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Kidney hypothalamus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#1
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694249/olmesartan-combined-with-renal-denervation-reduces-blood-pressure-in-association-with-sympatho-inhibitory-and-aldosterone-reducing-effects-in-hypertensive-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Masaaki Nishihara, Ko Takesue, Yoshitaka Hirooka
BACKGROUND: Augmented sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HT) accompanied by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oxidative stress in the hypothalamus increases SNA in HT. Administration of an angiotensin ΙΙ receptor blocker (olmesartan; OLM) or renal denervation (RDN) exerts an antihypertensive effect in HT with CKD; however, the precise mechanisms of the combination therapy are not fully elucidated...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655871/cloning-partial-sequencing-and-expression-analysis-of-the-neural-form-of-p450-aromatase-cyp19a1b-in-the-south-america-catfish-rhamdia-quelen
#3
Helena C Silva de Assis, Laia Navarro-Martín, Letícia S P Fernandes, Cibele C Cardoso, Daniela Parada Pavoni, Vance L Trudeau
Brain aromatase is a key enzyme exclusively expressed in fish radial glial cells that convert androgens into estrogens, thus controlling neuroendocrine functions and neurogenesis. As an important step in characterizing the neuroendocrine systems of Rhamdia quelen (jundiá), a partial cDNA sequence (1045 bp) of brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) was cloned and sequenced. At the nucleotide level the cDNA sequence was found to be 88% identical to cyp19a1b of two species of catfish, Ictalurus punctatus and Silurus meridionalis...
April 12, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578001/long-term-administration-of-greek-royal-jelly-decreases-gaba-concentration-in-the-striatum-and-hypothalamus-of-naturally-aged-wistar-male-rats
#4
Justyna Pyrzanowska, Adriana Wawer, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Agnieszka Piechal, Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Konstantia Graikou, Ioanna Chinou, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
Royal Jelly (RJ) is a unique substance obtained from bees that has been used widely in European and Asian traditional medicine for its potential to prevent signs of aging through its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. We recently reported an enhancement in spatial memory along with changes in monoaminergic transmission in aged rats after chronic RJ administration. Here, we aim to further explore the action of RJ on central nervous system activity by examining levels of amino acids in selected brain structures of aged male Wistar rats following 2-months of Greek RJ administration...
March 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563233/muscarinic-m2-receptor-promotes-vasopressin-synthesis-in-mice-supraoptic-nuclei
#5
Hiroshi Nagano, Yuki Sobue, Hayato Matsuyama, Shoichiro Saito, Hiroki Sakai, Firoj Alom, Yasuyuki Tanahashi, Toshiaki Ishii, Toshihiro Unno
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been suggested to be implicated in arginine-vasopressin secretion because intraventricular muscarinic agonist administration induces arginine-vasopressin release into the circulation. Although which subtype is involved in the regulation of arginine-vasopressin secretion is unclear, M2 receptors have been reported to be highly expressed in the hypothalamus. In the present study, M2 receptor knockout mice were used to elucidate whether M2 receptor regulates arginine-vasopressin synthesis in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524326/anaphylactic-hypotension-causes-renal-and-adrenal-sympathoexcitaion-and-induces-c-fos-in-the-hypothalamus-and-medulla-oblongata
#6
Mamoru Tanida, Tao Zhang, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal gland and whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? Sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis occurred regionally in the kidney and adrenal gland, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516412/oxidative-stress-in-the-brain-caused-by-acute-kidney-injury
#7
Alexandra Kovalčíková, Marianna Gyurászová, Diana Vavrincová-Yaghi, Peter Vavrinec, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Peter Boor, Katarína Šebeková, Peter Celec
Uremic encephalopathy is a severe complication of renal failure. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown although several mechanisms have been suggested. Renal failure causes oxidative stress leading to cardiovascular complications. It has been suggested as the potential mediator of uremic encephalopathy as well, but it is largely unknown whether brain tissue itself undergoes oxidative damage in uremia. The aim of our experiment was to analyze oxidative stress markers in different brain regions in an animal model of acute kidney injury (AKI)...
