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Hypothalamus kidney water electrolytes

Isabel Prieto, Ana Belén Villarejo, Ana Belén Segarra, Rosemary Wangensteen, Inmaculada Banegas, Marc de Gasparo, Patrick Vanderheyden, Stefan Zorad, Francisco Vives, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
AIMS: To better understand the functional role of soluble (Sol) and membrane-bound (MB) cystinyl-aminopeptidase (CysAP) activities, we studied differentially their organ distribution in adult male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)with or without treatment with captopril.We searched for a possible tissue-specific association of CysAP with water balance and blood pressure. MAIN METHODS: We used twenty WKY rats distributed in ten controls and ten captopril-treated, and sixteen SHR divided in eight controls and eight captopril-treated...
August 1, 2015: Life Sciences
Merle L Gilbert, Linghai Yang, Thomas Su, G Stanley McKnight
PKA plays a critical role in water excretion through regulation of the production and action of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The AVP prohormone is produced in the hypothalamus, where its transcription is regulated by cAMP. Once released into the circulation, AVP stimulates antidiuresis through activation of vasopressin 2 receptors in renal principal cells. Vasopressin 2 receptor activation increases cAMP and activates PKA, which, in turn, phosphorylates aquaporin (AQP)2, triggering apical membrane accumulation, increased collecting duct permeability, and water reabsorption...
March 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Isabel Prieto, Ana B Villarejo, Ana B Segarra, Inmaculada Banegas, Rosemary Wangensteen, Magdalena Martinez-Cañamero, Marc de Gasparo, Francisco Vives, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in the control of blood pressure (BP) and water balance by coordinating brain, heart and kidney functions, connected with each other by hormonal and neural mechanisms through the autonomic nervous system (ANS). RAS function may be monitored by the study of the enzymes (angiotensinases) involved in the metabolism of its active peptides. In order to study the relationship between the brain-heart-kidney axis and the control of BP and water balance, we analyzed the correlation of angiotensinase activities, assayed as arylamidase activities, between hypothalamus, left ventricle, renal cortex and renal medulla, collected from Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats, treated or not treated with L-NAME [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester]...
2014: Neuroendocrinology
Roberto Manfredini, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Marco Pala, Alfredo De Giorgi, Fabio Fabbian
Chronobiology is a branch of biomedical sciences devoted to the study of biological rhythms. Biological rhythms exist at any level of living organisms and, according to their cycle length, may be divided into three main types: circadian, ultradian, and infradian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are the most commonly and widely studied. The principal circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and is supposed to regulate peripheral clocks via neurohumoral modulation. Circadian clocks have been identified within almost all mammalian cell types, and circadian clock genes seem to be essential for cardiovascular health...
July 2013: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
E Trudel, C W Bourque
The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) promotes water reabsorption from the kidney and levels of circulating VP are normally related linearly to plasma osmolality, aiming to maintain the latter close to a predetermined set point. Interestingly, VP levels rise also in the absence of an increase in osmolality during late sleep in various mammals, including rats and humans. This circadian rhythm is functionally important because the absence of a late night VP surge results in polyuria and disrupts sleep in humans...
April 2012: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Chiara Gabbi, Xiaomu Kong, Hitoshi Suzuki, Hyun-Jin Kim, Min Gao, Xiao Jia, Hideo Ohnishi, Yoichi Ueta, Margaret Warner, Youfei Guan, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The present study demonstrates a key role for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the etiology of diabetes insipidus (DI). Given free access to water, LXRβ(-/-) but not LXRα(-/-) mice exhibited polyuria (abnormal daily excretion of highly diluted urine) and polydipsia (increased water intake), both features of diabetes insipidus. LXRβ(-/-) mice responded to 24-h dehydration with a decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality. To determine whether the DI was of central or nephrogenic origin, we examined the responsiveness of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
February 21, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
O V Smirnova
Prolactin evolution and key role in fish osmoregulation were reviewed. Comparison of fish and mammalian prolactin was made in respect of its structure, producing tissues, regulation of pituitary secretion. Peculiarities of prolactin receptor structure and prolactin-induced signal cascades, tissue distribution and regulation of prolactin receptor expression were compared in fishes and mammals. Data on mechanisms of prolactin action on ionoconservation in teleost fishes at the level of gills, kidney, intestine, and skin were presented...
