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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#1
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#2
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296046/the-association-of-serum-leptin-levels-with-metabolic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Jen-Pi Tsai
Leptin is a 167-amino-acid protein released by white adipose tissue and encoded by the obese gene. It has a role as a negative regulator of appetite control through sending a satiety signal to act on receptors within the hypothalamus. At normal levels, leptin can exert its effects on weight regulation according to white fat mass, induce sodium excretion, maintain vascular tone, and repair the myocardium. Beyond these effects, elevated serum leptin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and multiple cardiovascular diseases...
October 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288793/duplicated-membrane-estrogen-receptors-in-the-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-phylogeny-expression-and-regulation-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle
#4
Patrícia I S Pinto, André R Andrade, M Dulce Estêvão, M Victoria Alvarado, Alicia Felip, Deborah M Power
The numerous estrogen functions reported across vertebrates have been classically explained by their binding to specific transcription factors, the nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs). Rapid non-genomic estrogenic responses have also been recently identified in vertebrates including fish, which can be mediated by membrane receptors such as the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper). In this study, two genes for Gper, namely gpera and gperb, were identified in the genome of a teleost fish, the European sea bass...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277444/entrainment-of-the-mouse-circadian-clock-effects-of-stress-exercise-and-nutrition
#5
REVIEW
Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system in mammals plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis. Entrainment is an important characteristic of the internal clock, by which appropriate timing is maintained according to external daily stimuli, such as light, stress, exercise, and/or food. Disorganized entrainment or a misaligned clock time, such as jet lag, increases health disturbances. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, located in the hypothalamus, receives information about arousal stimuli, such as physical stress or exercise, and changes the clock time by modifying neural activity or the expression of circadian clock genes...
December 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#6
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis (M. officinalis) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#7
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198725/circadian-clock-mediated-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#8
REVIEW
Lauren G Douma, Michelle L Gumz
Most bodily functions vary over the course of a 24h day. Circadian rhythms in body temperature, sleep-wake cycles, metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) are just a few examples. These circadian rhythms are controlled by the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks located throughout the body. Light and food cues entrain these clocks to the time of day and this synchronicity contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological processes with effects on overall health...
December 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170164/kirrel-is-differentially-expressed-in-adipose-cells-in-fertil-and-fertil-cows-role-in-ovary
#9
Stephanie Coyral-Castel, Christelle Ramé, Juliette Cognié, Jerome Lecardonnel, Sylvain Marthey, Diane Esquerré, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Sebastien Elis, Sebastien Fritz, Mekki Boussaha, Florence Jaffrezic, Joëlle Dupont
We have previously shown that dairy cows carrying the "fertil-" haplotype for one quantitative trait locus affecting female fertility located on the bovine chromosome three (QTL-F-Fert-BTA3) have a significantly lower conception rate and body weight after calving than cows carrying the "fertil+" haplotype. Here, we compared by tiling array the expression of genes included in the QTL-F-Fert-BTA3 in "fertil+" and "fertil-" adipose tissue one week after calving when plasma non esterified fatty acid concentrations were greater in "fertil-" animals...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079226/unraveling-vasotocinergic-isotocinergic-and-stress-pathways-after-food-deprivation-and-high-stocking-density-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream
#10
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m(-3)); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m(-3)); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#11
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888694/analyzing-the-effects-of-co-expression-of-chick-gallus-gallus-melanocortin-receptors-with-either-chick-mrap1-or-mrap2-in-cho-cells-on-sensitivity-to-acth-1-24-or-acth-1-13-nh2-implications-for-the-avian-hpa-axis-and-avian-melanocortin-circuits-in-the-hypothalamus
#12
Alexa L Thomas, Fumihiko Maekawa, Takaharu Kawashima, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Perry Davis, Robert M Dores
In order to better understand the roles that melanocortin receptors (cMCRs) and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory proteins (cMRAP1 and cMRAP2) play in the HPA axis and hypothalamus, adrenal gland and hypothalamus mRNA from 1day-old white leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus), were analyzed by real-time PCR. mRNA was also made for kidney, ovary, and liver. Mrap1 mRNA could be detected in adrenal tissue, but not in any of the other tissues, and mrap2 mRNA was also detected in the adrenal gland. Finally, all five melanocortin receptors mRNAs could be detected in the adrenal gland; mc2r and mc5r mRNAs were the most abundant...
