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Cerebral stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666731/ischemic-stroke-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-an-initial-presentation-of-neurosyphilis
#1
Kalimullah Jan, Rebecca Hoe Hui Min, Tan Seow Yen, Shekhawat Ravindra Singh
Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665789/idiopathic-basal-ganglia-calcification-associated-with-cerebral-micro-infarcts-a-case-report
#2
Takuma Nishimoto, Fumiaki Oka, Hideyuki Ishihara, Mizuya Shinoyama, Michiyasu Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetric intracranial calcium deposition. We report a patient with IBGC associated with cerebral infarction due to impairment of cerebrovascular reactivity based on single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with acetazolamide challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old male presented with right conjugate deviation, right hemiparesis and total aphasia due to a convulsive seizure...
April 17, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665308/calcified-cerebral-emboli-incidence-and-implications
#3
Miguel Bardon, Julian Hanson, Bill O'Brien, Adil Naeem
INTRODUCTION: Calcified cerebral emboli are an increasingly recognized cause of ischaemic stroke, although recognition amongst general radiologists and clinicians can be limited. Recent literature suggests that calcified cerebral emboli are likely more common than originally thought. This study aims to define the prevalence of calcified cerebral emboli as the most likely aetiology within a cohort of confirmed cases of acute stroke, as well as compare and contrast these cases with cases of 'incidental' intracranial calcification...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665290/timely-visualization-of-the-collaterals-formed-during-acute-ischemic-stroke-with-fe-3-o-4-nanoparticle-based-mr-imaging-probe
#4
Ting Wang, Yi Hou, Bo Bu, Wenxin Wang, Tiancong Ma, Chunyan Liu, Lan Lin, Lin Ma, Xin Lou, Mingyuan Gao
Ischemic stroke is one of the major leading causes for long-term disability and mortality. Collateral vessels provide an alternative pathway to protect the brain against ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Aiming at visualizing the collaterals occurring during acute ischemic stroke, an integrin αv β3 -specific Fe3 O4 -Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoprobe is prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the collaterals. Rat models are constructed by occluding the middle cerebral artery for imaging studies of cerebral ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion on 7...
April 17, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664455/physician-awareness-of-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-malignant-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction-in-saudi-arabia-and-the-gulf-countries
#5
Hosam M Al-Jehani, Abdulaziz Alsharydah, Seba A Rammal, Saleh S Baeesa, Mohammad Mekhlafi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspective on Decompressive craniectomy (DH) of each of these specialties to establish common grounds for improved clinical practice. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed via email and social media groups to members of these specialties in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Local practices, common triggers for referral for DH, perceived outcomes of these procedures, individual impression of what constitutes good clinical outcomes were explored...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664057/remote-ischemic-postconditioning-for-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Jing-Jing Zhao, Hui Xiao, Wen-Bo Zhao, Xiao-Pei Zhang, Yu Xiang, Zeng-Jie Ye, Miao-Miao Mo, Xue-Ting Peng, Lin Wei
Background: Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) appears to protect distant organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, cerebral protection results have remained inconclusive. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to compare stroke patients with and without RIPostC. Methods: CNKI, WanFang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to July 2016. Data were analyzed using both fixed-effects and random-effects models by Review Manager...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663853/collateral-pial-circulation-relates-to-the-degree-of-brain-edema-on-ct-24-hours-after-ischemic-stroke
#7
Orlando Galego, Joana Jesus-Ribeiro, Mariana Baptista, João Sargento-Freitas, Ana Inês Martins, Fernando Silva, Gustavo Cordeiro Santos, Luís Cunha, César Nunes, Egídio Machado
Background Cerebral edema is frequent in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who undergo reperfusion therapy and is associated with high mortality. The impact of collateral pial circulation (CPC) status on the development of edema has not yet been determined. Methods We studied consecutive patients with AIS and documented M1-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and/or distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who underwent reperfusion treatment. Edema was graded on the 24-hour non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#8
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663464/uninterrupted-administration-of-edoxaban-vs-vitamin-k-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-atrial-fibrillation-catheter-ablation-rationale-and-design-of-the-eliminate-af-study
#9
Stefan H Hohnloser, John Camm, Riccardo Cappato, Hans-Christoph Diener, Hein Heidbuchel, Hans-Joachim Lanz, Lluís Mont, Carlos A Morillo, Rüdiger Smolnik, Ophelia Q P Yin, Josef Kautzner
