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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646672/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-visual-cortex-induces-suboptimal-introspection
#1
Megan A K Peters, Jeremy Fesi, Namema Amendi, Jeffrey D Knotts, Hakwan Lau, Tony Ro
Blindsight patients with damage to the visual cortex can discriminate objects but report no conscious visual experience. This provides an intriguing opportunity to allow the study of subjective awareness in isolation from objective performance capacity. However, blindsight is rare, so one promising way to induce the effect in neurologically intact observers is to apply transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the visual cortex. Here, we used a recently-developed criterion-free method to conclusively rule out an important alternative interpretation of TMS-induced performance without awareness: that TMS-induced blindsight may be just due to conservative reporting biases for conscious perception...
June 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632025/use-of-latent-class-analysis-to-define-groups-based-on-validity-cognition-and-emotional-functioning
#2
Ruth T Morin, Bradley N Axelrod
OBJECTIVE: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify a heterogeneous sample of neuropsychology data. In particular, we used measures of performance validity, symptom validity, cognition, and emotional functioning to assess and describe latent groups of functioning in these areas. METHOD: A data-set of 680 neuropsychological evaluation protocols was analyzed using a LCA. Data were collected from evaluations performed for clinical purposes at an urban medical center...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630353/evaluation-of-a-proposal-for-reliable-low-cost-grid-power-with-100-wind-water-and-solar
#3
Christopher T M Clack, Staffan A Qvist, Jay Apt, Morgan Bazilian, Adam R Brandt, Ken Caldeira, Steven J Davis, Victor Diakov, Mark A Handschy, Paul D H Hines, Paulina Jaramillo, Daniel M Kammen, Jane C S Long, M Granger Morgan, Adam Reed, Varun Sivaram, James Sweeney, George R Tynan, David G Victor, John P Weyant, Jay F Whitacre
A number of analyses, meta-analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619425/using-endogenous-saccades-to-characterize-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Marisa Ferreira, Paulo A Pereira, Marta Parreira, Inês Sousa, José Figueiredo, João J Cerqueira, Antonio F Macedo
PURPOSE: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSS<=3) and age matched controls were recruited. Eye movements were monitored using an infrared eyetracker...
May 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604709/two-dimensional-non-volatile-programmable-p-n-junctions
#5
Dong Li, Mingyuan Chen, Zhengzong Sun, Peng Yu, Zheng Liu, Pulickel M Ajayan, Zengxing Zhang
Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration...
June 12, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593892/neonatal-hypoglycemia-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#6
Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Snezana Jancevska, Dragan Danilovski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia...
March 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589425/comparison-of-the-immuview-and-the-binaxnow-antigen-tests-in-detection-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-legionella-pneumophila-in-urine
#7
S Athlin, A Iversen, V Özenci
The use of urinary antigen tests (UATs) may provide early etiology in pneumonia, and facilitates rapid and directed antibiotic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the novel lateral flow ImmuView Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila UAT, which detects pneumococcal and L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigens in a combined test. We compared the ImmuView UAT with the BinaxNOW S. pneumoniae UAT and the BinaxNOW L. pneumophila UAT in 147 patients with pneumococcal bacteremia (n = 48), non-pneumococcal non-Legionella bacteremia (n = 93) and Legionella infections in the lower airways (L...
