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Delivery models

V Y Kuperman
PURPOSE: to evaluate how protracted delivery of radiation affects radiobiological properties of hypofractionated radiotherapy. METHODS: the utilized approach is based on the concept of biologically effective dose (BED). The linear-quadratic model replete with a protraction factor is used to describe changes in biologically effective dose in normal tissue (BEDnt ) caused by varying number of fractions under the condition of fixed BED in the treatment target (BEDtar )...
April 25, 2018: Medical Physics
Samuele Cazzamalli, Barbara Ziffels, Fontaine Widmayer, Patrizia Murer, Giovanni Pellegrini, Francesca Pretto, Sarah Wulhfard, Dario Neri
PURPOSE: Antibody-drug conjugates and small molecule-drug conjugates have been proposed as alternatives to conventional anti-cancer cytotoxic agents, with the potential to deliver bioactive payloads to the site of disease, helping spare normal tissues. Experimental Design: Here we describe a novel small molecule-drug conjugate, based on a high-affinity ligand specific to carbonic anhydrase IX. The product featured a peptidic linker, suitable for cleavage in the tumor extracellular environment, and monomethyl auristatin E as cytotoxic payload...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Weitong Sun, Xiaoyan Chen, Chao Xie, Yong Wang, Liteng Lin, Kangshun Zhu, Xintao Shuai
Drug resistance, developed through multiple mechanisms, is a major hindrance to successful chemotherapy of tumor. Combination therapy of chemotherapeutic drugs and siRNA represents an emerging strategy which may improve anticancer effect by synergistic actions. In this study, triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine)-block-poly aspartyl (N-(N',N'-diisopropylaminoethyl)) (PEG-PLL-PAsp(DIP)) was synthesized for the first time to enable the codelivery of BCL-2 siRNA and DOX. The system is supposed to only bypass drug efflux but also down-regulate the anti-apoptotic gene and consequently confronting against chemoresistance as well...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Min A Kwon
The health care system is changing from 'pay for volume' to 'pay for value.' These changes are turning health care delivery into a more cost-effective and coordinated care setup that drives hospitals to lower costs and greater quality gains. The present perioperative care service in Korea has proven to be costly, fragmented, and neither evidence-based nor patient- centered. Recently, a new concept of a perioperative care model termed perioperative surgical home (PSH) has been proposed. The PSH is a patient-centered, team-based, and coordinated perioperative care setup, composed of the head anesthesiologist-perioperativist in tandem with dedicated nurse practitioners and other PSH team doctors...
April 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Pakorn Kraisit, Narong Sarisuta
The aim of this present work was to prepare triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-loaded NLCs) for buccal drug delivery systems using the Box-Behnken design. A hot homogenization method was used to prepare the TA-loaded NLCs. Spermaceti (X₁), soybean oil (X₂), and Tween 80 (X₃) were used as solid lipid, liquid lipid, and stabilizer, respectively. The particle size of TA-loaded NLCs was lower than 200 nm and the zeta potential displayed the negative charge in all formulations...
April 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
L M P Souza, J B Nascimento, A L Romeu, E D Estrada-López, A S Pimentel
Molecular dynamics simulations were successfully performed to understand the absorption mechanism of antimicrobial peptides LL-37, CATH-2, and SMAP-29 in a lung surfactant model. The antimicrobial peptides quickly penetrate in the lung surfactant model in dozens or hundreds nanoseconds, but they electrostatically interact with the lipid polar heads during the simulation time of 2 μs. This electrostatic interaction should be the explanation for the inactivation of the antimicrobial peptides when co-administrated with lung surfactant...
April 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xuesong Wang, Yilun Xing, Lian Luo, Rongjie Yu
Risky driving behavior is one of the main causes of commercial vehicle related crashes. In order to achieve safer vehicle operation, safety education for drivers is often provided. However, the education programs vary in quality and may not always be successful in reducing crash rates. Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) education is a popular approach found effective by numerous studies, but even this approach varies as to the combination of frequency, mode and content used by different education providers. This study therefore evaluates and compares the effectiveness of BBS education methods...
