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Delivery models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239869/intra-patient-variability-in-adalimumab-drug-levels-within-and-between-cycles-in-crohn-s-disease
#1
M G Ward, P A Thwaites, L Beswick, J Hogg, G Rosella, D Van Langenberg, J Reynolds, P R Gibson, M P Sparrow
BACKGROUND: Whether therapeutic drug monitoring for adalimumab needs to be performed at the trough concentration has not been defined. AIM: To determine intra-patient adalimumab drug-level variation and to identify modulating patient and disease factors. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, adult patients with Crohn's disease established on maintenance adalimumab had drug levels measured repeatedly according to pre-defined schedules (visit 1: day 4-6, visit 2: day 7-9, trough: day 13-14) across two consecutive fortnightly cycles...
February 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239653/the-human-brain-produces-fructose-from-glucose
#2
Janice J Hwang, Lihong Jiang, Muhammad Hamza, Feng Dai, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Gary Cline, Douglas L Rothman, Graeme Mason, Robert S Sherwin
Fructose has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In contrast to glucose, CNS delivery of fructose in rodents promotes feeding behavior. However, because circulating plasma fructose levels are exceedingly low, it remains unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier to exert CNS effects. To determine whether fructose can be endogenously generated from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) in human brain, 8 healthy subjects (4 women/4 men; age, 28...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239604/predictors-of-antenatal-care-skilled-birth-attendance-and-postnatal-care-utilization-among-the-remote-and-poorest-rural-communities-of-zambia-a-multilevel-analysis
#3
Choolwe Jacobs, Mosa Moshabela, Sitali Maswenyeho, Nildah Lambo, Charles Michelo
OBJECTIVE: Optimal utilization of maternal health-care services is associated with reduction of mortality and morbidity for both mothers and their neonates. However, deficiencies and disparity in the use of key maternal health services within most developing countries still persist. We examined patterns and predictors associated with the utilization of specific indicators for maternal health services among mothers living in the poorest and remote district populations of Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional baseline household survey was conducted in May 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239403/lipid-overload-during-gestation-and-lactation-can-independently-alter-lipid-homeostasis-in-offspring-and-promote-metabolic-impairment-after-new-challenge-to-high-fat-diet
#4
Laís Angélica de Paula Simino, Thaís de Fante, Marina Figueiredo Fontana, Fernanda Oliveira Borges, Márcio Alberto Torsoni, Marciane Milanski, Lício Augusto Velloso, Adriana Souza Torsoni
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status in early life is critically involved in the metabolic phenotype of offspring. However the changes triggered by maternal consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) in pre- or postnatal period should be better understood. Here we evaluated whether maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation could differently affect liver miR-122 and miR-370 expression leading to metabolic damages observed in offspring. Moreover, we investigate whether early overnutrition program offspring to more harmful response to HFD in later life...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239019/specialty-care-access-in-the-safety-net-the-role-of-public-hospitals-and-health-systems
#5
Lena K Makaroun, Chelsea Bowman, Kevin Duan, Nathan Handley, Daniel J Wheeler, Edgar Pierluissi, Alice Hm Chen
Access to specialty care in the United States safety net, already strained, is fac-ing increasing pressure with an influx of patients following the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We surveyed 18 public hospitals and health systems across the country to describe the current state of specialty care delivery in safety-net systems. We elicited information regarding challenges, provider models, metrics of access and productivity, and strategies for improving access. Based on our findings, we propose a framework for assessing and improving specialty care access with a focus on population health planning...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238945/nose-to-brain-transport-of-imatinib-mesylate-a-pharmacokinetic-evaluation
#6
Nobuko Hada, William Joseph Netzer, Fanny Belhassan, Lawrence Paul Wennogle, Sveinbjörn Gizurarson
The delivery of drugs to the brain is a constant challenge due to limitations imposed by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Various methods of bypassing the BBB are under investigation. One approach is intranasal administration, where the olfactory region of the nasal cavity extends up to the cranial cavity and provides direct access to the brain. The pharmacokinetics of this transport and factors that determine transport rates and capacity is of vital importance for evaluating the clinical value of this route...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238898/smart-carriers-for-controlled-drug-delivery-thermosensitive-polymers-embedded-in-ordered-mesoporous-carbon
#7
Meisam V Kiamahalleh, Amir Mellati, S Amirhossein Madani, Phillip Pendleton, Hu Zhang, S Hadi Madani
An efficient drug delivery system was introduced. The carrier was synthesized by combination of an ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK3) and a thermosensitive polymer, Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), known as PNIPAAm. The polymers with two different chain lengths (PNIPAAMm-100n and PNIPAAm 400n) were synthesized and each of the polymers was embedded in CMK3 to form composite materials. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm and scanning electron microscopy of the samples showed a uniform embedding of PNIPAAMm-100n but a non-uniform embedding of PNIPAAMm-400n...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238287/genome-editing-for-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-advancing-towards-the-clinic
#8
REVIEW
Jessica L Schneller, Ciaran M Lee, Gang Bao, Charles P Venditti
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include many disorders for which current treatments aim to ameliorate disease manifestations, but are not curative. Advances in the field of genome editing have recently resulted in the in vivo correction of murine models of IEM. Site-specific endonucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in combination with delivery vectors engineered to target disease tissue, have enabled correction of mutations in disease models of hemophilia B, hereditary tyrosinemia type I, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and lysosomal storage disorders...
