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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142174/evaluation-system-for-arrhythmogenic-potential-of-drugs-using-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-and-gene-expression-analysis
#1
Arisa Higa, Hirotaka Hoshi, Yuka Yanagisawa, Emi Ito, Gaku Morisawa, Jun-Ichi Imai, Shinya Watanabe, Motoki Takagi
In recent years, human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) have been widely used to develop evaluation systems for drug cardiotoxicity, including the arrhythmia caused by QT prolongation. To accurately assess the arrhythmogenic potential of drugs, associated with QT prolongation, we developed an evaluation system using hiPS-CMs and gene expression analysis. hiPS-CMs were treated with 8 arrhythmogenic and 17 non-arrhythmogenic drugs at several concentrations for 24 hr to comprehensively analyze gene expression...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114582/engineering-microdent-structures-of-bone-implant-surfaces-to-enhance-osteogenic-activity-in-mscs
#2
Sophia Li, Thomas Chow, Julia Chu
Problems persist with the integration of hip and dental implants with host bone tissues, which may result in long-term implant failure. Previous studies have found that implants bearing irregular surfaces can facilitate osseointegration. An improvement to this approach would use implant surfaces harboring a well-defined surface microstructure to decrease variability in implant surfaces. In this study, we tested whether well-defined surfaces with arrays of microdents (each with depth approximately 3 µm) significantly affected the morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111845/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-the-mechanical-properties-of-a-low-stiffness-cement-injectable-hip-stem
#3
Ibrahim Eldesouky, Ola Harrysson, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Harvey West, Hassan El-Hofy
In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the femoral stem can be fixed with or without bone cement. Cementless stem fixation is recommended for young and active patients as it eliminates the risk of loss of fixation at the bone-cement and cement-implant interfaces. Cementless fixation, however, suffers from a relatively high early revision rate. In the current research, a novel low-stiffness hip stem was designed, fabricated and tested. The stem design provided the option to inject biodegradable bone cement that could enhance initial stem stability...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099618/intra-articular-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-for-the-human-joint-a-systematic-review
#4
James A McIntyre, Ian A Jones, Bo Han, C Thomas Vangsness
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy is emerging as a potential treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) and chondral defects (CDs). However, there is a great deal of heterogeneity in the literature. The indications for stem cell use, the ideal tissue source, and the preferred outcome measures for stem cell-based treatments have yet to be determined. PURPOSE: To provide clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the entire body of the current human literature investigating the safety and efficacy of intra-articular mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in all joints...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038743/mature-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-podocytes-reconstitute-kidney-glomerular-capillary-wall-function-on-a-chip
#5
Samira Musah, Akiko Mammoto, Thomas C Ferrante, Sauveur S F Jeanty, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Tadanori Mammoto, Kristen Roberts, Seyoon Chung, Richard Novak, Miles Ingram, Tohid Fatanat-Didar, Sandeep Koshy, James C Weaver, George M Church, Donald E Ingber
An in vitro model of the human kidney glomerulus - the major site of blood filtration - could facilitate drug discovery and illuminate kidney-disease mechanisms. Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technology has been used to model the human proximal tubule, yet a kidney-glomerulus-on-a-chip has not been possible because of the lack of functional human podocytes - the cells that regulate selective permeability in the glomerulus. Here, we demonstrate an efficient (> 90%) and chemically defined method for directing the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into podocytes that express markers of the mature phenotype (nephrin+, WT1+, podocin+, Pax2-) and that exhibit primary and secondary foot processes...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027191/tha-conversion-rate-comparing-decompression-alone-with-autologous-bone-graft-or-stem-cells-in-osteonecrosis
#6
Francisco J Nally, Gerardo Zanotti, Martín A Buttaro, Fernando D Dilernia, Ignacio G Mansilla, Fernando M Comba, Francisco Piccaluga
INTRODUCTION: Core decompression (CD) with or without the addition of autologous bone graft (CDBG) is currently the most widely accepted treatment for hip osteonecrosis in stages of pre-collapse. The use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (CDSC) is emerging as a promising biological alternative. We sought to determine the total hip arthroplasty (THA) conversion rate for patients treated with CD, CDBG or CDSC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1996 and 2012, 97 cases were evaluated in 72 patients: 47 CD cases, 34 CDGB cases and 16 CDSC cases...
