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distracted driving

Fred Feng, Shan Bao, Robert C Hampshire, Michael Delp
This paper demonstrates a unique and promising approach to study driver-bicyclist interactions from a driver's perspective by using in-vehicle sensory data from naturalistic driving studies. A total of 4789 events of drivers overtaking bicyclists were extracted from an existing naturalistic driving study in Michigan, United States. The vehicle lateral placement at the time of passing bicyclists was used as a surrogate safety measure. A number of factors were examined, including the lane marking type, the presence of a bike lane or paved shoulder, the presence of traffic, lane width, and driver distraction...
March 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Tuomo Kujala, Jakke Mäkelä
We present results from a naturalistic study that tracked how Finnish drivers use their smartphones while on the move. We monitored 30 heavy in-car smartphone users in Finland during June-September 2016, recording the times that they used their phones, the application used at the time of touch (calls excluded), the location and driving speed. Touches per time unit were used as a proxy for estimating visual-manual distraction due to visual-manual tasks. Our data set allows the determining of whether drivers use their phones differently on varying road types (highway, main road, local rural road, urban road)...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
James P Thompson, Jamie R R Mackenzie, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock, Simon J Raftery, John Wall
In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Claudio Gariazzo, Massimo Stafoggia, Silvia Bruzzone, Armando Pelliccioni, Francesco Forastiere
Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jonathan J Rolison, Shirley Regev, Salissou Moutari, Aidan Feeney
What are the main contributing factors to road accidents? Factors such as inexperience, lack of skill, and risk-taking behaviors have been associated with the collisions of young drivers. In contrast, visual, cognitive, and mobility impairment have been associated with the collisions of older drivers. We investigated the main causes of road accidents by drawing on multiple sources: expert views of police officers, lay views of the driving public, and official road accident records. In Studies 1 and 2, police officers and the public were asked about the typical causes of road traffic collisions using hypothetical accident scenarios...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Francisco Muñoz, Andrea Hildebrandt, Annekathrin Schacht, Birgit Stürmer, Felix Bröcker, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Werner Sommer
Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant variables have been examined in isolation without an integrative perspective. Here we investigated 80 guests enjoying a 23-course meal in a top gastronomy restaurant, in groups of four...
February 28, 2018: Appetite
Huei-Yen Winnie Chen, Liberty Hoekstra-Atwood, Birsen Donmez
Objective The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in voluntary and involuntary driver-distraction engagement. Background Distractions may stem from intentional engagement in secondary tasks (voluntary) or failing to suppress non-driving-related stimuli or information (involuntary). A wealth of literature has examined voluntary distraction; involuntary distraction is not particularly well understood. Individual factors, such as age, are known to play a role in how drivers engage in distractions...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Yu-Kai Wang, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Chin-Teng Lin
Performing multiple tasks simultaneously usually affects the behavioral performance as compared with executing the single task. Moreover, processing multiple tasks simultaneously often involve more cognitive demands. Two visual tasks, lane-keeping task and mental calculation, were utilized to assess the brain dynamics through 32-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from 14 participants. A 400-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) factor was used to induce distinct levels of attentional requirements. In the dual-task conditions, the deteriorated behavior reflected the divided attention and the overlapping brain resources used...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Omid Dehzangi, Vikas Rajendra, Mojtaba Taherisadr
One of the main reasons for fatal accidents on the road is distracted driving. The continuous attention of an individual driver is a necessity for the task of driving. While driving, certain levels of distraction can cause drivers to lose their attention, which might lead to an accident. Thus, the number of accidents can be reduced by early detection of distraction. Many studies have been conducted to automatically detect driver distraction. Although camera-based techniques have been successfully employed to characterize driver distraction, the risk of privacy violation is high...
February 7, 2018: Sensors
Katie J Parnell, Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant
As modern society becomes more reliant on technology, its use within the vehicle is becoming a concern for road safety due to both portable and built-in devices offering sources of distraction. While the effects of distracting technologies are well documented, little is known about the causal factors that lead to the drivers' engagement with technological devices. The relevance of the sociotechnical system within which the behaviour occurs requires further research. This paper presents two experiments, the first aims to assess the drivers self-reported decision to engage with technological tasks while driving and their reasoning for doing so with respect to the wider sociotechnical system...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Kenneth H Beck, Clark J Lee, Talia Weiner
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. DESIGN: Four focus groups of college students. SETTING: A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years...
