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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454271/the-complexation-of-rhizosphere-and-nonrhizosphere-soil-organic-matter-with-chromium-using-elemental-analysis-combined-with-ftir-spectroscopy
#1
Jiajun Wen, Zhongwu Li, Bin Huang, Ninglin Luo, Mei Huang, Ren Yang, Qiu Zhang, Xiuqing Zhai, Guangming Zeng
Complexation is a main mechanism controlling the reactions between soil organic matter (SOM) and heavy metals, which still have not been fully understood up to date. The objective of this study was to compare the SOM composition of nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere in low Cr treatment with that in high Cr treatment and to find out how metal concentrations affect the complexation with SOM. The results revealed that both the hydroxyl and the carboxyl were significantly different under different Cr treatment groups...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454205/how-can-local-representations-of-changes-of-the-availability-in-natural-resources-assist-in-targeting-conservation
#2
Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos, Elcida de Lima Araújo, Orou G Gaoue, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
The use and appropriation of natural resources by human groups may be strongly related to the perception that these groups have of the abundance or scarcity of these resources. Researches on environmental representation can be useful to understand the criteria involved in the selection and use of natural resources, to verify if people realize changes in the availability of these resources and the possible causes of these changes and to elaborate conservation strategies, if necessary. However, if people are not realizing these changes, of if they do not perceive themselves as a cause of such scarcity, the developing of conservation strategies will be very difficult to implement...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454118/the-factors-affecting-the-difficulty-of-percutaneous-cylindrical-electrode-placement-for-spinal-cord-stimulation
#3
Kyohei Kin, Takashi Agari, Takao Yasuhara, Yousuke Tomita, Ken Kuwahara, Ittetsu Kin, Michiari Umakoshi, Jun Morimoto, Mihoko Okazaki, Tatsuya Sasaki, Isao Date
OBJECTIVE: Optimal placement of electrodes is important for spinal cord stimulation. Unfortunately, factors affecting the difficulty of percutaneous electrode placement are not well known. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the factors affecting the difficulty of percutaneous electrode placement. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 90 consecutive procedures of percutaneous cylindrical electrodes implantation at the first author's institution...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453844/integrating-scenario-planning-and-cost-benefit-methods
#4
Stephen C Aldrich
By their nature, the most vexing social problems reflect collisions between social and economic interests of parties with highly divergent views and perspectives on the cause and character of what is at issue and the consequences that flow from it. Conflicts around biotechnology applications are good examples of these problems. When considering the potential consequences of proposed biotechnology applications, an enormous range of perspectives arise reflecting the breadth of different and often competing interests with a stake in life's future...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453836/cba-and-precaution-policy-making-about-emerging-technologies
#5
Gregory E Kaebnick, Michael K Gusmano
In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453512/global-and-japanese-regional-variations-in-radiologist-potential-workload-for-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-examinations
#6
Kanako K Kumamaru, Akihiro Machitori, Ritsuko Koba, Shinpei Ijichi, Yasuo Nakajima, Shigeki Aoki
PURPOSE: To investigate the global variation in radiologist potential workload for CT and MRI examinations, and the regional variation in potential workload and extent of radiologists' involvement in CT and MRI examinations in Japan. METHODS: "Radiologist potential workload" was defined as the annual number of CT plus MRI examinations divided by the total number of diagnostic radiologists. The extent of radiologists' involvement was measured as the proportion of CT and MRI examinations to which "Added-fees for Radiological Managements on Imaging-studies (ARMIs)" were applied among eligible examinations...
