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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541210/walking-gait-step-length-asymmetry-induced-by-handheld-device
#1
Mahdi Abid, Valerie Renaudin, Yannick Aoustin, Eric Le Carpentier, Thomas Robert
The modeling and feature extraction of human gait motion are crucial in biomechanics studies, human localization and robotics applications. Recent studies in pedestrian navigation aim at extracting gait features based on the data of low-cost sensors embedded in handheld devices such as smartphones. The general assumption in Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) strategy for navigation application is that the presence of a device in hand does not impact the gait symmetry and that all steps are identical. This hypothesis, which is used to estimate the traveled distance, is investigated in this paper with an experimental study...
May 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539893/more-than-attentional-tuning-investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-practice-gains-and-preparation-in-task-switching
#2
Mike Wendt, Stina Klein, Tilo Strobach
In task switching, participants perform trials of task repetitions (i.e., the same task is executed in consecutive trials) and task switches (i.e., different tasks are executed in consecutive trials) and the longer reaction times in switch trials in comparison to these times in repetition trials are referred to as switch costs. These costs are reduced by lengthening of an interval following a cue that indicates the upcoming task; this effect demonstrated effective task preparation. To investigate the role of task switching practice for these preparation effects and task switch costs, we applied a task switching paradigm, involving two digit classification tasks, in six successive practice sessions and varied the length of the preparation interval...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528655/pulmonary-flow-as-an-improved-method-for-determining-cardiac-output-in-mice-after-myocardial-infarction
#3
Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is a valuable noninvasive technique to estimate cardiac output (CO) from the left ventricle (LV) not only in clinical practice but also in small-animal experiments. CO is used to grade cardiac function and is especially important when investigating cardiac injury (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI]). Critically, MI deforms the LV, invalidating the assumptions fundamental to calculating of cardiac volumes directly from the LV. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if Doppler-derived blood flow through the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary flow [PF]) was an improved method over conventional LV-dependent echocardiography to accurately determine CO after MI...
June 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520974/the-neuropsychological-assessment-of-justice-involved-men-descriptive-analysis-preliminary-data-and-a-case-for-group-specific-norms
#4
Casey LaDuke, David DeMatteo, Kirk Heilbrun, Jennifer Gallo, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
Objective: Neuropsychological expertise has played an increasing role in legal decision-making in criminal contexts. Valid neuropsychological evidence in criminal forensic contexts requires normative data that are representative of justice-involved individuals. Unfortunately, existing normative data appear unlikely to represent justice-involved individuals due to significant demographic and clinical factors specific to this population. As a result, the interpretation of neuropsychological performance with justice-involved individuals using existing normative data may increase the risk of inaccurate description, invalid clinical conceptualization, misdiagnosis of impairment, and misattribution of deficits in functional-legal capacities...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505241/tri-ponderal-mass-index-vs-body-mass-index-in-estimating-body-fat-during-adolescence
#5
Courtney M Peterson, Haiyan Su, Diana M Thomas, Moonseong Heo, Amir H Golnabi, Angelo Pietrobelli, Steven B Heymsfield
Importance: Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. Objective: To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents...
May 15, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504863/diagnostic-accuracy-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-intrapartum-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-colonization
#6
Rikke Bek Helmig, Jan Berg Gertsen
Many pregnant women are treated with antibiotics during labor to prevent transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) to their baby during the passage of the birth canal, and thus reducing the risk of serious infection of the newborn. Methods for intrapartum testing for GBS has been introduced to select women for whom intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis should be offered. For such an intrapartum test to be useful in clinical practice, it has to be specific as well as sensitive. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to an optimized culture method for GBS MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 12...
May 15, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492460/performance-validity-testing-in-neuropsychology-methods-for-measurement-development-and-maximizing-diagnostic-accuracy
#7
Thomas R Wodushek, Michael R Greher
In the first column in this 2-part series, Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review, the authors introduced performance validity tests (PVTs) and their function, provided a justification for why they are necessary, traced their ongoing endorsement by neuropsychological organizations, and described how they are used and interpreted by ever increasing numbers of clinical neuropsychologists. To enhance readers' understanding of these measures, this second column briefly describes common detection strategies used in PVTs as well as the typical methods used to validate new PVTs and determine cut scores for valid/invalid determinations...
May 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488677/uninformed-consent-in-nutrigenomic-research
#8
A Cecile Jw Janssens, Eline M Bunnik, Wylie Burke, Maartje Hn Schermer
Genetic testing for personalizing diet and wellness programs is performed without extensive counseling that informs about the potential implications of knowing one's genotype status. Genetic counseling seems redundant for genes that impact the effect of diet on biomarkers such as cholesterol and blood pressure, but the same genes may have pleiotropic effects that cannot be ignored. A well-known example is the APOE gene, which is implicated in cholesterol regulation and is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488189/a-novel-analytical-potential-function-for-dicationic-diatomic-molecular-systems-based-on-deformed-exponential-function
#9
Daniel F S Machado, Rodrigo A L Silva, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Valter H Carvalho-Silva, Ricardo Gargano, Luciano Ribeiro, Heibbe C B de Oliveira
In this paper, we propose a new alternative analytical function aiming to better describe the potential energy curves of the doubly charged diatomic molecules. To achieve this goal, we modified an existing potential function in the literature to describe dicationic diatomic molecules using the deformed exponential function. We generated the potential energy curve of the testing group of dicationic diatomic molecules [Formula: see text], BH(2+), [Formula: see text] and NH(2+) by means of the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464922/subversion-of-allocation-concealment-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-a-historical-case-study
#10
Andrew D M Kennedy, David J Torgerson, Marion K Campbell, Adrian M Grant
BACKGROUND: If the randomisation process within a trial is subverted, this can lead to selection bias that may invalidate the trial's result. To avoid this problem, it is recommended that some form of concealment should be put into place. Despite ongoing anecdotal concerns about their susceptibility to subversion, a surprising number of trials (over 10%) still use sealed opaque envelopes as the randomisation method of choice. This is likely due in part to the paucity of empirical data quantifying the potential effects of subversion...