February 2018: Sleep Health
Graham F Moore, Rhiannon E Evans
Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on the value of building and testing middle range theory throughout the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. We agree that a coherent theoretical basis for intervention development, and use of evaluation to test key causal assumptions and build theory, are crucial. However, in this editorial, we argue that such recommendations have often been operationalised in somewhat simplistic terms with potentially perverse consequences, and that an uncritical assumption that an intervention explicitly based on theory is inherently superior carries significant risks...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Foroogh Hajiseyedjavadi, Tingru Zhang, Ravi Agrawal, Michael Knodler, Donald Fisher, Siby Samuel
Previous studies have demonstrated that young drivers fail both to scan for and mitigate latent hazards mostly due to their cluelessness. This study aims to investigate whether these skills could be improved by providing young drivers with alerts in advance of the upcoming threat using a driving simulator experiment. In particular, the warning was presented on the head-up displays (HUD) either 2 s, 3 s or 4 s in advance of a latent threat. The hazard anticipation, hazard mitigation and attention maintenance performance of forty-eight young drivers aged 18-25 was evaluated across eight unique scenarios either in the presence or in the absence of latent threat alerts displayed on a HUD...
December 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
John G Gaspar, John-Chris W Schwarz, Timothy L Brown, Julie Kang
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to prevent crashes and reduce their severity. Forward collision warnings (FCW) are quickly becoming standard across vehicle lineups and may prevent frontal crashes by alerting drivers. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of FCW for distracted drivers, but their effectiveness for other types of impairment remains unknown. Like distraction, drowsiness can impair driver response time and lead to crashes. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of FCW for moderately and severely drowsy drivers using a high-fidelity driving simulator...
December 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Katie J Parnell, Neville A Stanton, Katherine L Plant
This paper presents the findings of a semi-structured interview study that was conducted to identify drivers' self-reported likelihood of engaging with technologies that are now commonly found in modern automobiles. Previous research has focused on the effect these technological tasks have on driving performance, but there has been less focus on how, why and when drivers choose to engage with them. As distraction remains a significant contributor to road accidents, an understanding of why it occurs will give important insights into how it can be prevented...
December 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Robert J Nowosielski, Lana M Trick, Ryan Toxopeus
Distracted driving (driving while performing a secondary task) causes many collisions. Most research on distracted driving has focused on operating a cell-phone, but distracted driving can include eating while driving, conversing with passengers or listening to music or audiobooks. Although the research has focused on the deleterious effects of distraction, there may be situations where distraction improves driving performance. Fatigue and boredom are also associated with collision risk and it is possible that secondary tasks can help alleviate the effects of fatigue and boredom...
February 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kalpita Ganpat Gawit, Smita Anand Tiwari, Gauri Hari Kasabe, Pradeep Kisanrao Deshpande, Balasaheb Baburao Ghongane
Introduction: Cellular mobile phones are a major cause of distraction especially while driving. The aggressive and inappropriate use of cellular mobile phones has increased the risk of accidents. Similar alerts are available in literature for certain substances and drugs (e.g. second generation anti H1 drug -Cetirizine) which also derange psychomotor performance and parameters of alertness. Aim: This study measured variations in hand-eye coordination and visual acuity due to use of cellular mobile phone in comparison to that of commonly used antihistaminic drug viz...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ole J Johansson, Aslak Fyhri
Many people use cars all over the world. This is, however, not done without risk, as traffic accidents are one of the most common causes of death for adolescents worldwide. The number of deaths has steadily decreased, both worldwide and in Norway. Many of these accidents involve passenger cars and distracted driving. While there are many campaigns to improve safety in traffic, little research has looked at distractions. A recent report has investigated the occurrence of and damage caused by distraction, and one article has looked at what predicts baseline differences in levels of distracted driving...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Jingru Gao, Gary A Davis
INTRODUCTION: The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations...
December 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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