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at an approximately 0.5% to 3% increased risk of thromboembolism during and immediately after catheter ablation. Treatment guidelines recommend periprocedural oral anticoagulation plus unfractionated heparin during ablation. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are the only non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for which there are randomized controlled trials assessing uninterrupted anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF. Edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, is noninferior vs warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism with less major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular AF...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663377/ubiad1-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion-induced-multiple-subcellular-organelles-injury-through-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-n2a-cells
#10
Yan Huang, Zhiping Hu
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury plays a significant role in the development of multi-subcellular organelles injury after ischemic stroke. UBIAD1 was discovered originally as a potential tumor suppressor protein. Recently, analysis of UBIAD1 has indicated it is a prenyltransferase enzyme for both non-mitochondrial CoQ10 and vitamin K2 production. Further, UBIAD1 has been localized to multiple subcellular organelles. Particularly, UBIAD1 plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, which was closely associated with the cerebral ischemic/reperfusion mechanism...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663313/microbleeds-in-ischemic-vs-hemorrhagic-strokes-on-novel-oral-anticoagulants
#11
J C Purrucker, M Wolf, K Haas, T Siedler, T Rizos, S Khan, P U Heuschmann, R Veltkamp
OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in clinical characteristics and severity of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) including cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), between patients suffering ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) while taking novel (non-vitamin K antagonists) oral anticoagulants (NOACs). METHODS: Multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study performed at 38 centers between 2012 and 2015. We compared demographics, comorbidity, and functional status (before and after stroke) between NOAC-IS and NOAC-ICH patients...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663187/mri-patient-selection-for-endovascular-thrombectomy-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-correlation-between-pretreatment-diffusion-weighted-imaging-and-outcome-scores
#12
Marcello Longo, Gianmarco Bernava, Alessandro Calamuneri, Antonio A Caragliano, Antonio Pitrone, Rosario Papa, Enricomaria Mormina, Francesca Granata, Rosa Musolino, Agostino Tessitore, Giuseppe Centorrino, Federico Midiri, Federica Vernuccio, Sergio L Vinci
INTRODUCTION: Eligibility for endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) depends, amongst other factors, on CT- or MR-based scores. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score based on diffusion weighted imaging (MR-ASPECT) in the assessment of brain damage pre-EVT, patient selection for EVT and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included in this study patients with National Institute of Health stroke score (NIHSS) at admission ≥ 8, MR-ASPECT ≥ 5 and anterior AIS, who were treated with EVT in our hospital...
April 16, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662898/comparing-different-recording-lengths-of-dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-5-versus-10-minutes
#13
Nai-Fang Chi, Cheng-Yen Wang, Lung Chan, Han-Hwa Hu
We compared the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) indices between 5- and 10-minute data lengths by analyzing 37 patients with ischemic stroke and 51 controls in this study. Correlation coefficient ( Mx ) and transfer function analysis were applied for dCA analysis. Mx and phase shift in all frequency bands were not significantly different between 5- and 10-minute recordings [mean difference: Mx = 0.02; phase shift of very low frequency (0.02-0.07 Hz) = 0.3°, low frequency (0.07-0.20 Hz) = 0.6°, and high frequency (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662437/ketogenic-diet-improves-brain-ischemic-tolerance-and-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-preventing-drp1-mediated-mitochondrial-fission-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#14
Min Guo, Xun Wang, Yanxin Zhao, Qi Yang, Hongyan Ding, Qiang Dong, Xingdong Chen, Mei Cui
Background : Neuroprotective effects of ketogenic diets (KD) have been reported in stroke models, and nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of KD on NLRP3 inflammasome and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods : In in vivo study, mice were fed with KD for 3 weeks and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R)-injury. In in vitro study, SH-SY-5Y cells were treated with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) followed by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661589/challenges-and-research-progress-of-the-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Jipeng Jiang, Yuting Wang, Baohu Liu, Xuyi Chen, Sai Zhang
Cerebral Ischemic Stroke (CIS) has become a hot issue in medical research because of the diversity of risk factors and the uncertainty of prognosis. In the field of regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an increasingly prominent position due to their advantages of multiple differentiation, low immunogenicity and wide application. In the basic and clinical research of CIS, there are still some problems to be solved in the treatment of CIS. This paper will discuss the progresses and some obstacles of current MSCs for the treatment of CIS...
