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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#1
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070842/diagnostic-imaging-and-spending-review-extreme-problems-call-for-extreme-measures
#2
Anna Micaela Ciarrapico, Rossana Ugenti, Lidia Di Minco, Elisabetta Santori, Simone Altobelli, Irene Coco, Silvia D'Onofrio, Giovanni Simonetti
The number of diagnostic imaging tests has increased dramatically over the past decade and about 5 billion diagnostic examinations are performed worldwide each year. According to Health Ministry, Italy, is in second place for the number of CT and MR tests per thousand inhabitants in 2014 with a score of 83.3 (only Germany has a higher score, 95.2) that is a long way off from the European average of 46.5. It has also the highest ratio of magnetic resonances per person with 24,6 machines per million inhabitants, followed only by Greece and Finland...
January 9, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047099/we-de-207b-05-measuring-spatial-resolution-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-update-of-aapm-task-group-245
#3
D A Scaduto, M Goodsitt, H-P Chan, H Olafsdottir, M Das, E Fredenberg, W Geiser, D Goodenough, P Heid, Y-H Hu, B Liu, J Mainprize, I Reiser, R Van Engen, V Varchena, S Vecchio, S Glick, W Zhao
PURPOSE: Spatial resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is affected by inherent/binned detector resolution, oblique entry of x-rays, and focal spot size/motion; the limited angular range further limits spatial resolution in the depth-direction. While DBT is being widely adopted clinically, imaging performance metrics and quality control protocols have not been standardized. AAPM Task Group 245 on Tomosynthesis Quality Control has been formed to address this deficiency. METHODS: Methods of measuring spatial resolution are evaluated using two prototype quality control phantoms for DBT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032009/assessment-of-feigned-cognitive-impairment-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-with-the-forced-choice-graphics-memory-test
#4
Zilong Liu, Juan Dong, Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaorui Chen, Sara M Lippa, Jerome S Caroselli, Xiang Fang
INTRODUCTION: The Forced-choice Graphics Memory Test (FGMT) is a newly developed measure to assess feigned cognitive impairment. This study investigated the ability and reliability of FGMT for identification of malingering in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The FGMT was administered to 40 healthy volunteers instructed to respond validly (Healthy Control, H-C), 40 healthy volunteers instructed to feign cognitive impairment (Healthy Malingering, H-M), 40 severe TBI patients who responded validly (TBI control, TBI-C), and 30 severe TBI patients who evidenced invalid performance (TBI malingering, TBI-M)...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992495/options-to-expand-hiv-viral-load-testing-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-viral-load-assay
#5
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981785/morphological-study-ultrastructural-aspects-of-articular-cartilage-and-sub-chondral-bone-in-patients-affected-by-post-traumatic-shoulder-instability
#6
Paolo Baudi, Fabio Catani, Manuela Rebuzzi, Marzia Ferretti, Alberto Smargiassi, Gabriele Campochiaro, Fabio Serafini, Carla Palumbo
Post-traumatic shoulder instability is a frequent condition in active population, representing one of most disabling pathologies, due to altered balance involving joints. No data are so far available on early ultrastructural osteo-chondral damages, associated with the onset of invalidating pathologies, like osteoarthritis-OA. Biopsies of glenoid articular cartilage and sub-chondral bone were taken from 10 adult patients underwent arthroscopic stabilization. Observations were performed under Transmission Electron Microscopy-TEM in tangential, arcuate and radial layers of the articular cartilage and in the sub-chondral bone...
December 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981538/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-pharyngitis-tonsillitis-a-preliminary-observational-study-in-general-medicine
#7
F Di Muzio, M Barucco, F Guerriero
OBJECTIVE: According to recent observations, the insufficiently targeted use of antibiotics is creating increasingly resistant bacterial strains. In this context, it seems increasingly clear the need to resort to extreme and prudent rationalization of antibiotic therapy, especially by the physicians working in primary care units. In clinical practice, actually the general practitioner often treats multiple diseases without having the proper equipment. In particular, the use of a dedicated, easy to use diagnostic test would be one more weapon for the correct diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngo-tonsillitis...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981273/the-pursuit-of-normal-reference-values-of-pancreas-stiffness-by-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography
#8
Razvan Zaro, Monica Lupsor-Platon, Alexandre Cheviet, Radu Badea
AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate pancreatic stiffness by ARFI abdominal elastography. In the current literature, there are relatively few studies that have assessed the clinical utility of this technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A number of 37 healthy subjects were included. The data were collected in a prospective manner and afterwards included in an observational, analytical and longitudinal study. Subsequently viewing the pancreatic parenchyma in bidimensional mode (2D-US) mode, 10 shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements for each segment: head, body and tail were performed...
December 5, 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941600/application-of-fast-dynamic-allan-variance-for-the-characterization-of-fogs-based-measurement-while-drilling
#9
Lu Wang, Chunxi Zhang, Shuang Gao, Tao Wang, Tie Lin, Xianmu Li
The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series...
December 7, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932534/perceptual-and-motor-performance-of-combat-sport-athletes-differs-according-to-specific-demands-of-the-discipline
#10
Wei-Ying Chen, Sheng K Wu, Tai-Fen Song, Kuei-Ming Chou, Kuei-Yuan Wang, Yao-Ching Chang, Patrick T Goodbourn
The specific demands of a combat-sport discipline may be reflected in the perceptual-motor performance of its athletes. Taekwondo, which emphasizes kicking, might require faster perceptual processing to compensate for longer latencies to initiate lower-limb movements and to give rapid visual feedback for dynamic postural control, while Karate, which emphasizes both striking with the hands and kicking, might require exceptional eye-hand coordination and fast perceptual processing. In samples of 38 Taekwondo athletes (16 females, 22 males; mean age = 19...