October 2011: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
S Latcha, M Lubetzky, A M Weinstein
BACKGROUND: Combined deficits in arginine vasopressin secretion (AVP) and thirst sensation can result in life threatening hyperosmolality and hypernatremia. Complications include seizures, profound volume contraction and renal failure. Fortunately, this is an uncommon clinical condition, with approximately 70 cases reported in the literature over the past 47 years [1]. Defects in AVP secretion and/or synthesis produce central diabetes insipidus (DI), polyuria with polydipsia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality...
November 2011: Clinical Nephrology
Rikke Nørregaard, Kirsten Madsen, Pernille B L Hansen, Peter Bie, Sugarna Thavalingam, Jørgen Frøkiær, Boye L Jensen
It was hypothesized that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes urine concentrating ability through stimulation of vasopressin (AVP) release after water deprivation (WD). COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-), C57BL/6) and wild-type (WT) mice were water deprived for 24 h, and water balance, central AVP mRNA and peptide level, AVP plasma concentration, and AVP-regulated renal transport protein abundances were measured. In male COX-2(-/-), basal urine output and water intake were elevated while urine osmolality was decreased compared with WT...
December 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Anne P Sinke, Peter M T Deen
Maintenance of the osmobalance is important for life. In this process, in which brain and kidney act in concert, mammals have to cope with significant deviations as drinking water reduces plasma osmolality, whereas salty food increases it. To restore homeostasis, specialized nuclei within the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in detecting changes in plasma osmolality and initiating appropriate responses. These responses are accomplished by either changing the intake of water or the excretion of water by the kidney...
October 2011: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
S Jack Somponpun, Brittany Wong, Thomas E Hynd, Benjamin Fogelgren, Scott Lozanoff
Suboptimal kidney development resulting from a genetic deficit in nephron number can have lifelong consequences that may lead to cardiorenal complications upon exposure to secondary insults in later life. To determine whether the inherited reduced renal reserve compromises the ability to handle osmotic stress in the adult animal, we challenged the heterozygous 3H1 Brachyrrhine (Br/+) mouse, which displays heritable renal hypoplasia associated with reduced embryonic six2 expression, to a solution of 2% NaCl for 5 days or to fluid restriction for 48 h...
September 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Melissa Lingis, Elaine M Richards, Maureen Keller-Wood
During pregnancy, plasma ACTH and cortisol are chronically increased; this appears to occur through a reset of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. We have hypothesized that differences in mineralocorticoid receptor activity in pregnancy may alter feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. We tested the effect of MR antagonism in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes infused for 4 h with saline or the MR antagonist canrenoate. Pregnancy significantly increased plasma ACTH, cortisol, angiotensin II, and aldosterone...
March 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Süleyman Oktar, Selçuk Ilhan, Sedat Meydan, Mehmet Aydin, Zafer Yönden, Ahmet Gökçe
The specific aim of this study was to examine the effects of salt-loading on kidney function and brain antioxidant capacity. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control rats were given normal drinking water and no drug treatment for 2 weeks. LNNA group: rats were given normal drinking water and the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), 3 mg/kg/day. LNNA + Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and 3 mg/kg L-NNA. Salt group: rats were given drinking water containing salt 2% and no drug treatment...
2010: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Adriana Zapparoli, Vivian Calegari, Lício Augusto Velloso, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia Aline Boer, José Antonio Rocha Gontijo
In rats, the acute central dipsogenic and natriuretic action of angiotensin II (AngII) seems to be independent of the hemodynamic effects of the peptide; however, in genetically hypertensive models, this relationship has not yet been investigated. It has been demonstrated that AngII induces the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3) expression in the brain that, in turn, modulates further activation of the pathway, leading to desensitization to AngII stimuli with regard to its dipsogenic effect. This study investigates age-related Janus kinase (JAK-2) and SOCS-3 hypothalamic expression, by immunoblotting, and the involvement of SOCS-3 expression in urinary sodium handling and dipsogenic response in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rats...
