Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning task has been demonstrated to involve a cognitive switch of action control to serve the transition from an early towards a late learning phase. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this switch are largely unknown. We employed MALDI MS imaging (MSI) to screen for changes in expression of small proteins in brain structures implicated in the different learning phases. We compared mice trained for 3days and 30days in the MWM, reflecting an early and a late learning phase in relation to the acquisition of a spatial learning task...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Juliessa M Pavon, Sandro O Pinheiro, Gwendolen T Buhr
OBJECTIVE: We developed a Transitions of Care (TOC) curriculum to teach and measure learner competence in performing TOC tasks for older adults. DESIGN: Internal medicine interns at an academic residency program received the curriculum, which consisted of experiential learning, self-study, and small group discussion. Interns completed retrospective pre/post surveys rating their confidence in performing five TOC tasks, qualitative open-ended survey questions, and a self-reflection essay...
October 18, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
A van Uitert, F C H d'Ancona, J Deinum, H J L M Timmers, J F Langenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an effective method for benign adrenal tumor removal. In the literature, both lateral transperitoneal (TLA) and posterior retroperitoneoscopic (RPA) approaches are described. Since 2007, the number of patients increased significantly in our center. Therefore, RPA was introduced in 2011 because of its potential advantages in operating and recovery times. The learning curve of RPA is now evaluated. METHODS: All data of patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy from 2007 until 2014 were prospectively collected...
October 17, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Dana Sawchuk
One means to uncover common attitudes toward aging and older adults is to perform content analyses of popular print media forms such as newspapers, magazines, and even greeting cards. This active learning activity involves small groups of undergraduate students replicating, in a limited way, elements of a published research study on the messages conveyed by age-related birthday cards. In the exercise, each group of students is asked to analyze a set of 15 different birthday cards and to share qualitative and quantitative findings with classmates before submitting a written "discussion section" on their results to the instructor...
October 14, 2016: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
Donald K Hayes, Candice R Calhoun, Lin Joseph, JoAnn Y Farnsworth, Kimberly B Arakaki
The Hawai'i Maternal and Infant Health Collaborative, founded in 2013, is a public-private partnership committed to improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality. The Collaborative was developed in partnership with the Executive Office on Early Learning Action Strategy with help from the Department of Health and National Governor's Association. The Action Strategy provides Hawai'i with a roadmap for an integrated and comprehensive early childhood system, spanning preconception to third grade. The Collaborative helps advance goals within the Action Strategy by focusing on ensuring that children have the best start in life by being healthy and welcomed...
October 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Pedro Shiozawa, July Silveira Gomes, Daniella Valverde Ducos, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Álvaro Machado Dias, Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Ricardo R Uchida, Natasza Orlov, Quirino Cordeiro
Introduction: We report a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) combined with cognitive training in schizophrenia. Method: We assessed psychotic symptoms in nine patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All evaluations were scored at baseline, at the end of the intervention protocol, and during a 4-week follow-up. The tDCS protocol consisted of 10 consecutive sessions over 5-day periods...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Peter Nicklen, Jennifer L Keating, Stephen Maloney
BACKGROUND: Case-based learning (CBL) is an educational approach where students work in small, collaborative groups to solve problems. Web-conferencing software provides a platform to present information and share concepts that are vital to CBL. Previous studies have found that participants were resistant to change associated with implementing e-learning; however, strategies to reduce this resistance have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to explore student preconceptions and understanding of remote-online case-based learning (RO-CBL)...
April 28, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Peter Nicklen, Jennifer L Keating, Stephen Maloney
BACKGROUND: Case-based learning (CBL) typically involves face-to-face interaction in small collaborative groups with a focus on self-directed study. To our knowledge, no published studies report an evaluation of Web conferencing in CBL. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to explore student perceptions and attitudes in response to a remote-online case-based learning (RO-CBL) experience. METHODS: This study took place over a 2-week period in 2013 at Monash University, Victoria, Australia...
March 22, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Amy H Y Chan, Alistair W Stewart, Juliet M Foster, Edwin A Mitchell, Carlos A Camargo, Jeff Harrison
Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
Antoine Tanet, Annik Hubert-Barthelemy, Graciela C Crespin, Nicolas Bodeau, David Cohen, Catherine Saint-Georges
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). METHODS: We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Fließer
BACKGROUND: Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools...
