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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157445/an-ensemble-deep-learning-based-approach-for-red-lesion-detection-in-fundus-images
#1
José Ignacio Orlando, Elena Prokofyeva, Mariana Del Fresno, Matthew B Blaschko
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the world. Its earliest sign are red lesions, a general term that groups both microaneurysms (MAs) and hemorrhages (HEs). In daily clinical practice, these lesions are manually detected by physicians using fundus photographs. However, this task is tedious and time consuming, and requires an intensive effort due to the small size of the lesions and their lack of contrast. Computer-assisted diagnosis of DR based on red lesion detection is being actively explored due to its improvement effects both in clinicians consistency and accuracy...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153352/-choosing-wisely-in-medical-education
#2
Milena Goldmann, Angelina-Charline Middeke, Nikolai Schuelper, Terese Dehl, Tobias Raupach
Choosing Wisely recommendations address situations where physicians will have to make decisions about further diagnostic and therapeutic steps. Undergraduate medical education needs to equip students with the foundations on which clinical reasoning skills can be acquired and fostered throughout their clinical career. Teaching these skills usually involves patients (e.g., bedside teaching, electives, clinical attachments) but it can also be delivered in the format of formalised small-group, case-based learning...
November 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146663/a-vision-and-change-reform-of-introductory-biology-shifts-faculty-perceptions-and-use-of-active-learning
#3
Anna Jo Auerbach, Elisabeth Schussler
Increasing faculty use of active-learning (AL) pedagogies in college classrooms is a persistent challenge in biology education. A large research-intensive university implemented changes to its biology majors' two-course introductory sequence as outlined by the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report. One goal of the curricular reform was to integrate core biological concepts and competencies into the courses using AL pedagogical approaches. The purpose of this study was to observe the instructional practices used by faculty (N = 10) throughout the 3-year process of reform to determine whether the use of AL strategies (including student collaboration) increased, given that it can maximize student learning gains...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145893/normalization-of-the-microbiota-in-patients-after-treatment-for-colonic-lesions
#4
Marc A Sze, Nielson T Baxter, Mack T Ruffin, Mary A M Rogers, Patrick D Schloss
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a worldwide health problem. Despite growing evidence that members of the gut microbiota can drive tumorigenesis, little is known about what happens to it after treatment for an adenoma or carcinoma. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment for adenoma or carcinoma alters the abundance of bacterial populations associated with disease to those associated with a normal colon. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes in the feces of 67 individuals before and after treatment for adenoma (N = 22), advanced adenoma (N = 19), and carcinoma (N = 26)...
November 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134348/machine-learning-based-quantitative-texture-analysis-of-ct-images-of-small-renal-masses-differentiation-of-angiomyolipoma-without-visible-fat-from-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Zhichao Feng, Pengfei Rong, Peng Cao, Qingyu Zhou, Wenwei Zhu, Zhimin Yan, Qianyun Liu, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of machine-learning based quantitative texture analysis of CT images to differentiate small (≤ 4 cm) angiomyolipoma without visible fat (AMLwvf) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: This single-institutional retrospective study included 58 patients with pathologically proven small renal mass (17 in AMLwvf and 41 in RCC groups). Texture features were extracted from the largest possible tumorous regions of interest (ROIs) by manual segmentation in preoperative three-phase CT images...
November 13, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126402/using-social-media-to-support-small-group-learning
#6
Duncan Cole, Emma Rengasamy, Shafqat Batchelor, Charles Pope, Stephen Riley, Anne Marie Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Medical curricula are increasingly using small group learning and less didactic lecture-based teaching. This creates new challenges and opportunities in how students are best supported with information technology. We explored how university-supported and external social media could support collaborative small group working on our new undergraduate medical curriculum. METHODS: We made available a curation platform (Scoop.it) and a wiki within our virtual learning environment as part of year 1 Case-Based Learning, and did not discourage the use of other tools such as Facebook...
