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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925576/comparison-of-oxygen-transfer-parameters-and-oxygen-demands-in-bioreactors-operated-at-low-and-high-dissolved-oxygen-levels
#1
Richard O Mines, Matthew C Callier, Benjamin J Drabek, André J Butler
The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L(-1) of dissolved oxygen (DO)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896714/stopping-ability-in-younger-and-older-adults-behavioral-and-event-related-potential
#2
Shulan Hsieh, Yu-Chi Lin
This study examines age-related differences in inhibitory control as measured by stop-signal performance. The participants were 24 adults aged 20-30 years and 24 older adults aged 61-76 years. The task blocks were pure choice reaction-time blocks, global stop-signal blocks (with an auditory stop signal), and selective stop-signal blocks (with valid and invalid stop signals). There was a decline in reactive inhibitory control for the older group reflected by greater stop-signal reaction times and reduced P3 peak amplitudes in both global and selective stop-signal task blocks...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892806/wisconsin-card-sorting-test-embedded-validity-indicators-developed-for-adults-can-be-extended-to-children
#3
Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Laszlo A Erdodi, Jaspreet K Rai, Anya Mazur-Mosiewicz, Lloyd Flaro
Past studies have examined the ability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to discriminate valid from invalid performance in adults using both individual embedded validity indicators (EVIs) and multivariate approaches. This study is designed to investigate whether the two most stable of these indicators-failures to maintain set (FMS) and the logistical regression equation S-BLRE-can be extended to pediatric populations. The classification accuracy for FMS and S-BLRE was examined in a mixed clinical sample of 226 children aged 7 to 17 years (64...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888354/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-the-interaction-between-going-and-stopping-in-a-selective-stop-change-task
#4
Frederick Verbruggen, Rosamund McLaren
Inhibition of no-longer relevant go responses supports flexible and goal-directed behavior. The present study explored if the interaction between going and stopping is influenced by monetary incentives. Subjects (N = 108) performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the planned go response if invalid signals or no signals occurred. There were two incentive groups: the punishment group lost points for unsuccessful valid-signal trials, whereas the reward group gained points for successful valid-signal trials...
November 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846818/asymptomatic-and-yet-c-difficile-toxin-positive-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-among-geriatric-in-patients
#5
Klaus Nissle, Daniel Kopf, Alexander Rösler
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the most frequent cause of diarrhoea in hospitals. Geriatric patients are more often affected by the condition, by a relapse and complications. Therefore, a crucial question is how often colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs in elderly patients without diarrhoea and whether there is a "risk pattern" of colonized patients that can be defined by geriatric assessment. Furthermore, the probability for those asymptomatic carriers to develop a symptomatic infection over time has not been sufficiently explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846775/red-flags-in-the-clinical-interview-may-forecast-invalid-neuropsychological-testing
#6
Michael E Keesler, Kirstie McClung, Tawny Meredith-Duliba, Kelli Williams, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating assessment validity is expected in neuropsychological evaluation, particularly in cases with identified secondary gain, where malingering or somatization may be present. Assessed with standalone measures and embedded indices, all within the testing portion of the examination, research on validity of self-report in the clinical interview is limited. Based on experience with litigation-involved examinees recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), it was hypothesized that inconsistently reported date of injury (DOI) and/or loss of consciousness (LOC) might predict invalid performance on neurocognitive testing...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834862/internet-of-things-platform-for-smart-farming-experiences-and-lessons-learnt
#7
Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Ali Yavari, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Ahsan Morshed, Arkady Zaslavsky
Improving farm productivity is essential for increasing farm profitability and meeting the rapidly growing demand for food that is fuelled by rapid population growth across the world. Farm productivity can be increased by understanding and forecasting crop performance in a variety of environmental conditions. Crop recommendation is currently based on data collected in field-based agricultural studies that capture crop performance under a variety of conditions (e.g., soil quality and environmental conditions)...
November 9, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808545/the-typical-advantage-of-object-based-attention-reflects-reduced-spatial-cost
#8
Yaffa Yeshurun, Einat Rashal
In Egly, Driver, and Rafal's (1994) seminal study, an attentional precue appeared either at the target location (valid), a different location within the same object (invalid-same), or on another object (invalid-different). Performance was best in the valid condition, reflecting the advance allocation of spatial-attention. In addition, performance was better in the invalid-same than invalid-different condition, reflecting object-based attention allocation. However, previous studies that used this paradigm did not include a baseline condition in which neither a specific object nor a specific location was indicated...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758163/embedded-performance-validity-tests-within-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised
#9
R John Sawyer, S Marc Testa, Moira Dux
OBJECTIVE: Various research studies and neuropsychology practice organizations have reiterated the importance of developing embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect potentially invalid neurocognitive test data. This study investigated whether measures within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) could accurately classify individuals who fail two or more PVTs during routine clinical assessment. METHOD: The present sample of 109 United States military veterans (Mean age = 52...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755756/human-judgment-vs-quantitative-models-for-the-management-of-ecological-resources
#10
Matthew H Holden, Stephen P Ellner
Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747369/haloperidol-2%C3%A2-mg-impairs-inhibition-but-not-visuospatial-attention
#11
H N Alexander Logemann, Koen B E Böcker, Peter K H Deschamps, Peter N van Harten, Jeroen Koning, Chantal Kemner, Zsófia Logemann-Molnár, J Leon Kenemans
RATIONALE: The dopaminergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, but the exact role has yet to be elucidated. Scarce literature suggests that attenuation of dopaminergic neurotransmission negatively affects attentional focusing and inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of dopaminergic antagonism on stopping performance. METHODS: Dopaminergic neurotransmission was attenuated in 28 healthy male participants by using 2 mg haloperidol...