June 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555516/clinical-utility-of-the-rey-15-item-test-recognition-trial-and-error-scores-for-detecting-noncredible-neuropsychological-performance-in-a-mixed-clinical-sample-of-veterans
#8
K Chase Bailey, Jason R Soble, Justin J F O'Rourke
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study examined the Rey 15-Item Test (RFIT), Recognition Trial, and Error Scores for identifying noncredible performance in a mixed clinical veteran sample compared to another widely used validity measure, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). METHOD: Sixty-two veterans who completed the RFIT (Recall/Recognition Trials), TOMM, and Word Memory Test (WMT) during clinical evaluation were included. Using the WMT as the criterion, 71% (N = 44) were classified as valid and 29% (N = 18) as invalid...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555477/an-analysis-of-the-process-and-results-of-manual-geocode-correction
#9
Yolanda J McDonald, Michael Schwind, Daniel W Goldberg, Amanda Lampley, Cosette M Wheeler
Geocoding is the science and process of assigning geographical coordinates (i.e. latitude, longitude) to a postal address. The quality of the geocode can vary dramatically depending on several variables, including incorrect input address data, missing address components, and spelling mistakes. A dataset with a considerable number of geocoding inaccuracies can potentially result in an imprecise analysis and invalid conclusions. There has been little quantitative analysis of the amount of effort (i.e. time) to perform geocoding correction, and how such correction could improve geocode quality type...
May 11, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552028/invalid-before-impaired-an-emerging-paradox-of-embedded-validity-indicators
#10
Laszlo A Erdodi, Jonathan D Lichtenstein
OBJECTIVE: Embedded validity indicators (EVIs) are cost-effective psychometric tools to identify non-credible response sets during neuropsychological testing. As research on EVIs expands, assessors are faced with an emerging contradiction: the range of credible impairment disappears between the 'normal' and 'invalid' range of performance. We labeled this phenomenon as the invalid-before-impaired paradox. This study was designed to explore the origin of this psychometric anomaly, subject it to empirical investigation, and generate potential solutions...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548129/central-pathology-review-with-two-stage-quality-assurance-for-pathological-response-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-the-artemis-trial
#11
Jeremy St John Thomas, Elena Provenzano, Louise Hiller, Janet Dunn, Clare Blenkinsop, Louise Grybowicz, Anne-Laure Vallier, Ioannis Gounaris, Jean Abraham, Luke Hughes-Davies, Karen McAdam, Stephen Chan, Rizvana Ahmad, Tamas Hickish, Stephen Houston, Daniel Rea, Carlos Caldas, John Ms Bartlett, David Allan Cameron, Richard Laurence Hayward, Helena Margaret Earl
The ARTemis Trial tested standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy±bevacizumab in the treatment of HER2-negative early breast cancer. We compare data from central pathology review with report review and also the reporting behavior of the two central pathologists. Eight hundred women with HER2-negative early invasive breast cancer were recruited. Response to chemotherapy was assessed from local pathology reports for pathological complete response in breast and axillary lymph nodes. Sections from the original core biopsy and surgical excision were centrally reviewed by one of two trial pathologists blinded to the local pathology reports...
May 26, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541210/walking-gait-step-length-asymmetry-induced-by-handheld-device
#12
Mahdi Abid, Valerie Renaudin, Yannick Aoustin, Eric Le Carpentier, Thomas Robert
The modeling and feature extraction of human gait motion are crucial in biomechanics studies, human localization and robotics applications. Recent studies in pedestrian navigation aim at extracting gait features based on the data of low-cost sensors embedded in handheld devices such as smartphones. The general assumption in Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) strategy for navigation application is that the presence of a device in hand does not impact the gait symmetry and that all steps are identical. This hypothesis, which is used to estimate the traveled distance, is investigated in this paper with an experimental study...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539893/more-than-attentional-tuning-investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-practice-gains-and-preparation-in-task-switching
#13
Mike Wendt, Stina Klein, Tilo Strobach
In task switching, participants perform trials of task repetitions (i.e., the same task is executed in consecutive trials) and task switches (i.e., different tasks are executed in consecutive trials) and the longer reaction times in switch trials in comparison to these times in repetition trials are referred to as switch costs. These costs are reduced by lengthening of an interval following a cue that indicates the upcoming task; this effect demonstrated effective task preparation. To investigate the role of task switching practice for these preparation effects and task switch costs, we applied a task switching paradigm, involving two digit classification tasks, in six successive practice sessions and varied the length of the preparation interval...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528655/pulmonary-flow-as-an-improved-method-for-determining-cardiac-output-in-mice-after-myocardial-infarction
#14
Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is a valuable noninvasive technique to estimate cardiac output (CO) from the left ventricle (LV) not only in clinical practice but also in small-animal experiments. CO is used to grade cardiac function and is especially important when investigating cardiac injury (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI]). Critically, MI deforms the LV, invalidating the assumptions fundamental to calculating of cardiac volumes directly from the LV. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if Doppler-derived blood flow through the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary flow [PF]) was an improved method over conventional LV-dependent echocardiography to accurately determine CO after MI...