February 16, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453413/depression-and-obesity-evidence-of-shared-biological-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Yuri Milaneschi, W Kyle Simmons, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Brenda Wjh Penninx
Depression and obesity are common conditions with major public health implications that tend to co-occur within individuals. The relationship between these conditions is bidirectional: the presence of one increases the risk for developing the other. It has thus become crucial to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the intertwined downward physiological spirals associated with both conditions. The present review focuses specifically on shared biological pathways that may mechanistically explain the depression-obesity link, including genetics, alterations in systems involved in homeostatic adjustments (HPA axis, immuno-inflammatory activation, neuroendocrine regulators of energy metabolism including leptin and insulin, and microbiome) and brain circuitries integrating homeostatic and mood regulatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453390/birds-and-beans-comparing-avian-richness-and-endemism-in-arabica-and-robusta-agroforests-in-india-s-western-ghats
#8
Charlotte H Chang, Krithi K Karanth, Paul Robbins
Coffee is a major tropical commodity crop that can provide supplementary habitat for native wildlife. In Asia, coffee production is an increasingly important driver of landscape transformation and shifts between different coffee species is a major dimension of agroforestry trends. Yet few studies have compared the ecological impacts of conversion between different coffee species. We evaluated whether or not the two species of coffee grown globally-Coffea arabica and C. canephora (denoted "robusta")-had equivalent avian conservation value in the Western Ghats, India, where robusta production has become increasingly dominant...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453305/frequency-and-outcomes-of-reduced-dose-non-vitamin-k-antagonist-anticoagulants-results-from-orbit-af-ii-the-outcomes-registry-for-better-informed-treatment-of-atrial-fibrillation-ii
#9
Benjamin A Steinberg, Peter Shrader, Karen Pieper, Laine Thomas, Larry A Allen, Jack Ansell, Paul S Chan, Michael D Ezekowitz, Gregg C Fonarow, James V Freeman, Bernard J Gersh, Peter R Kowey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Gerald V Naccarelli, James A Reiffel, Daniel E Singer, Eric D Peterson, Jonathan P Piccini
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are indicated for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) but require lower doses in certain patients. We sought to describe the frequency, appropriateness (according to Food and Drug Administration labeling), and outcomes of patients prescribed reduced doses of NOACs in community practice. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from the ORBIT-AF II (The Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation II) registry, a prospective, national, observational registry of AF patients...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453265/integrated-metabolomics-and-morphogenesis-reveals-volatile-signaling-of-the-nematode-trapping-fungus-arthrobotrys-oligospora
#10
Bai-Le Wang, Yong-Hong Chen, Jia-Ning He, Hua-Xi Xue, Ni Yan, Zhi-Jun Zeng, Joan W Bennett, Ke-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Niu
The adjustment of metabolic patterns is fundamental to fungal biology and plays vital roles in adaption to diverse ecological challenges. Nematode trapping fungi can switch lifestyles from saprophytic to pathogenic by developing specific trapping devices induced by nematodes to infect their prey as a response to nutrient depletion in nature. However, the chemical identity of the specific fungal metabolites used during the switch remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that these important signal molecules might be volatile in nature...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453118/effects-of-forest-regeneration-practices-on-the-flux-of-soil-co-2-after-clear-cutting-in-subtropical-china
#11
Yixiang Wang, Xudan Zhu, Shangbin Bai, Tingting Zhu, Wanting Qiu, Yujie You, Minjuan Wu, Frank Berninger, Zhibin Sun, Hui Zhang, Xiaohong Zhang
Reforestation after clear-cutting is used to facilitate rapid establishment of new stands. However, reforestation may cause additional soil disturbance by affecting soil temperature and moisture, thus potentially influencing soil respiration. Our aim was to compare the effects of different reforestation methods on soil CO 2 flux after clear-cutting in a Chinese fir plantation in subtropical China: uncut (UC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration without soil preparation (CC), clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with soil preparation, tending in pits and replanting (CCR P ), and clear-cut followed by coppicing regeneration and reforestation with overall soil preparation, tending and replanting (CCR O )...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453074/use-of-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-as-ovulatory-stimulus-for-synchronizing-dairy-cattle
#12
N A Castro, P M A Neves, J P Cestaro, V T O Melo, A Schneider, L F M Pfeifer
The aim of this study was to evaluate if prostaglandin F2α (PGF) can be used to induce ovulation in a GnRH-progesterone based protocol. In Experiment 1 crossbred dairy cows (n=32) were synchronized with a progesterone-GnRH based protocol for seven days, where the luteolytic dose of 150μg PGF was given 24h prior progesterone device removal (CIDR). On Day 8 cows were separated into two groups to receive: 1) 2mL of Saline (Control Group, n=15) or 2) 150μg of PGF (PGF Group, n=17). Ovulation rate was higher in the PGF than Control group (100% vs 53...
January 31, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452966/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-of-childhood-trauma-and-the-course-of-illness-in-schizophrenia
#13
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Veronika Mészáros, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
INTRODUCTION: Different types of childhood trauma have been repeatedly shown to contribute to psychotic symptoms. Gender differences in schizophrenia are well known. Some studies argue that trauma history means a significantly higher risk of psychosis for women than men. However, there is evidence of early adverse life events to be associated with higher stress-sensitivity in men. Little is known about the connection of specific type of trauma and specific psychotic symptoms as well as the course of illness with explicit regard to gender differences...
