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Kidney hypothalamus

Masaaki Nishihara, Ko Takesue, Yoshitaka Hirooka
OBJECTIVE: Sympathoexcitation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the brain controls sympathetic outflow through γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic mechanisms. Renal denervation (RDN) exerts a long-term antihypertensive effect in hypertension with CKD; however, the effects of RDN on sympathetic nerve activity and GABA-ergic modulation in the PVN are not clear...
October 4, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Xuming Sun, Ellen Tommasi, Doris Molina, Renu Sah, K Bridget Brosnihan, Debra I Diz, Snezana Petrovic
Diets rich in grains and meat and low in fruits and vegetables (acid-producing diets) associate with incident hypertension, whereas vegetarian diets associate with lower blood pressure (BP). However, the pathways that sense and mediate the effects of acid-producing diets on BP are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of the deletion of an acid sensor GPR4 on BP. GPR4 is a proton-sensing, G protein-coupled receptor and an acid sensor in brain, kidney and blood vessels. We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Haoliang Hu, Lu He, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
The G-protein-coupled receptor APJ and its endogenous ligand apelin are widely expressed in many peripheral tissues and central nervous system, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscles and hypothalamus. Apelin/APJ system, involved in numerous physiological functions like angiogenesis, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation, is notably implicated in the development of different pathologies such as diabetes and its complications. Increasing evidence suggests that apelin regulates insulin sensitivity, stimulates glucose utilization and enhances brown adipogenesis in different tissues associated with diabetes...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Tao Tao Liu, Bao Wen Liu, Zhi Gang He, Li Feng, San Guang Liu, Hong Bing Xiang
To examine if brain neurons involved in the efferent control of the kidneys possess melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) and/or tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). Retrograde tracing pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 was injected into the kidneys in adult male MC4R-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. After a survival time of 3-7 days, spinal cord and brain were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV-614 visualization. The neurochemical phenotype of PRV-614-positive neurons was identified using double or triple immunocytochemical labeling against PRV-614, MC4R, or TPH...
September 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Hong Zheng, Kaushik P Patel
The sympathetic nervous system has been identified as a major contributor to the pathophysiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) and other diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, both in experimental animal models and patients. The kidneys have a dense afferent sensory innervation positioning it to be the origin of multimodal input to the central nervous system. Afferent renal nerve (ARN) signals are centrally integrated, and their activation results in a general increase in sympathetic tone, which is directed toward the kidneys as well as other peripheral organs innervated by the sympathetic nerves...
August 6, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
B Mikulášková, L Maletínská, J Zicha, J Kuneš
Obesity is a risk factor that worsens cardiovascular events leading to higher morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of relation between obesity and cardiovascular events are unclear. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that pharmacological therapy for obesity has great potential to improve some cardiovascular problems. Therefore, it is important to determine the common mechanisms regulating both food intake and blood pressure. Several hormones produced by peripheral tissues work together with neuropeptides involved in the regulation of both food intake and blood pressure...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sylvie Janas, François Seghers, Olivier Schakman, Mohammad Alsady, Peter Deen, Joris Vriens, Fadel Tissir, Bernd Nilius, Johannes Loffing, Philippe Gailly, Olivier Devuyst
TRPV4 is a polymodal cation channel expressed in osmosensitive neurons of the hypothalamus and in the mammalian nephron. The segmental distribution and role(s) of TRPV4 in osmoregulation remain debated. We investigated the renal distribution pattern of TRPV4 and the functional consequences of its disruption in mouse models. Using qPCR on microdissected segments, immunohistochemistry, and a LacZ reporter mouse, we found that TRPV4 is abundantly expressed in the proximal tubule, the late distal convoluted tubule, and throughout the connecting tubule and collecting duct, including principal and intercalated cells...
September 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
Vera Geraldes, Nataniel Goncalves-Rosa, Cristiano Tavares, Julian F R Paton, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Chronic overexpression of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (hKir2.1) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) to suppress neuronal excitability, resulted in a long term decrease of blood pressure and sympathetic output in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). OBJECTIVE: Evaluate gene expression in end-organs of SHR after a chronic overexpression of hKir2.1 channels in either the PVN or RVLM...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
Chongyang Ma, Fafeng Cheng, Xueqian Wang, Changming Zhai, Wenchao Yue, Yajun Lian, Qingguo Wang
During the past decade, accumulating evidence from both clinical and experimental studies has indicated that erythropoietin may have antidepressant effects. In addition to the kidney and liver, many organs have been identified as secretory tissues for erythropoietin, including the brain. Its receptor is expressed in cerebral and spinal cord neurons, the hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, dorsal root ganglia, nerve axons, and Schwann cells. These findings may highlight new functions for erythropoietin, which was originally considered to play a crucial role in the progress of erythroid differentiation...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Akiko Kojo, Kentaro Yamada, Toshiharu Yamamoto
This study aimed at examining the distribution of glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5), which preferentially transports fructose, in the rat brain by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Small immunoreactive puncta (less than 0.7μm) were sparsely distributed all over the brain, some of which appeared to be associated with microglial processes detected by an anti-ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) monoclonal antibody. In addition, some of these immunoreactive puncta seemed to be associated with tanycyte processes that were labeled with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) monoclonal antibody...