November 10, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126201/using-mahalanobis-distance-to-evaluate-recovery-in-acute-stroke
#7
Hannah Tehan, Kate Witteveen, G Anne Tolan, Gerald Tehan, Graeme J Senior
Objective: In the weeks immediately following a stroke, impairments across multiple cognitive domains are pervasive yet there is little literature that explores cognitive recovery during this period. This paper evaluates the use of Mahalanobis distance as a means of statistically evaluating cognitive change at the individual level. Method: A small battery of standardized neuropsychological tests was administered on five or six occasions across a 2-week period to the participants recovering from a stroke and a non-stroke control group...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125952/getting-to-the-core-of-medicine-developing-undergraduate-forensic-medicine-and-pathology-teaching
#8
Richard Martin Jones
Teaching and learning of forensic medicine and pathology in the undergraduate medical curriculum has been in decline for decades in the UK, and yet graduates are expected to be able to recognise, and protect, those who are most vulnerable in society - i.e. at risk of abuse or neglect - a matter highly relevant to the role of the forensic medical practitioner. When Cardiff University School of Medicine created a new 'learner-centred' undergraduate curriculum, championing case-based discussion in small groups, and earlier clinical contact, residual teaching on 'the pathology of trauma' disappeared...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124570/acquisition-and-retention-of-conditioned-aversions-to-context-and-taste-in-laboratory-mice
#9
Sezen Kislal, David A Blizard
We compared the rate of acquisition and strength of retention of conditioned context aversion (CCA) with conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using pigmented, genetically heterogeneous mice (derived from Large and Small strains). Extending previous findings, in Experiment 1, mice accustomed to drinking from large glass bottles in the colony room learned to avoid graduated tubes after a single conditioning trial when drinking from these novel tubes was paired with injections of LiCl. The results also showed that CCA could be developed even when there was a 30-minute delay between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus...
November 9, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120265/do-journal-clubs-work-the-effectiveness-of-journal-clubs-in-a-clinical-pastoral-education-residency-program
#10
David Fleenor, Vanshdeep Sharma, Jo Hirschmann, Heidi Swarts
Journal clubs are an established means of ongoing learning in medicine. Beginning with physicians in the nineteenth century, journal clubs have gradually become established in nursing and other allied health professions. However, their use in Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) is relatively new. We describe the creation of a journal club for CPE residents and discuss the lessons learned from this effort. Over two years, a journal club was conducted with two different cohorts of residents. Residents were surveyed regarding the perceived strengths and weaknesses of the journal club and their recommendations for improvement...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104022/gender-specific-effects-of-physical-activity-on-children-s-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
G K Resaland, V F Moe, J B Bartholomew, L B Andersen, H A McKay, S A Anderssen, E Aadland
Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015...
November 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102281/do-action-learning-sets-facilitate-collaborative-deliberative-learning-a-focus-group-evaluation-of-graduate-entry-pre-registration-nursing-gen-students-experience
#12
Charlotte Maddison, Gus Strang
The aim of this study was to investigate if by participating in action learning sets, Graduate Entry Pre-registration Nursing (GEN) students were able to engage in collaborative and deliberative learning. A single focus group interview involving eleven participants was used to collect data. Data analysis identified five themes; collaborative learning; reflection; learning through case study and problem-solving; communication, and rejection of codified learning. The themes are discussed and further analysed in the context of collaborative and deliberative learning...
October 20, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092727/key-lessons-for-designing-health-literacy-professional-development-courses
#13
Lucio Naccarella, Bernice Murphy
Health literacy courses for health professionals have emerged in response to health professionals' perceived lack of understanding of health literacy issues, and their failure to routinely adopt health literacy practices. Since 2013 in Victoria, Australia, the Centre for Culture, Ethnicity and Health has delivered an annual health literacy demonstration training course that it developed. Course development and delivery partners included HealthWest Partnership and cohealth. The courses are designed to develop the health literacy knowledge, skills and organisational capacity of the health and community services sector in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne...
November 2, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082634/learning-curve-and-advantages-of-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-as-a-first-line-diagnostic-and-staging-procedure
#14
Ching-Kai Lin, Chao-Lun Lai, Lih-Yu Chang, Yueh-Feng Wen, Chao-Chi Ho
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is now the standard for mediastinal lymph node staging of lung cancer. Training and maintenance of technical skills is very important in order to apply new techniques in clinical use. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA from November 2009 to December 2015. We assessed the learning curve, accuracy (%), and whether this procedure shortened the duration of lung cancer staging...