October 9, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993082/noncemented-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-sickle-cell-disease-long-term-results
#7
Imran Ilyas, Husam A Alrumaih, Samar Rabbani
BACKGROUND: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a well-known sequela of sickle-cell disease (SCD) requiring a surgical intervention that comes with technical challenges. METHODS: Uncemented hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the femoral head due to SCD was carried out for 101 patients (133 hips) between 2000 and 2012. The duration of follow-up ranged from 5 to 17 years (mean, 14.59 years). All patients received a noncemented femoral stem and a noncemented acetabular shell...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955244/human-in-silico-drug-trials-demonstrate-higher-accuracy-than-animal-models-in-predicting-clinical-pro-arrhythmic-cardiotoxicity
#8
Elisa Passini, Oliver J Britton, Hua Rong Lu, Jutta Rohrbacher, An N Hermans, David J Gallacher, Robert J H Greig, Alfonso Bueno-Orovio, Blanca Rodriguez
Early prediction of cardiotoxicity is critical for drug development. Current animal models raise ethical and translational questions, and have limited accuracy in clinical risk prediction. Human-based computer models constitute a fast, cheap and potentially effective alternative to experimental assays, also facilitating translation to human. Key challenges include consideration of inter-cellular variability in drug responses and integration of computational and experimental methods in safety pharmacology. Our aim is to evaluate the ability of in silico drug trials in populations of human action potential (AP) models to predict clinical risk of drug-induced arrhythmias based on ion channel information, and to compare simulation results against experimental assays commonly used for drug testing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904635/does-orthopaedic-surgery-improve-quality-of-life-and-function-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses
#9
N Williams, D Challoumas, D M Eastwood
PURPOSE: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders associated with involvement of multiple organs along with a generalised skeletal dysplasia. Both haematopoetic stem cell transplant and enzyme replacement therapy have improved the outlook for patients while surgery remains high-risk and there is little information on clinical or functional outcome to justify many of the surgical procedures performed. This paper aims to summarise the orthopaedic surgical procedures in MPS patients for which quality of life (QoL) and functional data are available and to describe additional QoL and functional measurement tools of relevance to the assessment of orthopaedic outcomes in MPS...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900820/outcome-of-childhood-leukaemia-survivors-and-necrosis-of-the-femoral-head-treated-with-autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
T de Rojas, S Martínez-Álvarez, S Lerma-Lara, M Á Díaz, L Madero, M Ramírez
PURPOSE: Corticoid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) of femoral head can lead to severe hip joint impairment and hip replacement, with negative impact in young survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with long life expectancy. We aim to improve quality of life in these patients with a novel approach. METHODS/PATIENTS: Based on the regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), we performed locally implanted autologous cell therapy in two adolescents suffering of bilateral femoral ON...
September 12, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869034/plasticity-and-function-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-relation-to-disuse-and-rehabilitation-influence-of-ageing-and-surgery
#11
Charlotte Suetta
In order to study the influence of disuse and aging on skeletal muscle homeostasis, different human models were employed. Effects of chronic disuse were investigated in elderly patients suffering from uni-lateral hip-osteoarthritis, whereas the effect of short-term disuse (4 and 14 days of unilateral lower limb immobilisation) was assessed in healthy young and old individuals. In summary, chronic muscle disuse in the elderly was associated with marked quantitative as well as qualitative neuromuscular impairments...