April 21, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Keum-Jin Yang, Jihwan Son, So Young Jung, Gawon Yi, Jihye Yoo, Dong-Kee Kim, Heebeom Koo
To develop efficient carriers for inner ear drug delivery, we prepared four kinds of phospholipid-based nanoparticles: neutral, anionic, cationic, and cationic-PEG (polyethyleneglycol) particles. PEG was used to maintain long-term particle circulation in the perilymph, avoiding non-specific binding of particles to proteins. All four nanoparticles were about 200 nm in diameter, and their zeta potentials were -4.32, -26.0, +25.8, and -0.28, respectively, for neutral, anionic, cationic, and cationic-PEG nanoparticles...
April 16, 2018: Biomaterials
Mookkandi Palsamy Kesavan, Niranjan G Kotla, Srinivasan Ayyanaar, Gujuluva Gangatharan Vinoth Kumar, Gurusamy Rajagopal, Gandhi Sivaraman, Thomas J Webster, Jegathalaprathaban Rajesh
In this work, a theranostic nanocage system was developed for the targeted delivery of the anti-cancer agents camptothecin (CPT) and luotonin A (LuA). The core of the nanocage system (Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs) was formed by biogenically synthesized Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with a model anti cancer drug (AD) and biosurfactant saponin (SP). The Fe3 O4 @OA-AD-SP NCs showed a high lipophilic AD loading efficiency (>80%) and a controlled pH-responsive drug release in stimulated cancerous cells in pH6...
April 21, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Sally A Sabra, Ahmed O Elzoghby, Salah A Sheweita, Medhat Haroun, Maged W Helmy, Maha A Eldemellawy, Ying Xia, David Goodale, Alison L Allan, Sohrab Rohani
Protein-based micelles have shown significant potential for tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs. In this light, self-assembled nanocarriers based on GRAS (Generally recognized as safe) amphiphilic protein co-polymers were synthesized via carbodiimide coupling reaction. The new nano-platform is composed of the following key components: i) hydrophobic zein core to encapsulate the hydrophobic drugs rapamycin (RAP) and wogonin (WOG) with high encapsulation efficiency, ii) hydrophilic lactoferrin (Lf) corona to enhance the tumor targeting, and prolong systemic circulation of the nanocarriers, and iii) glutaraldehyde (GLA)-crosslinking to reduce the particle size and improve micellar stability...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Inseon Kim, Seunghun S Lee, Sunghoon Bae, Hoyon Lee, Nathaniel S Hwang
Cryogel based scaffolds have high porosity with interconnected macropores that may provide cell compatible microenvironment. In addition, cryogel based scaffolds can be utilized in minimally invasive surgery due to its sponge-like properties, including rapid shape recovery and injectability. Herein, we developed an injectable cryogel by conjugating heparin to gelatin as a carrier for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblasts in hindlimb ischemic disease. Our gelatin/heparin cryogel showed gelatin concentration-dependent mechanical properties, swelling ratios, interconnected porosities, and elasticities...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Shayan Vyas, Joanne Murren-Boezem, Patricia Solo-Josephson
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine serves millions of patients and is transforming healthcare delivery worldwide. In October of 2015, Nemours Children's Health System began offering direct-to-consumer (DTC) pediatric telemedicine on the Nemours CareConnect (NCC) platform. INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are no descriptive data available on pediatric-specific DTC 24/7 programs. This is the first article to our knowledge that provides data on such a program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of the first 1,000 visits was conducted...
April 24, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Shengyu Zhang, Yanjun Liu, Ye Gan, Nanqing Qiu, Yueqing Gu, Hongyan Zhu
The key for better anti-tumor efficacy is to improve the specificity of anti-tumor drugs for tumor cells and diminish their cytotoxicity to normal tissues. Targeted nanoparticles as anti-tumor drug delivery system can resolve this problem. In this study, we prepared folate and TAT (arginine-rich cell penetrating peptide) modified N-PEG-N'-octyl-chitosan to form the folate/TAT-PEG-OC micelles. Then the molecular structure, morphology, size distribution and bio-safety of the micelles were characterized. In order to investigate the drug loading capacity of folate/TAT-PEG-OC micelles, doxorubicin (DOX) was used as model drug to prepare DOX-loaded chitosan micelles...