October 10, 2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Rodrigo B Mansur, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of treatments that are capable of reliably and robustly improving cognitive function in adults with mood disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is synthesized centrally and its receptors are abundantly expressed in neural circuits subserving cognitive function. We aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on objective measures of cognition in adults with a depressive or bipolar disorder. METHODS: In this 4-week, pilot, open-label, domain-based study (e...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andrew Miller, Stephen Harvey, David Morley, Roland Nemes, Maggie Janes, Narelle Eather
This study evaluated whether exposing junior netball players to greater amounts of competition relevant activity (playing form activity) had an effect on game play outcomes and session involvement. A group-randomised controlled trial in one junior netball club in the Hunter Region, NSW, Australia. Ninety female athletes (mean age = 9.04 years, SD 1.53) were randomised by team (n = 11) into the intervention (n = 41) or 9-week wait-list control (n = 49) condition. The Professional Learning for Understanding Games Education into Sport (PLUNGE into Sport) programme was undertaken in the first half of nine training sessions (9 × 30 min)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Christine A Rabinak, Shoko Mori, Maryssa Lyons, Mohammed R Milad, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Fear-based disorders, like social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are characterized by an exaggerated fear response and avoidance to trigger cues, suggesting a transdiagnostic mechanism of psychopathology. Current theories suggest that abnormalities in conditioned fear is a primary contributor to the pathophysiology of these disorders. The primary goal of this study was to compare acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS) and aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) contingencies during fear learning and extinction in individuals with SAD and PTSD...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Laura H B Huinink, Hanneke Bouwsema, Dick H Plettenburg, Corry K van der Sluis, Raoul M Bongers
BACKGROUND: Little is known about action-perception learning processes underlying prosthetic skills in body-powered prosthesis users. Body-powered prostheses are controlled through a harness connected by a cable that might provide for limited proprioceptive feedback. This study aims to test transfer of training basic tasks to functional tasks and to describe the changes over time in kinematics of basic tasks of novice body-powered prosthesis users. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied participants and 17 controls participated in the study, using a body-powered prosthetic simulator...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Felix A Faber, Alexander Lindmaa, O Anatole von Lilienfeld, Rickard Armiento
Elpasolite is the predominant quaternary crystal structure (AlNaK_{2}F_{6} prototype) reported in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database. We develop a machine learning model to calculate density functional theory quality formation energies of all ∼2×10^{6} pristine ABC_{2}D_{6} elpasolite crystals that can be made up from main-group elements (up to bismuth). Our model's accuracy can be improved systematically, reaching a mean absolute error of 0.1  eV/atom for a training set consisting of 10×10^{3} crystals...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Susan Smith, James Fisher, Iain Goff
BACKGROUND: During their training, medical students are expected to acquire the ability to use thousands of new terms that make up the medical lexicon. Clear communication requires knowledge of this lexicon. We developed a simple word game, MediLex, to facilitate the development of these skills. This paper describes the intervention and evaluates students' experiences. METHODS: MediLex is a card-based description game played in small groups. One hundred cards contain 500 medical terms grouped into five categories...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Teacher
Daniel Barkoczi, Mirta Galesic
The structure of communication networks is an important determinant of the capacity of teams, organizations and societies to solve policy, business and science problems. Yet, previous studies reached contradictory results about the relationship between network structure and performance, finding support for the superiority of both well-connected efficient and poorly connected inefficient network structures. Here we argue that understanding how communication networks affect group performance requires taking into consideration the social learning strategies of individual team members...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Monika R Asnani, Kim R Quimby, Nadia R Bennett, Damian K Francis
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a group of genetic diseases which is especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions; however, forced migration and ongoing population movement have spread it throughout the world, with estimated birth rates reaching 0.49 per 1000 in the Americas, 0.07 per 1000 in Europe, 0.68 per 1000 in South and Southeast Asia, and 10.68 per 1000 in Africa. Life for individuals with sickle cell disease can be affected by repeated acute complications and compounded by progressive organ damage...
October 6, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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