September 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883916/circulating-leptin-and-its-muscle-gene-expression-in-nellore-cattle-with-divergent-feed-efficiency
#13
Lúcio Flávio Macedo Mota, Cristina Moreira Bonafé, Pâmela Almeida Alexandre, Miguel Henrique Santana, Francisco José Novais, Erika Toriyama, Aldrin Vieira Pires, Saulo da Luz Silva, Paulo Roberto Leme, José Bento Sterman Ferraz, Heidge Fukumasu
BACKGROUND: Leptin has a strong relation to important traits in animal production, such as carcass composition, feed intake, and reproduction. It is mainly produced by adipose cells and acts predominantly in the hypothalamus. In this study, circulating leptin and its gene expression in muscle were evaluated in two groups of young Nellore bulls with divergent feed efficiency. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) of 98 Nellore bulls were evaluated in feedlot for 70 d to determinate the residual feed intake (RFI) and select 20 animals for the high feed efficient (LRFI) and 20 for the low feed efficient (HRFI) groups...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#14
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 17, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814477/iodine-excess-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-impairs-maternal-thyroid-function-in-rats
#15
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Thiago Pantaleão, Vânia Maria Corrêa da Costa, Maria Tereza Nunes
Adequate maternal iodine consumption during pregnancy and lactation guarantees normal thyroid hormones (TH) production, which is crucial to the development of the fetus. Indeed, iodine deficiency is clearly related to maternal hypothyroidism and deleterious effects in the fetal development. Conversely, the effects of iodine excess (IE) consumption on maternal thyroid function are still controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the impact of IE exposure during pregnancy and lactation periods on maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis...
October 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797891/the-impact-of-peripheral-serotonin-on-leptin-brain-serotonin-axis-bone-metabolism-and-strength-in-growing-rats-with-experimental-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Dariusz Pawlak, Tomasz Domaniewski, Beata Znorko, Ewa Oksztulska-Kolanek, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Malgorzata Karbowska, Krystyna Pawlak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in decreased bone strength. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the critical regulators of bone health, fulfilling distinct functions depending on its synthesis site: brain-derived serotonin (BDS) favors osteoblast proliferation, whereas gut-derived serotonin (GDS) inhibits it. We assessed the role of BDS and peripheral leptin in the regulation of bone metabolism and strength in young rats with 5/6 nephrectomy. BDS synthesis was accelerated during CKD progression. Decreased peripheral leptin in CKD rats was inversely related to BDS content in the hypothalamus, brainstem and frontal cortex...
August 7, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794907/rai1-overexpression-promotes-altered-circadian-gene-expression-and-dyssomnia-in-potocki-lupski-syndrome
#17
Sureni V Mullegama, Joseph T Alaimo, Michael D Fountain, Brooke Burns, Amanda Hebert Balog, Li Chen, Sarah H Elsea
Retinoic acid induced 1 ( RAI1 ) encodes a dosage-sensitive gene that when haploinsufficient results in Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and when overexpressed results in Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). Phenotypic and molecular evidence illustrates that haploinsufficiency of RAI1 disrupts circadian rhythm through the dysregulation of the master circadian regulator, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput ( CLOCK) , and other core circadian components, contributing to prominent sleep disturbances in SMS. However, the phenotypic and molecular characterization of sleep features in PTLS has not been elucidated...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734797/the-effects-of-continuously-acoustical-stress-on-cortisol-in-milkfish-chanos-chanos
#18
Chih An Wei, Tzu Hao Lin, Ruo Dong Chen, Yung-Che Tseng, Yi Ta Shao
Strong underwater acoustic noise has been known that may cause hearing loss and actual stress in teleost. However, the long-term physiological effects of relatively quiet but continuously noise on fish were less understood. In present study, milkfish, Chanos chanos, were exposed to the simulated-wind farm noise either quiet (109dB re 1μPa/125.4Hz; approx. 10-100m distant from the wind farm) or noisy (138dB re 1μPa/125.4Hz; nearby the wind farm) conditions for 24h, 3days and 1week. Comparing to the control group (80dB re 1μPa/125...
July 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721279/age-related-circadian-disorganization-caused-by-sympathetic-dysfunction-in-peripheral-clock-regulation
#19
Yu Tahara, Yuta Takatsu, Takuya Shiraishi, Yosuke Kikuchi, Mayu Yamazaki, Hiroaki Motohashi, Aya Muto, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Atsushi Haraguchi, Daisuke Kuriki, Takahiro J Nakamura, Shigenobu Shibata
The ability of the circadian clock to adapt to environmental changes is critical for maintaining homeostasis, preventing disease, and limiting the detrimental effects of aging. To date, little is known about age-related changes in the entrainment of peripheral clocks to external cues. We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by external stimuli including light, food, stress, and exercise in young versus aged mice using in vivo bioluminescence monitoring...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#20
REVIEW
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
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