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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239342/informative-cues-facilitate-saccadic-localization-in-blindsight-monkeys
#1
Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed, Tadashi Isa
Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223147/comparative-performance-study-of-six-commercial-molecular-assays-for-rapid-detection-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile
#2
Yossi Paitan, Tamar Miller Roll, Amos Adler
OBJECTIVES: Rapid and accurate detection of C. difficile in stool impacts patient treatment and containment efforts. Detection of C. difficile toxin genes using nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) is part of a multistep algorithm. Our objective was to directly compare the diagnostic accuracy and applicability of 6 commercial C. difficile NAAT assays. METHODS: In this study, 210 specimens were analysed in parallel by 6 commercial NAAT. Toxigenic culture was used as a reference method...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208603/an-artificial-turf-based-surrogate-surface-collector-for-the-direct-measurement-of-atmospheric-mercury-dry-deposition
#3
Naima L Hall, Joseph Timothy Dvonch, Frank J Marsik, James A Barres, Matthew S Landis
This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg) dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film). The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks), and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202710/practical-data-handling-pipeline-improves-performance-of-qpcr-based-circulating-mirna-measurements
#4
Maurice W J de Ronde, Jan M Ruijter, David Lanfear, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Maayke Kok, Esther Creemers, Yigal M Pinto, Sara-Joan Pinto-Sietsma
BACKGROUND: Since numerous miRNAs have been shown to be present in the circulation, these so-called circulating miRNAs have emerged as potential biomarkers for disease. However, results of qPCR studies on circulating miRNA biomarkers vary greatly and many experiments cannot be reproduced. Missing data in qPCR experiments often occur due to off-target amplification, non-analyzable qPCR curves and discordance between replicates. The low concentration of most miRNAs leads to most, but not all missing data...
February 15, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192502/theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-prefrontal-or-parietal-cortex-does-not-impair-metacognitive-visual-awareness
#5
Daniel Bor, David J Schwartzman, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth
Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157341/are-there-signatures-of-harmonic-oscillator-shells-far-from-stability-first-spectroscopy-of-110-zr
#6
N Paul, A Corsi, A Obertelli, P Doornenbal, G Authelet, H Baba, B Bally, M Bender, D Calvet, F Château, S Chen, J-P Delaroche, A Delbart, J-M Gheller, A Giganon, A Gillibert, M Girod, P-H Heenen, V Lapoux, J Libert, T Motobayashi, M Niikura, T Otsuka, T R Rodríguez, J-Y Roussé, H Sakurai, C Santamaria, N Shimizu, D Steppenbeck, R Taniuchi, T Togashi, Y Tsunoda, T Uesaka, T Ando, T Arici, A Blazhev, F Browne, A M Bruce, R Carroll, L X Chung, M L Cortés, M Dewald, B Ding, F Flavigny, S Franchoo, M Górska, A Gottardo, A Jungclaus, J Lee, M Lettmann, B D Linh, J Liu, Z Liu, C Lizarazo, S Momiyama, K Moschner, S Nagamine, N Nakatsuka, C Nita, C R Nobs, L Olivier, Z Patel, Zs Podolyák, M Rudigier, T Saito, C Shand, P-A Söderström, I Stefan, R Orlandi, V Vaquero, V Werner, K Wimmer, Z Xu
The first measurement of the low-lying states of the neutron-rich ^{110}Zr and ^{112}Mo was performed via in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy after one proton removal on hydrogen at ∼200  MeV/nucleon. The 2_{1}^{+} excitation energies were found at 185(11) keV in ^{110}Zr, and 235(7) keV in ^{112}Mo, while the R_{42}=E(4_{1}^{+})/E(2_{1}^{+}) ratios are 3.1(2), close to the rigid rotor value, and 2.7(1), respectively. These results are compared to modern energy density functional based configuration mixing models using Gogny and Skyrme effective interactions...
January 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139144/embedded-performance-validity-testing-in-neuropsychological-assessment-potential-clinical-tools
#7
Tyler A Rickards, Christopher C Cranston, Pegah Touradji, Kathleen T Bechtold
The article aims to suggest clinically-useful tools in neuropsychological assessment for efficient use of embedded measures of performance validity. To accomplish this, we integrated available validity-related and statistical research from the literature, consensus statements, and survey-based data from practicing neuropsychologists. We provide recommendations for use of 1) Cutoffs for embedded performance validity tests including Reliable Digit Span, California Verbal Learning Test (Second Edition) Forced Choice Recognition, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test Combination Score, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Failure to Maintain Set, and the Finger Tapping Test; 2) Selecting number of performance validity measures to administer in an assessment; and 3) Hypothetical clinical decision-making models for use of performance validity testing in a neuropsychological assessment collectively considering behavior, patient reporting, and data indicating invalid or noncredible performance...