February 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238201/advances-in-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-study-brain-circuits-in-non-human-primates
#9
REVIEW
Adriana Galvan, Michael J Caiola, Daniel L Albaugh
Over the last 10 years, the use of opto- and chemogenetics to modulate neuronal activity in research applications has increased exponentially. Both techniques involve the genetic delivery of artificial proteins (opsins or engineered receptors) that are expressed on a selective population of neurons. The firing of these neurons can then be manipulated using light sources (for opsins) or by systemic administration of exogenous compounds (for chemogenetic receptors). Opto- and chemogenetic tools have enabled many important advances in basal ganglia research in rodent models, yet these techniques have faced a slow progress in non-human primate (NHP) research...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238146/air-liquid-interface-cell-exposures-to-nanoparticle-aerosols
#10
Nastassja A Lewinski, Nathan J Liu, Akrivi Asimakopoulou, Eleni Papaioannou, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Michael Riediker
The field of nanomedicine is steadily growing and several nanomedicines are currently approved for clinical use with even more in the pipeline. Yet, while the use of nanotechnology to improve targeted drug delivery to the lungs has received some attention, the use of nanoparticles for inhalation drug delivery has not yet resulted in successful translation to market as compared to intravenous drug delivery. The reasons behind the lack of inhaled nanomedicines approved for clinical use or under preclinical development are unclear, but challenges related to safety are likely to contribute...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238142/glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery-by-microneedle-array-patches-loaded-with-hypoxia-sensitive-vesicles
#11
Jicheng Yu, Yuqi Zhang, Zhen Gu
In this chapter, we describe the preparation of glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs) and the fabrication of GRV-loaded microneedle-array patches for insulin delivery. The GRVs were formed of hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA), the synthesis of which is presented in detail. We also describe the procedure to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of this smart patch in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes through transcutaneous administration.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238139/photolabile-self-immolative-dna-drug-nanostructures
#12
Xuyu Tan, Ke Zhang
It is often desirable to simultaneously target different cellular pathways to improve the overall efficacy of a drug or to circumvent drug resistance in therapeutic treatments. Nucleic acid therapy has been considered attractive for such combination therapies due to its possible synergistic effects with traditional chemotherapy, especially for targets that do not yet have small molecule inhibitors. However, the co-delivery of nucleic acids and chemotherapeutics typically involves the use of inherently cytotoxic/immunogenic, polycationic carrier systems, for which the benefit is often overshadowed by adverse side effects...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237938/game-theoretic-analysis-of-cooperative-message-forwarding-in-opportunistic-mobile-networks
#13
Sujata Pal, Barun Kumar Saha, Sudip Misra
In cooperative communication, a set of players forming a coalition ensures communal behavior among themselves by helping one another in message forwarding. Opportunistic mobile networks (OMNs) require multihop communications for transferring messages from the source to the destination nodes. However, noncooperative nodes only forward their own messages to others, and drop others' messages upon receiving them. So, the message delivery overhead increases in OMN. For minimizing the overhead and maximizing the delivery rate, we propose two coalition-based cooperative schemes: 1) simple coalition formation (SCF) and 2) overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game...
February 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237705/impedance-spectroscopy-as-an-indicator-for-successful-in-vivo-electric-field-mediated-gene-delivery-in-a-murine-model
#14
Reginald M Atkins, Timothy J Fawcett, Richard Gilbert, Andrew M Hoff, Richard Connolly, Douglas W Brown, Anthony J Llewellyn, Mark J Jaroszeski
In vivo gene electro transfer technology has been very successful both in animal models and in clinical trials over the past 20years. However, variable transfection efficiencies can produce inconsistent outcomes. This can be due to differences in tissue architecture and/or chemical composition which may effectively create unique biological environments from subject to subject that may respond differently to the identical electric pulses. This study investigates the integration of impedance spectroscopy into the gene electro transfer process to measure murine skin impedance spectra before, during (after pulse delivery), and after gene electro transfer pulse application to determine if changes in impedance correlate with reporter gene expression...