November 2010: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Louis Nadeau, Danielle Arbour, Didier Mouginot
BACKGROUND: In mammals, vasopressin (AVP) is released from magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus when osmotic pressure exceeds a fixed set-point. AVP participates to the hydromineral homeostasis (HH) by controlling water excretion at the level of the kidneys. Our current understanding of the HH and AVP secretion is the result of a vast amount of data collected over the five past decades. This experimental data was collected using a number of systems under different conditions, giving a fragmented view of the components involved in HH...
2010: BMC Physiology
Sean C Lema
Vasopressin and its homolog vasotocin regulate hydromineral balance, stress responses, and social behaviors in vertebrates. In mammals, the functions of vasopressin are mediated via three classes of membrane-bound receptors: V1a-type, V1b-type and V2-type. To date, however, only a single class of vasotocin receptor has been identified in teleost fish. Here, cDNAs encoding three putative vasotocin receptors - two distinct V1a-type receptor paralogs (V1a1 and V1a2) and a previously undescribed V2-type receptor (V2) - and a single isotocin receptor were isolated and sequenced from the Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae)...
June 10, 2010: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
P Iglesias, J J Díez
Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for an adequate growth and development of the kidney. Conversely, the kidney is not only an organ for metabolism and elimination of TH, but also a target organ of some of the iodothyronines' actions. Thyroid dysfunction causes remarkable changes in glomerular and tubular functions and electrolyte and water homeostasis. Hypothyroidism is accompanied by a decrease in glomerular filtration, hyponatremia, and an alteration of the ability for water excretion. Excessive levels of TH generate an increase in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow...
April 2009: European Journal of Endocrinology
Nicole Schliebe, Rainer Strotmann, Kathy Busse, Doreen Mitschke, Heike Biebermann, Lutz Schomburg, Josef Köhrle, Jörg Bär, Holger Römpler, Jürgen Wess, Torsten Schöneberg, Katrin Sangkuhl
Polyuria, hypernatremia, and hypovolemia are the major clinical signs of inherited nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Hypernatremia is commonly considered a secondary sign caused by the net loss of water due to insufficient insertion of aquaporin-2 water channels into the apical membrane of the collecting duct cells. In the present study, we employed transcriptome-wide expression analysis to study gene expression in V2 vasopressin receptor (Avpr2)-deficient mice, an animal model for X-linked NDI. Gene expression changes in NDI mice indicate increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption...
October 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
D Bell, B J McDermott
Intermedin (IMD) is a novel peptide related to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM). Proteolytic processing of a larger precursor yields a series of biologically active C-terminal fragments, IMD(1-53), IMD(1-47) and IMD(8-47). IMD shares a family of receptors with AM and CGRP composed of a calcitonin-receptor like receptor (CALCRL) associated with one of three receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMP). Compared to CGRP, IMD is less potent at CGRP(1) receptors but more potent at AM(1) receptors and AM(2) receptors; compared to AM, IMD is more potent at CGRP(1) receptors but less potent at AM(1) and AM(2) receptors...
March 2008: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ronald C W Ma, Alice P S Kong, Norman Chan, Peter C Y Tong, Juliana C N Chan
Complex interactions exist amongst the various components of the neuroendocrine system in order to maintain homeostasis, energy balance and reproductive function. These components include the hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal and -gonadal axes, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system and the pancreatic islets. These hormones, peptides and neurotransmitters act in concert to regulate the functions of many organs, notably the liver, muscles, kidneys, thyroid, bone, adrenal glands, adipocytes, vasculature, intestinal tract and gonads, through many intermediary pathways...
2007: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
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