February 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452788/understanding-pre-peri-and-post-menopausal-women-s-intentions-to-perform-muscle-strengthening-activities-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#14
Julie Doherty, Melanie Giles, Alison M Gallagher, Ellen Elizabeth Anne Simpson
Although physical activity guidelines recommend muscle-strengthening activities (MSA), public health initiatives tend to focus on increasing aerobic activity and fail to mention MSA. This study sought to identify the issues influencing pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women's intentions to perform MSA with a view to informing future interventions for these populations. Mixed methods guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were used to explore factors that influence women's intentions to perform MSA. In stage one, 34 women participated in either a focus group or interview...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452694/chitinase-3-like-1-chi3l1-promotes-vasculogenic-mimicry-formation-in-cervical-cancer
#15
Nipaporn Ngernyuang, Rong Shao, Komsun Suwannarurk, Temduang Limpaiboon
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is an alternative microvascular system which tumour cells orchestrate, independent of endothelial cell-mediated angiogenesis. VM develops tumour vascular networks that correlate with tumour growth, metastasis, and short survival time of patients with a number of cancers. However, little is known regarding VM in the vascularisation of cervical cancer. Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1) has been previously reported to display the ability to induce angiogenesis in cervical cancer. Here, we explored a pathological role of CHI3L1 in tumour cell-mediated vascularisation...
February 13, 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452562/deciphering-the-sunshine-act-transparency-regulation-and-financial-conflicts-in-health-care
#16
Richard S Saver
The Physician Payments Sunshine Act ("Sunshine Act"), enacted to address financial conflicts in health care, is the first comprehensive federal legislation mandating public reporting of payments between drug companies, device manufacturers, and medicine. This article analyzes the Sunshine Act's uneven record, exploring how the law serves as an intriguing example of the uncertain case for transparency regulation in health care. The Sunshine Act's bumpy rollout demonstrates that commanding transparency through legislation can be arduous because of considerable implementation challenges...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452407/dietary-l-glutamine-supplementation-improves-growth-performance-gut-morphology-and-serum-biochemical-indices-of-broiler-chickens-during-necrotic-enteritis-challenge
#17
G D Xue, R Barekatain, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
Necrotic enteritis (NE) causes significant economic losses in the broiler chicken industry, especially in birds raised without in-feed antibiotics. L-glutamine (Gln) is an amino acid that may compensate for metabolic losses from infection and improve the intestinal development. This study investigated the effects of dietary Gln (10 g/kg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal lesions, jejunum morphology, and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens during NE challenge. The study employed a factorial arrangement of treatments with factors: NE challenge, no or yes; dietary Gln inclusion, 0 g/kg in starter (S), d 0 to 10, grower (G) d 10 to 24, and finisher (F) d 24 to 35; 10 g/kg in S, G, F, or 10 g/kg in S, G only...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452067/alcohol-and-drug-use-among-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-individuals-a-secondary-analysis-of-nhanes-2013-2014
#18
Melissa L Anderson, Bei-Hung Chang, Nisha Kini
BACKGROUND: Within the field of behavioral health research, one of the most understudied populations is the U.S. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) population - a diverse group of individuals with hearing loss that have varied language and communication preferences, community affiliations, and sociocultural norms. Recent research identified concerning behavioral health disparities experienced by the D/HH population; yet, little research has been conducted to extend these findings to the topic of substance use disorder...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452061/what-s-so-appealing-an-examination-of-emotional-appeals-and-viewer-engagement-in-safe-sex-psas-and-condom-advertisements
#19
Elise M Stevens
Whereas advertisements strive to increase revenue, PSAs work to educate and inform. Even though both share the similar goal of persuasion, advertising tends to lead to more effective sales, unlike PSAs, which can have little effect on audience behaviors. Using a systematic, quantitative content analysis, this study examines emotional appeals and viewer engagement in safe-sex PSAs and condom advertisements in online videos (N = 132). PSAs with humor appeals received more viewer attention in terms of views, comments, and ratings than humorous advertisements...
February 16, 2018: Health Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451905/otoacoustic-emissions-from-ears-with-spontaneous-activity-behave-differently-to-those-without-stronger-responses-to-tone-bursts-as-well-as-to-clicks
#20
W Wiktor Jedrzejczak, Krzysztof Kochanek, Henryk Skarzynski
It has been reported that both click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) have higher amplitudes in ears that possess spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs). The general aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of spontaneous activity in the cochlea affected tone-burst evoked otoacoustic emissions (TBOAEs). As a benchmark, the study also measured growth functions of CEOAEs. Spontaneous activity in the cochlea was measured by the level of synchronized spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SSOAEs), an emission evoked by a click but closely related to spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs, which are detectable without any stimulus)...
2018: PloS One
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