October 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707975/effect-of-ovarian-hormone-therapy-on-cognition-in-the-aged-female-rhesus-macaque
#12
Steven G Kohama, Lauren Renner, Noelle Landauer, Alison R Weiss, Henryk F Urbanski, Byung Park, Mary Lou Voytko, Martha Neuringer
: Studies of the effect of hormone therapy on cognitive function in menopausal women have been equivocal, in part due to differences in the type and timing of hormone treatment. Here we cognitively tested aged female rhesus macaques on (1) the delayed response task of spatial working memory, (2) a visuospatial attention task that measured spatially and temporally cued reaction times, and (3) a simple reaction time task as a control for motor speed. After task acquisition, animals were ovariectomized (OVX)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701761/transudate-or-exudate-can-lactate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-canine-and-feline-effusions-help-to-differentiate-between-the-2
#13
Celia M Smuts, Jennifer N Mills, Tibor Gaál
BACKGROUND: Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity is often measured in human effusions to help in differentiating between transudates and exudates. Few studies have been performed using effusion samples from animals. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine whether LDH can be used to differentiate between transudative and exudative effusions in dogs and cats (including postmortem samples), and whether there is a difference between different laboratory methods of LDH measurement...
October 4, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687890/immediate-post-concussion-and-cognitive-testing-impact-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-and-assessment-of-invalid-performance
#14
Charles E Gaudet, Lisa L Weyandt
OBJECTIVE: Computerized neuropsychological assessment of concussion has rapidly expanded and Immediate Post-Concussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is among the most commonly used measures in this domain. ImPACT was primarily developed for use with athletic populations but continues to expand beyond athletics to settings such as the workplace and schools where motivational dispositions may vary. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of existing research investigating the prevalence of invalid baseline results and the effectiveness of ImPACT's embedded invalidity indicators in detecting suspect effort...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687709/performance-validity-in-undergraduate-research-participants-a-comparison-of-failure-rates-across-tests-and-cutoffs
#15
Kelly Y An, Kristen Kaploun, Laszlo A Erdodi, Christopher A Abeare
OBJECTIVE: This study compared failure rates on performance validity tests (PVTs) across liberal and conservative cutoffs in a sample of undergraduate students participating in academic research. METHOD: Participants (n = 120) were administered four free-standing PVTs (Test of Memory Malingering, Word Memory Test, Rey 15-Item Test, Hiscock Forced-Choice Procedure) and three embedded PVTs (Digit Span, letter and category fluency). Participants also reported their perceived level of effort during testing...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662418/elevations-on-select-conners-cpt-ii-scales-indicate-noncredible-responding-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Laszlo A Erdodi, Chantalle L Pelletier, Robert M Roth
Elevations on certain Conners' CPT-II scales are known to be associated with invalid responding. However, scales and cutoffs vary across studies. In addition, the methodology behind developing performance validity tests (PVTs) has been challenged for mistaking true impairment for noncredible presentation. Using ability-based tests as a PVT makes clinicians especially vulnerable to this criticism. The present study examined the ability of CPT-II to dissociate effort from impairment in 47 adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment...
September 23, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647071/-phase-%C3%A2-clinical-trial-for-external-use-of-recombinant-human-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-gel-in-treating-deep-partial-thickness-burn-wounds
#17
J Liu, Z J Liao, Q Zhang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of external use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) gel on deep partial-thickness burn wounds. Methods: Sixty-eight hospitals in our country including our unit performed a phase Ⅳ clinical trial for rhGM-CSF gel in patients (conforming to the study criteria) with deep partial-thickness burn wounds from November 2010 to July 2012. Multicenter, randomized, positive-homogenous-controlled, and open trial method was used in the trial, and patients from 10 hospitals were grouped into the positive-homogenous-controlled trial, while patients from the other 58 hospitals were grouped into open trial...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630757/gsk3-signalling-and-redox-status-in-bipolar-disorder-evidence-from-lithium-efficacy
#18
REVIEW
Antonina Luca, Carmela Calandra, Maria Luca
Objective. To discuss the link between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and the main biological alterations demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD), with special attention to the redox status and the evidence supporting the efficacy of lithium (a GSK3 inhibitor) in the treatment of BD. Methods. A literature research on the discussed topics, using Pubmed and Google Scholar, has been conducted. Moreover, a manual selection of interesting references from the identified articles has been performed. Results. The main biological alterations of BD, pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, membrane ion channels, and circadian system, seem to be intertwined...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630096/feasibility-of-supervised-self-testing-using-an-oral-fluid-based-hiv-rapid-testing-method-a-cross-sectional-mixed-method-study-among-pregnant-women-in-rural-india
#19
Archana Sarkar, Gitau Mburu, Poonam Varma Shivkumar, Pankhuri Sharma, Fiona Campbell, Jagannath Behera, Ritu Dargan, Surendra Kumar Mishra, Sunil Mehra
INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. METHODS: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick(®) HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625047/assessment-of-performance-validity-using-embedded-saccadic-and-manual-indices-on-a-continuous-performance-test
#20
David M Barry, Mark L Ettenhofer
OBJECTIVE: In addition to manual (i.e., "button press") metrics, oculomotor metrics demonstrate considerable promise as tools for detecting invalid responding in neurocognitive assessment. This study was conducted to evaluate saccadic and manual metrics from a computerized continuous performance test as embedded indices of performance validity. METHOD: Receiver operating characteristic analyses, logistic regressions, and ANOVAs were performed to evaluate saccadic and manual metrics in classification of healthy adults instructed to feign deficits ("Fake Bad" group; n = 24), healthy adults instructed to perform their best ("Best Effort" group; n = 26), and adults with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) who passed a series of validity indices ("mTBI-Pass" group; n = 19)...
September 13, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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