October 30, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079524/whole-brain-white-matter-connectivity-analysis-using-machine-learning-an-application-to-autism
#15
Fan Zhang, Peter Savadjiev, Weidong Cai, Yang Song, Yogesh Rathi, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, Tina Kapur, Robert T Schultz, Nikos Makris, Ragini Verma, Lauren J O'Donnell
In this paper, we propose an automated white matter connectivity analysis method for machine learning classification and characterization of white matter abnormality via identification of discriminative fiber tracts. The proposed method uses diffusion MRI tractography and a data-driven approach to find fiber clusters corresponding to subdivisions of the white matter anatomy. Features extracted from each fiber cluster describe its diffusion properties and are used for machine learning. The method is demonstrated by application to a pediatric neuroimaging dataset from 149 individuals, including 70 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 79 typically developing controls (TDC)...
October 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077547/balancing-our-perceptions-of-the-efficacy-of-success-based-feedback-manipulations-on-motor-learning
#16
Nicole T Ong, Nicola J Hodges
We report two experiments evaluating the impact of success-related feedback on learning of a balance task. In Exp. 1, we studied the influence of lax and conservative outcome feedback, as well as large vs. small improvements in outcome feedback on balance learning. Despite impacts on competency, there were no between-group differences in actual performance or learning. Because no comparative information was provided in Exp. 1, we tested four further groups that either did or did not receive positive or negative comparative feedback (Exp...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075937/the-impact-of-different-visual-feedbacks-in-user-training-on-motor-imagery-control-in-bci
#17
Dariusz Zapała, Piotr Francuz, Ewelina Zapała, Natalia Kopiś, Piotr Wierzgała, Paweł Augustynowicz, Andrzej Majkowski, Marcin Kołodziej
The challenges of research into brain-computer interfaces (BCI) include significant individual differences in learning pace and in the effective operation of BCI devices. The use of neurofeedback training is a popular method of improving the effectiveness BCI operation. The purpose of the present study was to determine to what extent it is possible to improve the effectiveness of operation of sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interfaces (SMR-BCI) by supplementing user training with elements modifying the characteristics of visual feedback...
October 26, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075380/a-curriculum-to-enhance-resilience-in-internal-medicine-interns
#18
Amber-Nicole Bird, Michelle Martinchek, Amber T Pincavage
BACKGROUND : Burnout is a serious concern in graduate medical education. While enhancing resilience in trainees is considered beneficial, there are few studies showing successful interventions. OBJECTIVE : We developed and implemented a curriculum to teach resilience skills to internal medicine (IM) residents. METHODS : Our resilience curriculum focused on 4 small group skill-building workshops: setting realistic goals, managing expectations, letting go after stressful clinical events, and finding gratitude...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075222/meta-analytic-evidence-for-a-reversal-learning-effect-on-the-iowa-gambling-task-in-older-adults
#19
Rita Pasion, Ana R Gonçalves, Carina Fernandes, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Fernando Barbosa, João Marques-Teixeira
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most widely used tools to assess economic decision-making. However, the research tradition on aging and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been mainly focused on the overall performance of older adults in relation to younger or clinical groups, remaining unclear whether older adults are capable of learning along the task. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine older adults' decision-making on the IGT, to test the effects of aging on reversal learning (45 studies) and to provide normative data on total and block net scores (55 studies)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070879/language-learning-in-the-adult-brain-disrupting-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-word-form-learning
#20
Eleonore H M Smalle, Muriel Panouilleres, Arnaud Szmalec, Riikka Möttönen
Adults do not learn languages as easily as children do. It has been hypothesized that the late-developing prefrontal cortex that supports executive functions competes with procedural learning mechanisms that are important for language learning. To address this hypothesis, we tested whether a temporary neural disruption of the left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) can improve implicit, procedural learning of word-forms in adults. Young adults were presented with repeating audio-visual sequences of syllables for immediate serial recall in a Hebb repetition learning task that simulates word-form learning...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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