July 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Cécile Philippe, Daniela Haeusler, Thomas Scherer, Clemens Fürnsinn, Markus Zeilinger, Wolfgang Wadsak, Karem Shanab, Helmut Spreitzer, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser
BACKGROUND: The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), which is highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, plays a key role in energy homeostasis, obesity and other endocrine diseases. Hence, there is a major interest in in vivo imaging of this receptor. A PET tracer would allow non-invasive in vivo visualization and quantification of the MCHR1. The aim of the study was the ex vivo evaluation of the MCHR1 ligand [(18)F]FE@SNAP as a potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. METHODS: [(18)F]FE@SNAP was injected directly into the jugular vein of awake naïve rats for ex vivo brain autoradiography, biodistribution and additional blood metabolite analysis...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Philip Prinz, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pauline Teuffel, Matthias Rose, Burghard F Klapp, Andreas Stengel
Nesfatin-1 was recently identified and introduced as food intake-regulatory hormone. Soon thereafter, mounting evidence indicated a much broader role for nesfatin-1 with an involvement in the regulation of food intake, gastrointestinal motility, glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and stress. Despite the growing knowledge on the physiological regulation and functions of nesfatin-1, the receptor mediating these effects remains to be characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral and central localization of the nesfatin-1 receptor by autoradiography...
February 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M Vokurková, H Rauchová, L Řezáčová, I Vaněčková, J Zicha
Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play an important role in brain control of blood pressure (BP). One of the important mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension is the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. The aim of our present study was to investigate NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide (O(2)(-)) production and to search for the signs of lipid peroxidation in hypothalamus and medulla oblongata as well as in renal medulla and cortex of hypertensive male rats transgenic for the murine Ren-2 renin gene (Ren-2 TGR) and their age-matched normotensive controls - Hannover Sprague Dawley rats (HanSD)...
2015: Physiological Research
Knud Larsen, Jamal Momeni, Leila Farajzadeh, Christian Bendixen
The HTR2C gene encodes the 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C, G-protein-coupled protein which functions as a serotonin receptor. The HTR2C mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2). In the current study we examined the molecular characteristics of the porcine HTR2C gene and determined the mRNA editing of the HTR2C transcript in different tissues. The A-to-I RNA editing of HTR2C was shown to be conserved in the porcine homologue with five nucleotides edited in exon 5...
February 2016: Biochimie
Qi Xu, Yadong Song, Yang Chen, Ran Liu, Yang Zhang, Yang Li, Zhengyang Huang, Wenming Zhao, Guobin Chang, Guohong Chen
BACKGROUND: CYP11A1, a gene belonging to the family 11 of cytochrome P450, encodes a crucial steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the initial step in the production of all classes of steroids. Many studies show that CYP11A1 plays a role in ovary function. However, the role of CYP11A1 in goose reproductive cycle remains largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, full-length CYP11A1 cDNA of Zhedong goose was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
2015: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Mingkwan Greenwood, Michael P Greenwood, Andre S Mecawi, Su Yi Loh, José Antunes Rodrigues, Julian F R Paton, David Murphy
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive...
October 26, 2015: Molecular Brain
R A Hart, R C Dobos, L L Agnew, R L Tellam, J R McFarlane
Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has received limited attention and only one study has examined more than two time points and this was in ob/ob mice. This study is the first to observe the distribution of leptin over a time course in female mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected in adult female mice via the lateral tail vein and tissues were dissected out and measured for radioactivity over a time course up to two hours. Major targets for administered leptin included the liver, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and the skin while the lungs had high concentrations of administered leptin per gram of tissue...
June 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Djordje S Popovic, Edita Stokic, Stevan L Popovic
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a disease characterized by autoimmune mediated destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of endocrine pancreas. Beside insulin deficiency, T1DM is also characterized by abnormal suppression of glucagon secretion in response to hyperglycemia. All these abnormalities are likely to leave patients dependent upon exogenous insulin administration for survival. GLP-1 is a hormone secreted by L-cells of distal small intestine and colon. GLP-1 exerts its effects through the interaction with GLP-1 receptor expressed in the pancreatic islets, lung, hypothalamus, stomach, heart and kidney...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mamoru Tanida, Hitoshi Gotoh, Naoki Yamamoto, Mofei Wang, Yuhichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Masatomo Mori, Toshishige Shibamoto
Nesfatin-1 acts on the hypothalamus and regulates the autonomic nervous system. However, the hypothalamic mechanisms of nesfatin-1 on the autonomic nervous system are not well understood. In this study, we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of nesfatin-1 increased the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in rats. Furthermore, the activity of sympathetic nerves, in the kidneys, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT), and blood pressure was stimulated by the ICV injection of nesfatin-1, and these effects were abolished owing to pharmacological inhibition of ERK...
November 2015: Diabetes
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