January 31, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129063/power-and-phase-of-alpha-oscillations-reveal-an-interaction-between-spatial-and-temporal-visual-attention
#8
Sayeed A D Kizuk, Kyle E Mathewson
Oscillatory brain rhythms can bias attention via phase and amplitude changes, which modulate sensory activity, biasing information to be processed or ignored. Alpha band (7-14 Hz) oscillations lateralize with spatial attention and rhythmically inhibit visual activity and awareness through pulses of inhibition. Here we show that human observers' awareness of spatially unattended targets is dependent on both alpha power and alpha phase at target onset. Following a predictive directional cue, alpha oscillations were entrained bilaterally using repetitive visual stimuli...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124293/influence-of-simple-action-on-subsequent-manual-and-ocular-responses
#9
Fei Wang, Ji Sun, Pei Sun, Blaire J Weidler, Richard A Abrams
Recent investigations into how action affects perception have revealed an interesting "action effect"-that is, simply acting upon an object enhances its processing in subsequent tasks. The previous studies, however, relied only on manual responses, allowing an alternative stimulus-response binding account of the effect. The current study examined whether the action effect occurs in the presence of changes in response modalities. In Experiment 1, participants completed a modified action effect paradigm, in which they first produced an arbitrary manual response to a shape and then performed a visual search task in which the previous shape was either a valid or invalid cue-responding with a manual or saccadic response...
January 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123669/-diagnosis-of-sleep-apnea-in-network-respiratory-polygraphy-as-a-decentralization-strategy
#10
Eduardo Borsini, Magali Blanco, Martin Bosio, Di Tullio Fernando, Glenda Ernst, Alejandro Salvado
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is diagnosed through polysomnography (PSG) or respiratory polygraphy (RP). Self-administered home-based RP using devices with data transmission could facilitate diagnosis in distant populations. The purpose of this work was to describe a telemedicine initiative using RP in four satellite outpatient care clinics (OCC) of Buenos Aires Hospital Británico Central (HBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCC technicians were trained both in the use of RP...
July 2016: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113683/a-non-parametric-approach-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-ad-conversion-prediction-results-on-longitudinal-data
#11
Sidra Minhas, Aasia Khanum, Farhan Riaz, Atif Alvi, Shoab A Khan
The goal of this study is to introduce a non-parametric technique for predicting conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Progression of a slowly progressing disease such as AD benefits from the use of longitudinal data; however, research till now is limited due to insufficient patient data and short follow up time. A small dataset size invalidates the estimation of underlying disease progression model, hence a supervised, non-parametric method is proposed. While depicting a real world setting, longitudinal data of 3 years are employed for training, whereas only the baseline visit's data is used for validation...
September 13, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112698/ericksonian-hypnotherapy-for-selective-mutism-a-single-case-study
#12
Mauro Cavarra, Adelina Brizio, Nicoletta Gava
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Children affected by selective mutism don't speak in contexts that are unfamiliar to them or in which speaking is expected or required (e.g. school, kindergarten…). Such disorder interferes with the child's normal activities, may have invalidating consequences in the long run if left untreated, is associated to anxious conditions and is considered hard to treat. Contemporary research is still in need of methodologically rigorous outcome studies and the results described in the small number of published randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies indicate cognitive-behavioral interventions lasting 20-24 sessions as the best therapeutic option...
January 16, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081227/diagnostic-accuracy-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-comparison-to-conventional-drug-susceptibility-testing-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#13
Pratikshya Pandey, Narayan Dutt Pant, Komal Raj Rijal, Bhawana Shrestha, Sirita Kattel, Megha Raj Banjara, Bhagwan Maharjan, Rajendra Kc
Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070842/diagnostic-imaging-and-spending-review-extreme-problems-call-for-extreme-measures
#14
Anna Micaela Ciarrapico, Rossana Ugenti, Lidia Di Minco, Elisabetta Santori, Simone Altobelli, Irene Coco, Silvia D'Onofrio, Giovanni Simonetti
The number of diagnostic imaging tests has increased dramatically over the past decade and about 5 billion diagnostic examinations are performed worldwide each year. According to Health Ministry, Italy, is in second place for the number of CT and MR tests per thousand inhabitants in 2014 with a score of 83.3 (only Germany has a higher score, 95.2) that is a long way off from the European average of 46.5. It has also the highest ratio of magnetic resonances per person with 24,6 machines per million inhabitants, followed only by Greece and Finland...