April 13, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660947/effects-of-walkbot-gait-training-on-kinematics-kinetics-and-clinical-gait-function-in-paraplegia-and-quadriplegia
#16
Jongseok Hwang, Yongil Shin, Ji-Ho Park, Young Joo Cha, Joshua Sung H You
BACKGROUND: The robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) system has gained recognition as an innovative, effective paradigm to improve functional ambulation and activities of daily living in spinal cord injury and stroke. However, the effects of the Walkbot robotic-assisted gait training system with a specialized hip-knee-ankle actuator have never been examined in the paraplegia and quadriplegia population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of Walkbot training on clinical for hips and knee stiffness in individuals with paraplegia or quadriplegia...
April 7, 2018: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660944/cardiovascular-response-to-mental-stress-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-its-association-with-cerebral-perfusion
#17
Brandon C Henley, Mahsa Shokouhi, Anushree Y Mahajan, Omer T Inan, Ihab Hajjar
Mental stress has been linked to various chronic diseases including Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline with mental stress are unknown. Reduced cardiovascular response to stress is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the latter is associated with cognitive impairment. We measured electrodermal activity, blood pressure, and cardiac hemodynamics in cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) adults (n = 76, mean age = 58 years, 46% MCI) during rest, a math test, and face-name recall tasks to derive the following cardiovascular indicators: mean arterial pressure, heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658368/the-aaa-atpase-thorase-is-neuroprotective-against-ischemic-injury
#18
Jianmin Zhang, Jia Yang, Huaishan Wang, Omar Sherbini, Matthew J Keuss, George Ke Umanah, Emily Ling-Lin Pai, Zhikai Chi, Kaisa Ma Paldanius, Wei He, Hong Wang, Shaida A Andrabi, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
Neuronal preconditioning in vitro or in vivo with a stressful but non-lethal stimulus leads to new protein expression that mediates a profound neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity and experimental stroke. The proteins that mediate neuroprotection are relatively unknown and under discovery. Here we find that the expression of the AAA + ATPase Thorase is induced by preconditioning stimulation both in vitro and in vivo. Thorase provides neuroprotection in an ATP-dependent manner against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neurotoxicity or glutamate N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in vitro...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657898/slow-elevation-in-protein-c-activity-without-a-proc-mutation-in-a-neonate-with-intracranial-hemorrhage
#19
Erika Uehara, Hiro Nakao, Yusuke Tsumura, Hisaya Nakadate, Shoichiro Amari, Hideshi Fujinaga, Yoshiyuki Tsutsumi, Dongchon Kang, Shouichi Ohga, Akira Ishiguro
Severe protein C (PC) deficiency leads to purpura fulminans and stroke in newborns. However, the clinical impact of plasma PC activity on the development of neonatal cerebral disease remains elusive. We report a case of hemorrhagic stroke associated with neonatal asphyxia and severe PC deficiency. Plasma PC and protein S activity 7 days after birth was 12% and 43%, respectively. No PROC mutation was found. PC levels did not exceed 20% until 2 months of age, even in the absence of consumption coagulopathy or vitamin K deficiency...
April 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657369/factors-affecting-the-effective-management-of-acute-stroke-a-prospective-observational-study
#20
C V Nagendra, T S Srinath Kumar, Vikram Bohra, Viju Wilben, Vivek Karan, Vikram Huded
Background: Stroke, characterized by sudden loss of cerebral function, is among one of the leading cause of death and disability world over. The newer treatment modalities have changed the landscape of stroke treatment but are very much time bound. Aim: To characterize pre-hospital and in-hospital factors affecting acute stroke management thus defining lacunae in stroke management. Subjects and Methods: A prospective observational study, conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care center in southern India from August 2015 to July 2016...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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