May 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450974/response-preparation-response-conflict-and-the-effects-of-irrelevant-flanker-stimuli
#11
Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
The present study explored how response preparation modulates the effects of response conflict as induced by irrelevant flanker stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, an unreliable response cue (i.e., valid in 75% of trials but invalid in 25% of trials) preceded the stimulus display containing a target stimulus and different types (i.e., identical, neutral, compatible, or incompatible) flanker stimuli. In Experiment 3, a fully reliable response cue (i.e., valid in 100% of trials) or a neutral cue preceded the stimulus display...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450541/spatial-attention-motor-intention-and-bayesian-cue-predictability-in-the-human-brain
#12
Anna B Kuhns, Pascasie L Dombert, Paola Mengotti, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
Predictions about upcoming events influence how we perceive and respond to our environment. There is increasing evidence that predictions may be generated based upon previous observations following Bayesian principles, but little is known about the underlying cortical mechanisms and their specificity for different cognitive subsystems. The present study aimed at identifying common and distinct neural signatures of predictive processing in the spatial attentional and motor intentional systems. Twenty-three female and male healthy human volunteers performed two probabilistic cueing tasks with either spatial or motor cues while lying in the fMRI scanner...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440519/-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-perioperative-complications-of-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgery
#13
Haifu Wu, Ming Zhong, Di Zhou, Chenye Shi, Heng Jiao, Wei Wu, Xinxia Chang, Jing Cang, Hua Bian
Surgical operation in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes is popularizing rapidly in China. Correct prevention and recognition of perioperation-related operative complications is the premise of ensuring surgical safety. Familiar complications of the operation include deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism, anastomotic bleeding, anastomotic fistula and marginal ulcer. The prevention of deep venous thrombosis is better than treatment. The concrete measures contain physical prophylaxis (graduated compression stocking and intermittent pneumatic compression leg sleeves) and drug prophylaxis (unfractionated heparin and low molecular heparin), and the treatment is mainly thrombolysis or operative thrombectomy...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430849/performance-and-symptom-validity-testing-as-a-function-of-medical-board-evaluation-in-u-s-military-service-members-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Patrick Armistead-Jehle, Wesley R Cole, Robert L Stegman
Objective: The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Method: Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429656/baseline-cognitive-test-performance-and-concussion-like-symptoms-among-adolescent-athletes-with-adhd-examining-differences-based-on-medication-use
#15
Nathan E Cook, Donna S Huang, Noah D Silverberg, Brian L Brooks, Bruce Maxwell, Ross Zafonte, Paul D Berkner, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform more poorly on preseason cognitive testing and report more baseline concussion-like symptoms but prior studies have not examined the influence of medication use on test performance or symptom reporting. This study investigated whether medication use is relevant when interpreting baseline ImPACT® results from student athletes with ADHD. METHOD: Participants were 39,247 adolescent athletes, ages 13-18 (mean age = 15...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#16
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415989/evaluation-of-genotype-mtbdrplus-ver-2-0-line-probe-assay-for-the-detection-of-mdr-tb-in-smear-positive-and-negative-sputum-samples
#17
Abyot Meaza, Abebaw Kebede, Zelalem Yaregal, Zekarias Dagne, Shewki Moga, Bazezew Yenew, Getu Diriba, Helina Molalign, Mengistu Tadesse, Desalegn Adisse, Muluwork Getahun, Kassu Desta
BACKGROUND: Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses formidable challenges to TB control due to its complex diagnostic and treatment challenges and often associated with a high rate of mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Line Probe Assay (LPA) is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic test based on DNA-STRIP technology for the identification of the M. tuberculosis complex and its resistance to rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH)...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403015/hr-hpv-e6-e7-mrna-in-situ-hybridization-validation-against-pcr-dna-in-situ-hybridization-and-p16-immunohistochemistry-in-102-samples-of-cervical-vulvar-anal-and-head-and-neck-neoplasia
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anne M Mills, Dawn C Dirks, Melinda D Poulter, Stacey E Mills, Mark H Stoler
Dysregulated expression of oncogenic types of E6 and E7 is necessary for human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinogenesis. An HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) assay covering 18 common high-risk types ("HR-RISH," aka HR-HPV RNA18 ISH) has not been extensively studied in the anogenital tract or validated on automated technology. We herein compare HR-RISH to DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), p16 immunohistochemistry, and a previously available HPV DNA ISH assay in HPV-related anogenital and head and neck (H&N) neoplasia...
May 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397174/perceptions-of-chinese-biomedical-researchers-towards-academic-misconduct-a-comparison-between-2015-and-2010
#19
Qing-Jiao Liao, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Yu-Chen Fan, Ming-Hua Zheng, Yu Bai, Guy D Eslick, Xing-Xiang He, Shi-Bing Zhang, Harry Hua-Xiang Xia, Hua He
Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China...
April 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391774/exploring-the-sensitivity-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-symptom-validity-tests-in-detecting-response-bias-in-a-mixed-neuropsychological-outpatient-sample
#20
Owen J Gaasedelen, Douglas M Whiteside, Michael Basso
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated the symptom validity tests (SVTs) within the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a neuropsychological assessment context. Accordingly, the present study explored the accuracy of PAI SVTs in identifying exaggerated cognitive dysfunction in a mixed sample of outpatients referred for neuropsychological assessment. METHOD: Participants who failed two or more Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were classified as having exaggerated cognitive dysfunction (n = 49)...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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