April 24, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Legha Ansari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Tahereh Rohani Bastami, Bizhan Malaekeh-Nikouei
The development of magnetic nanoparticles as delivery carriers to magnetically accumulate anticancer drug in cancer tissue has attracted immense interest. In the present study, magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSNs) with magnetite core and silica shell were synthesized. The obtained MMSNs were characterized by DLS, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and VSM in order to investigate the nanoparticle characteristics. With the focus on in vivo validation of such magnetic drug delivery systems, we selected epirubicin (EPI) as the drug...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Xiao Wang, Deliang Zeng, Weimin Weng, Qinfeng Huang, Xiangkai Zhang, Jin Wen, Jiannan Wu, Xinquan Jiang
The regeneration capacity of osteoporotic bones is generally lower than that of normal bones. Nowadays, alendronate (AL) are orally administrated for osteoporosis due to the inhibition of bone resorption. However, systemic administration of AL is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. In this study, the amino-modified mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds (N-MBGS) were fabricated by a simple powder processing technique as a novel drug-delivery system for AL. The effects of AL on the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells derived from ovariectomized rats (rBMSCs-OVX) were first estimated...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Ting-Ting Yang, Bao-Fang Wen, Kang Liu, Meng Qin, Yuan-Yuan Gao, De-Jun Ding, Wen-Tong Li, Yun-Xiang Zhang, Wei-Fen Zhang
N-[(2-Hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium] chitosan chloride (HTCC), a hydrosoluble chitosan derivative, has been extensively investigated as a class of drug delivery vehicles because of its unique features. However the studies on HTCC for pulmonary delivery systems have been rarely conducted. This study aimed to design porous microspheres (MS) containing cyclosporine A (CsA) using HTCC as the carrier. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of the MS were evaluated. The in vivo efficacy of MS was evaluated in an asthmatic rat model after pulmonary administration...
April 24, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jennie Jaribu, Suzanne Penfold, Cathy Green, Fatuma Manzi, Joanna Schellenberg
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a quality improvement (QI) intervention in primary health facilities providing childbirth care in rural Southern Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach A QI collaborative model involving district managers and health facility staff was piloted for 6 months in 4 health facilities in Mtwara Rural district and implemented for 18 months in 23 primary health facilities in Ruangwa district. The model brings together healthcare providers from different health facilities in interactive workshops by: applying QI methods to generate and test change ideas in their own facilities; using local data to monitor improvement and decision making; and health facility supervision visits by project and district mentors...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Hadas Ganer Herman, Liliya Tamayev, Rotem Houli, Hadas Miremberg, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
BACKGROUND: We aimed to characterize factors associated with nonreassuring fetal heart (FHR) tracings after artificial rupture of membranes (AROM), during the active phase of labor. METHODS: Delivery charts of patients who presented in spontaneous labor, at term, between 2015 and 2016 were reviewed. We identified cases in which AROM was performed during the active stage of labor. We compared deliveries with a normal FHR and those who developed nonreassuring FHR...
April 24, 2018: Birth
Yanhui Li, Xue Zhang, Jingpeng Zhang, Xin Mu, Qian Duan, Tinghong Wang, Huayu Tian
L-Leucine (Leu) is a hydrophobic natural amino acid and can polymerize into poly-L-Leucine (PLeu) to be an excellent biocompatible material. In this paper, a hyperbranched copolymer polyethyleneimine-g-poly-L-leucine (PEI-g-PLeu) was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization with leucine NCA as monomer and PEI as initiator, which will be used as drug and gene co-delivery system for cancer therapy. To characterize the transfection efficiency in vitro, pGL3 as the reporter gene was loaded in PEI-g-PLeu to form complexes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Ruihao Pan, Guoqiang Liu, Yongsan Li, Yen Wei, Shurun Li, Lei Tao
Polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery are attracting broad interest along with the rapid development of biomedical and healthcare research. Here, we prepared a series of nanocapsules via electrostatic precipitation of chitosan and lecithin micelles. These nanocapsules have controlled diameters (∼25-200 nm) that only slightly changed after several lyophilization-dissolving cycles, suggesting their excellent stability for long-term storage. In cell experiments, these nanocapsules obviously reduced the cytotoxicity of encapsulated small molecules, and clearly showed size-dependent endocytosis...
April 24, 2018: Nanoscale
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