August 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844125/stem-cell-therapy-for-avascular-necrosis-of-femoral-head-in-sickle-cell-disease-report-of-11-cases-and-review-of-literature
#12
Mir Sadat-Ali, Md Q Azam, Ezzat M Elshabouri, Ahmad M Tantawy, Sadananda Acharya
Background and Objective: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is quite common in eastern Saudi Arabia and Avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH) occurs in 30% of the young patients leading to early joint arthroplasty. This study was conducted to assess the benefits of injection of osteoblasts in the avascular lesions of the head of femur. Patients and Methods: A preset technique was used, 10 CC of bone marrow aspiration was performed under local anesthesia and aseptic technique...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840126/autologous-stem-cells-combined-core-decompression-for-treatment-of-avascular-necrosis-of-the-femoral-head-a-systematic-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Shibing Xu, Lei Zhang, Hongting Jin, Letian Shan, Li Zhou, Luwei Xiao, Peijian Tong
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of core decompression combined transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells (CDBMSCs) for treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding effectiveness of core decompression combined transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells for treating ANFH were searched in 8 comprehensive databases prior to September 2016...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821761/enhanced-therapeutic-effects-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-by-combined-cell-sheets-with-omental-flap-technique-in-porcine-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-model
#14
Masashi Kawamura, Shigeru Miyagawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Atsuhiro Saito, Kenji Miki, Shunsuke Funakoshi, Yoshinori Yoshida, Shinya Yamanaka, Tatsuya Shimizu, Teruo Okano, Takashi Daimon, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa
Transplant of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) cell-sheet is a promising approach for treating ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). However, poor blood supply to the transplanted cell-sheet is a concern related to the effectiveness and durability of the treatment. Herein, we hypothesized that the combined the omentum flap might enhance survival and the therapeutic effects of hiPS-CM cell-sheet transplant for ICM treatment. Treatment by Wnt signaling molecules in hiPS cells produced hiPS-CMs, which were magnetically labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), followed by culture in the thermoresponsive dishes to generate hiPS-CMs cell-sheets...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806852/generation-of-oligodendrogenic-spinal-neural-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Mohamad Khazaei, Christopher S Ahuja, Michael G Fehlings
This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797104/increased-microrna-93-5p-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-by-targeting-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2
#16
Ying Zhang, Qiu-Shi Wei, Wei-Bin Ding, Lei-Lei Zhang, Hui-Chao Wang, Ying-Jie Zhu, Wei He, Yu-Na Chai, You-Wen Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trauma-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (TIONFH) is a major complication of femoral neck fractures. Degeneration and necrosis of subchondral bone can cause collapse, which results in hip joint dysfunction in patients. The destruction of bone metabolism homeostasis is an important factor for osteonecrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in regulating osteogenic differentiation, but the mechanisms underlying abnormal bone metabolism of TIONFH are poorly understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765796/the-effects-of-topical-vancomycin-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-more-may-not-be-better
#17
Stacey Chu, Nita Chen, Alexis B C Dang, Alfred C Kuo, Alan B C Dang
BACKGROUND: The use of topical vancomycin is increasingly popular in spine surgery. Large retrospective reviews suggest that topical vancomycin provides a cost-effective decrease in post-operative infection. Currently, there is little that is known about the maximum dose that can be applied locally. When 1 gram of vancomycin is mixed into the bone graft and another 1 gram applied freely in a spine wound, the local concentration of antibiotic ranges from 260-2900 μg/mL in the immediate post-op period and 50-730 μg/mL by the second post-operative day...
2017: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723877/human-spinal-bone-dust-as-a-potential-local-autograft-in-vitro-potent-anabolic-effect-on-human-osteoblasts
#18
Ryan Gao, Matthew Street, Mei Lin Tay, Karen E Callon, Dorit Naot, Alistair Lock, Jacob T Munro, Jillian Cornish, John Ferguson, David Musson
STUDY DESIGN: In Vitro Study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect that factors released from human posterior spinal bone dust have on primary human osteoblast growth and maturation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Bone dust, created during spinal fusion surgeries has the potential to be used as an autologous bone graft by providing a source of viable autologous osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells with osteogenic potential. To date, no information is available on whether bone dust also provides a source of anabolic factors with the potential to enhance osteoblast proliferation and maturation, which would enhance its therapeutic potential...
July 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717411/skeletal-muscle-generated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-application
#19
REVIEW
Yuko Miyagoe-Suzuki, Shin'ichi Takeda
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS cells or hiPSCs) can be derived from cells of patients with severe muscle disease. If skeletal muscle induced from patient-iPSCs shows disease-specific phenotypes, it can be useful for studying the disease pathogenesis and for drug development. On the other hand, human iPSCs from healthy donors or hereditary muscle disease-iPSCs whose genomes are edited to express normal protein are expected to be a cell source for cell therapy. Several protocols for the derivation of skeletal muscle from human iPSCs have been reported to allow the development of efficient treatments for devastating muscle diseases...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715399/integration-free-derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-laminin-521-matrix
#20
Elias Uhlin, Ana Marin Navarro, Harriet Rönnholm, Kelly Day, Malin Kele, Anna Falk
Xeno-free and fully defined conditions are key parameters for robust and reproducible generation of homogenous human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. Maintenance of hiPS cells on feeder cells or undefined matrices are susceptible to batch variances, pathogenic contamination and risk of immunogenicity. Utilizing the defined recombinant human laminin 521 (LN-521) matrix in combination with xeno-free and defined media formulations reduces variability and allows for the consistent generation of hiPS cells...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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