January 9, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047099/we-de-207b-05-measuring-spatial-resolution-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-update-of-aapm-task-group-245
#15
D A Scaduto, M Goodsitt, H-P Chan, H Olafsdottir, M Das, E Fredenberg, W Geiser, D Goodenough, P Heid, Y-H Hu, B Liu, J Mainprize, I Reiser, R Van Engen, V Varchena, S Vecchio, S Glick, W Zhao
PURPOSE: Spatial resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is affected by inherent/binned detector resolution, oblique entry of x-rays, and focal spot size/motion; the limited angular range further limits spatial resolution in the depth-direction. While DBT is being widely adopted clinically, imaging performance metrics and quality control protocols have not been standardized. AAPM Task Group 245 on Tomosynthesis Quality Control has been formed to address this deficiency. METHODS: Methods of measuring spatial resolution are evaluated using two prototype quality control phantoms for DBT...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032009/assessment-of-feigned-cognitive-impairment-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-with-the-forced-choice-graphics-memory-test
#16
Zilong Liu, Juan Dong, Xiaohong Zhao, Xiaorui Chen, Sara M Lippa, Jerome S Caroselli, Xiang Fang
INTRODUCTION: The Forced-choice Graphics Memory Test (FGMT) is a newly developed measure to assess feigned cognitive impairment. This study investigated the ability and reliability of FGMT for identification of malingering in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: The FGMT was administered to 40 healthy volunteers instructed to respond validly (Healthy Control, H-C), 40 healthy volunteers instructed to feign cognitive impairment (Healthy Malingering, H-M), 40 severe TBI patients who responded validly (TBI control, TBI-C), and 30 severe TBI patients who evidenced invalid performance (TBI malingering, TBI-M)...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992495/options-to-expand-hiv-viral-load-testing-in-south-africa-evaluation-of-the-genexpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-viral-load-assay
#17
Natasha Gous, Lesley Scott, Leigh Berrie, Wendy Stevens
BACKGROUND: Expansion of HIV viral load (VL) testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid) was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981785/morphological-study-ultrastructural-aspects-of-articular-cartilage-and-subchondral-bone-in-patients-affected-by-post-traumatic-shoulder-instability
#18
Paolo Baudi, Fabio Catani, Manuela Rebuzzi, Marzia Ferretti, Alberto Smargiassi, Gabriele Campochiaro, Fabio Serafini, Carla Palumbo
Post-traumatic shoulder instability is a frequent condition in active population, representing one of most disabling pathologies, due to altered balance involving joints. No data are so far available on early ultrastructural osteo-chondral damages, associated with the onset of invalidating pathologies, like osteoarthritis-OA. Biopsies of glenoid articular cartilage and sub-chondral bone were taken from 10 adult patients underwent arthroscopic stabilization. Observations were performed under Transmission Electron Microscopy-TEM in tangential, arcuate and radial layers of the articular cartilage and in the sub-chondral bone...
December 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981538/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-acute-pharyngitis-tonsillitis-a-preliminary-observational-study-in-general-medicine
#19
F Di Muzio, M Barucco, F Guerriero
OBJECTIVE: According to recent observations, the insufficiently targeted use of antibiotics is creating increasingly resistant bacterial strains. In this context, it seems increasingly clear the need to resort to extreme and prudent rationalization of antibiotic therapy, especially by the physicians working in primary care units. In clinical practice, actually the general practitioner often treats multiple diseases without having the proper equipment. In particular, the use of a dedicated, easy to use diagnostic test would be one more weapon for the correct diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngo-tonsillitis...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981273/the-pursuit-of-normal-reference-values-of-pancreas-stiffness-by-using-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-arfi-elastography
#20
Razvan Zaro, Monica Lupsor-Platon, Alexandre Cheviet, Radu Badea
AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate pancreatic stiffness by ARFI abdominal elastography. In the current literature, there are relatively few studies that have assessed the clinical utility of this technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A number of 37 healthy subjects were included. The data were collected in a prospective manner and afterwards included in an observational, analytical and longitudinal study. Subsequently viewing the pancreatic parenchyma in bidimensional mode (2D-US) mode, 10 shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements for each segment: head, body and tail were performed...
December 5, 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
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