June 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520974/the-neuropsychological-assessment-of-justice-involved-men-descriptive-analysis-preliminary-data-and-a-case-for-group-specific-norms
#15
Casey LaDuke, David DeMatteo, Kirk Heilbrun, Jennifer Gallo, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
Objective: Neuropsychological expertise has played an increasing role in legal decision-making in criminal contexts. Valid neuropsychological evidence in criminal forensic contexts requires normative data that are representative of justice-involved individuals. Unfortunately, existing normative data appear unlikely to represent justice-involved individuals due to significant demographic and clinical factors specific to this population. As a result, the interpretation of neuropsychological performance with justice-involved individuals using existing normative data may increase the risk of inaccurate description, invalid clinical conceptualization, misdiagnosis of impairment, and misattribution of deficits in functional-legal capacities...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505241/tri-ponderal-mass-index-vs-body-mass-index-in-estimating-body-fat-during-adolescence
#16
Courtney M Peterson, Haiyan Su, Diana M Thomas, Moonseong Heo, Amir H Golnabi, Angelo Pietrobelli, Steven B Heymsfield
Importance: Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. Objective: To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504863/diagnostic-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-intrapartum-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#17
Rikke Bek Helmig, Jan Berg Gertsen
Many pregnant women are treated with antibiotics during labor to prevent transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) to their baby during the passage of the birth canal, and thus reducing the risk of serious infection of the newborn. Methods for intrapartum testing for GBS has been introduced to select women for whom intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered. For such an intrapartum test to be useful in clinical practice, it has to be specific as well as sensitive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to an optimized culture method for GBS MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 12...
May 15, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492460/performance-validity-testing-in-neuropsychology-methods-for-measurement-development-and-maximizing-diagnostic-accuracy
#18
Thomas R Wodushek, Michael R Greher
In the first column in this 2-part series, Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review, the authors introduced performance validity tests (PVTs) and their function, provided a justification for why they are necessary, traced their ongoing endorsement by neuropsychological organizations, and described how they are used and interpreted by ever increasing numbers of clinical neuropsychologists. To enhance readers' understanding of these measures, this second column briefly describes common detection strategies used in PVTs as well as the typical methods used to validate new PVTs and determine cut scores for valid/invalid determinations...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488677/uninformed-consent-in-nutrigenomic-research
#19
A Cecile Jw Janssens, Eline M Bunnik, Wylie Burke, Maartje Hn Schermer
Genetic testing for personalizing diet and wellness programs is performed without extensive counseling that informs about the potential implications of knowing one's genotype status. Genetic counseling seems redundant for genes that impact the effect of diet on biomarkers such as cholesterol and blood pressure, but the same genes may have pleiotropic effects that cannot be ignored. A well-known example is the APOE gene, which is implicated in cholesterol regulation and is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease...
June 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488189/a-novel-analytical-potential-function-for-dicationic-diatomic-molecular-systems-based-on-deformed-exponential-function
#20
Daniel F S Machado, Rodrigo A L Silva, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Valter H Carvalho-Silva, Ricardo Gargano, Luciano Ribeiro, Heibbe C B de Oliveira
In this paper, we propose a new alternative analytical function aiming to better describe the potential energy curves of the doubly charged diatomic molecules. To achieve this goal, we modified an existing potential function in the literature to describe dicationic diatomic molecules using the deformed exponential function. We generated the potential energy curve of the testing group of dicationic diatomic molecules [Formula: see text], BH(2+), [Formula: see text] and NH(2+) by means of the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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