January 27, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237436/cationic-dendritic-starch-as-a-vehicle-for-photodynamic-therapy-and-sirna-co-delivery
#15
Sarah A Engelberth, Nadine Hempel, Magnus Bergkvist
Cationic enzymatically synthesized glycogen (cESG) is a naturally-derived, nano-scale carbohydrate dendrite that has shown promise as a cellular delivery vehicle owing to its flexibility in chemical modifications, biocompatibility and relative low cost. In the present work, cESG was modified and evaluated as a vehicle for tetraphenylporphinesulfonate (TPPS) in order to improve cellular delivery of this photosensitizer and investigate the feasibility of co-delivery with short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237252/effect-of-ebola-virus-disease-on-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-guinea-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#16
Alexandre Delamou, Alison M El Ayadi, Sidikiba Sidibe, Therese Delvaux, Bienvenu S Camara, Sah D Sandouno, Abdoul H Beavogui, Georges W Rutherford, Junko Okumura, Wei-Hong Zhang, Vincent De Brouwere
BACKGROUND: The 2014 west African epidemic of Ebola virus disease posed a major threat to the health systems of the countries affected. We sought to quantify the consequences of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in the highly-affected Forest region of Guinea. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of women and children attending public health facilities for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and immunisation services in six of seven health districts in the Forest region (Beyla, Guéckédou, Kissidougou, Lola, Macenta, and N'Zérékoré)...
February 22, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237110/methods-to-assess-autophagy-and-chronological-aging-in-yeast
#17
K Kainz, J Tadic, A Zimmermann, T Pendl, D Carmona-Gutierrez, C Ruckenstuhl, T Eisenberg, F Madeo
Autophagy is a catabolic process that is crucial for cellular homeostasis and adaptive response to changing environments. Importantly, autophagy has been shown to be induced in many longevity-associated scenarios and to be required to maintain lifespan extension. Notably, autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process among eukaryotes, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a universal model system for unraveling the molecular machinery underlying autophagic mechanisms. Here, we discuss different protocols to monitor survival and autophagy of yeast cells upon chronological aging...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236962/the-effectiveness-and-cost-of-lifestyle-interventions-including-nutrition-education-for-diabetes-prevention-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Yu Sun, Wen You, Fabio Almeida, Paul Estabrooks, Brenda Davy
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a significant public health concern. With the completion of the Diabetes Prevention Program, there has been a proliferation of studies attempting to translate this evidence base into practice. However, the cost, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these adapted interventions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of lifestyle diabetes prevention interventions and compare effects by intervention delivery agent (dietitian vs non-dietitian) and channel (in-person vs technology-delivered)...
March 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236859/regulation-of-hypnosis-in-propofol-anesthesia-administration-based-on-non-linear-control-strategy
#19
Muhammad Ilyas, Ali Khaqan, Jamshed Iqbal, Raja Ali Riaz
Continuous adjustment of Propofol in manual delivery of anesthesia for conducting a surgical procedure overburdens the workload of an anesthetist who is working in a multi-tasking scenario. Going beyond manual administration and Target Controlled Infusion, closed-loop control of Propofol infusion has the potential to offer several benefits in terms of handling perturbations and reducing the effect of inter-patient variability. This paper proposes a closed-loop automated drug administration approach to control Depth Of Hypnosis in anesthesia...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236789/ph-and-redox-dual-responsive-multifunctional-gene-delivery-with-enhanced-capability-of-transporting-dna-into-the-nucleus
#20
Zhe Yang, Yingqin Li, Jinbiao Gao, Zhong Cao, Qing Jiang, Jie Liu
Stimuli-responsive gene delivery vectors based on physiologically triggered structure changing have been recently recognized as a new therapeutic agent for their excellent performance in vivo. Herein, we present an intelligent gene delivery system based on the octa-arginine peptides (R8)-conjugated polyamino acid derivatives noted as PPCRC (PVIm-(PAsp-Cystamine-R8)-Cholesteryl), which processed pH responsive, surface charge-switching, intracellular redox-responsive and enhanced nucleus import of gene together...
February 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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