December 7, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925576/comparison-of-oxygen-transfer-parameters-and-oxygen-demands-in-bioreactors-operated-at-low-and-high-dissolved-oxygen-levels
#11
Richard O Mines, Matthew C Callier, Benjamin J Drabek, André J Butler
The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L(-1) of dissolved oxygen (DO)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896714/stopping-ability-in-younger-and-older-adults-behavioral-and-event-related-potential
#12
Shulan Hsieh, Yu-Chi Lin
This study examines age-related differences in inhibitory control as measured by stop-signal performance. The participants were 24 adults aged 20-30 years and 24 older adults aged 61-76 years. The task blocks were pure choice reaction-time blocks, global stop-signal blocks (with an auditory stop signal), and selective stop-signal blocks (with valid and invalid stop signals). There was a decline in reactive inhibitory control for the older group reflected by greater stop-signal reaction times and reduced P3 peak amplitudes in both global and selective stop-signal task blocks...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892806/wisconsin-card-sorting-test-embedded-validity-indicators-developed-for-adults-can-be-extended-to-children
#13
Jonathan D Lichtenstein, Laszlo A Erdodi, Jaspreet K Rai, Anya Mazur-Mosiewicz, Lloyd Flaro
Past studies have examined the ability of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) to discriminate valid from invalid performance in adults using both individual embedded validity indicators (EVIs) and multivariate approaches. This study is designed to investigate whether the two most stable of these indicators-failures to maintain set (FMS) and the logistical regression equation S-BLRE-can be extended to pediatric populations. The classification accuracy for FMS and S-BLRE was examined in a mixed clinical sample of 226 children aged 7 to 17 years (64...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888354/effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-the-interaction-between-going-and-stopping-in-a-selective-stop-change-task
#14
Frederick Verbruggen, Rosamund McLaren
Inhibition of no-longer relevant go responses supports flexible and goal-directed behavior. The present study explored if the interaction between going and stopping is influenced by monetary incentives. Subjects (N = 108) performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the planned go response if invalid signals or no signals occurred. There were two incentive groups: the punishment group lost points for unsuccessful valid-signal trials, whereas the reward group gained points for successful valid-signal trials...
November 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846818/asymptomatic-and-yet-c-difficile-toxin-positive-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-among-geriatric-in-patients
#15
Klaus Nissle, Daniel Kopf, Alexander Rösler
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are the most frequent cause of diarrhoea in hospitals. Geriatric patients are more often affected by the condition, by a relapse and complications. Therefore, a crucial question is how often colonization with toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains occurs in elderly patients without diarrhoea and whether there is a "risk pattern" of colonized patients that can be defined by geriatric assessment. Furthermore, the probability for those asymptomatic carriers to develop a symptomatic infection over time has not been sufficiently explored...
November 15, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846775/red-flags-in-the-clinical-interview-may-forecast-invalid-neuropsychological-testing
#16
Michael E Keesler, Kirstie McClung, Tawny Meredith-Duliba, Kelli Williams, Thomas Swirsky-Sacchetti
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating assessment validity is expected in neuropsychological evaluation, particularly in cases with identified secondary gain, where malingering or somatization may be present. Assessed with standalone measures and embedded indices, all within the testing portion of the examination, research on validity of self-report in the clinical interview is limited. Based on experience with litigation-involved examinees recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), it was hypothesized that inconsistently reported date of injury (DOI) and/or loss of consciousness (LOC) might predict invalid performance on neurocognitive testing...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834862/internet-of-things-platform-for-smart-farming-experiences-and-lessons-learnt
#17
Prem Prakash Jayaraman, Ali Yavari, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Ahsan Morshed, Arkady Zaslavsky
Improving farm productivity is essential for increasing farm profitability and meeting the rapidly growing demand for food that is fuelled by rapid population growth across the world. Farm productivity can be increased by understanding and forecasting crop performance in a variety of environmental conditions. Crop recommendation is currently based on data collected in field-based agricultural studies that capture crop performance under a variety of conditions (e.g., soil quality and environmental conditions)...
November 9, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808545/the-typical-advantage-of-object-based-attention-reflects-reduced-spatial-cost
#18
Yaffa Yeshurun, Einat Rashal
In Egly, Driver, and Rafal's (1994) seminal study, an attentional precue appeared either at the target location (valid), a different location within the same object (invalid-same), or on another object (invalid-different). Performance was best in the valid condition, reflecting the advance allocation of spatial-attention. In addition, performance was better in the invalid-same than invalid-different condition, reflecting object-based attention allocation. However, previous studies that used this paradigm did not include a baseline condition in which neither a specific object nor a specific location was indicated...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758163/embedded-performance-validity-tests-within-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised
#19
R John Sawyer, S Marc Testa, Moira Dux
OBJECTIVE: Various research studies and neuropsychology practice organizations have reiterated the importance of developing embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) to detect potentially invalid neurocognitive test data. This study investigated whether measures within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R) could accurately classify individuals who fail two or more PVTs during routine clinical assessment. METHOD: The present sample of 109 United States military veterans (Mean age = 52...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755756/human-judgment-vs-quantitative-models-for-the-management-of-ecological-resources
#20
Matthew H Holden, Stephen P Ellner
Despite major advances in quantitative approaches to natural resource management, there has been resistance to using these tools in the actual practice of managing ecological populations. Given a managed system and a set of assumptions, translated into a model, optimization methods can be used to solve for the most cost-effective management actions. However, when the underlying assumptions are not met, such methods can potentially lead to decisions that harm the environment and economy. Managers who develop decisions based on past experience and judgment, without the aid of mathematical models, can potentially learn about the system and develop flexible management strategies...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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