June 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487539/impact-of-air-exposure-on-vasotocinergic-and-isotocinergic-systems-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-new-insights-on-fish-stress-response
#8
Arleta K Skrzynska, Elisabetta Maiorano, Marco Bastaroli, Fatemeh Naderi, Jesús M Míguez, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and hypothalamus-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) axes are involved in the regulation of the stress response in teleost. In this regard, the activation of a complex network of endocrine players is needed, including corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh), Crh binding protein (Crhbp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh), arginine vasotocin (Avt), and isotocin (It) to finally produce pleiotropic functions. We aimed to investigate, using the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) as a biological model, the transcriptomic response of different endocrine factors ( crh, crhbp, pomc s, trh ), neuropeptides ( avt and it ), and their specific receptors ( avtrv1a, avtrv2 , and itr ) in four important target tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary, kidney and liver), after an acute stress situation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385702/altered-circadian-timing-system-mediated-non-dipping-pattern-of-blood-pressure-and-associated-cardiovascular-disorders-in-metabolic-and-kidney-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Asadur Rahman, Arif Ul Hasan, Akira Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Kobori
The morning surge in blood pressure (BP) coincides with increased cardiovascular (CV) events. This strongly suggests that an altered circadian rhythm of BP plays a crucial role in the development of CV disease (CVD). A disrupted circadian rhythm of BP, such as the non-dipping type of hypertension (i.e., absence of nocturnal BP decline), is frequently observed in metabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The circadian timing system, controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and/or by peripheral clocks in the heart, vasculature, and kidneys, modulates the 24 h oscillation of BP...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#10
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#11
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1 ) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296046/the-association-of-serum-leptin-levels-with-metabolic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Jen-Pi Tsai
Leptin is a 167-amino-acid protein released by white adipose tissue and encoded by the obese gene. It has a role as a negative regulator of appetite control through sending a satiety signal to act on receptors within the hypothalamus. At normal levels, leptin can exert its effects on weight regulation according to white fat mass, induce sodium excretion, maintain vascular tone, and repair the myocardium. Beyond these effects, elevated serum leptin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple cardiovascular diseases...
October 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288793/duplicated-membrane-estrogen-receptors-in-the-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-phylogeny-expression-and-regulation-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle
#13
Patrícia I S Pinto, André R Andrade, M Dulce Estêvão, M Victoria Alvarado, Alicia Felip, Deborah M Power
The numerous estrogen functions reported across vertebrates have been classically explained by their binding to specific transcription factors, the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs). Rapid non-genomic estrogenic responses have also been recently identified in vertebrates including fish, which can be mediated by membrane receptors such as the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper). In this study, two genes for Gper, namely gpera and gperb, were identified in the genome of a teleost fish, the European sea bass...
April 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277444/entrainment-of-the-mouse-circadian-clock-effects-of-stress-exercise-and-nutrition
#14
REVIEW
Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system in mammals plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Entrainment is an important characteristic of the internal clock, by which appropriate timing is maintained according to external daily stimuli, such as light, stress, exercise, and/or food. Disorganized entrainment or a misaligned clock time, such as jet lag, increases health disturbances. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, located in the hypothalamus, receives information about arousal stimuli, such as physical stress or exercise, and changes the clock time by modifying neural activity or the expression of circadian clock genes...
December 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/-morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#15
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis ( M. officinalis ) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#16
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198725/circadian-clock-mediated-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#17
REVIEW
Lauren G Douma, Michelle L Gumz
Most bodily functions vary over the course of a 24h day. Circadian rhythms in body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) are just a few examples. These circadian rhythms are controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks located throughout the body. Light and food cues entrain these clocks to the time of day and this synchronicity contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological processes with effects on overall health...
December 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170164/kirrel-is-differentially-expressed-in-adipose-tissue-from-fertil-and-fertil-cows-in-vitro-role-in-ovary
#18
S Coyral-Castel, C Ramé, J Cognié, J Lecardonnel, S Marthey, D Esquerré, C Hennequet-Antier, S Elis, S Fritz, M Boussaha, F Jaffrézic, J Dupont
We have previously shown that dairy cows carrying the 'fertil-' haplotype for one quantitative trait locus affecting female fertility located on the bovine chromosome three (QTL-F-Fert-BTA3) have a significantly lower conception rate and body weight after calving than cows carrying the 'fertil+' haplotype. Here, we compared by Tiling Array the expression of genes included in the QTL-F-Fert-BTA3 in 'fertil+' and 'fertil-' adipose tissue one week after calving when plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in 'fertil-' animals...
February 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079226/unraveling-vasotocinergic-isotocinergic-and-stress-pathways-after-food-deprivation-and-high-stocking-density-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m-3 ); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m-3 ); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#20
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc-/- ) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc-/- mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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