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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092416/persistence-of-antibody-to-hepatitis-a-virus-20-years-after-receipt-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-alaska
#1
Ian D Plumb, Lisa R Bulkow, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy, Julie Morris, Karen Rudolph, Philip Spradling, Mary Snowball, Brian J McMahon
Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children ≥1 year old to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However the duration of vaccine-induced immunity is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of Alaska Native persons 20 years after HAV vaccination. Children aged 3-6 years had been previously randomized to receive 3 doses of HAV vaccine (360 ELISA units/dose) at: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. We measured anti-HAV antibody concentrations every 2-3 years; described geometric mean concentrations (GMC) and the proportion with protective antibody (≥20 mIU mL-1) over time; and modelled change in GMC using fractional polynomial regression...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089593/physician-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-hepatitis-a-and-current-practices-regarding-hepatitis-a-vaccination-delivery
#2
Noele P Nelson, Mandy Allison, Megan C Lindley, Michaela Brtnikova, Lori A Crane, Brenda L Beaty, Laura P Hurley, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To assess physicians' 1) knowledge and attitudes about hepatitis A disease and HepA vaccine, and 2) child care and school HepA vaccine mandates; 3) practices related to HepA vaccine delivery; 4) factors associated with strongly recommending HepA vaccine to all 1-2 year olds; and 5) feasibility of implementing HepA catch-up vaccination at health maintenance visits. METHODS: A national survey was conducted among representative networks of pediatricians and family medicine physicians (FMs) from March to June, 2014 by e-mail or mail based on provider preference...
January 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074040/potent-neutralization-of-hepatitis-a-virus-reveals-a-receptor-mimic-mechanism-and-the-receptor-recognition-site
#3
Xiangxi Wang, Ling Zhu, Minghao Dang, Zhongyu Hu, Qiang Gao, Shuai Yuan, Yao Sun, Bo Zhang, Jingshan Ren, Abhay Kotecha, Thomas S Walter, Junzhi Wang, Elizabeth E Fry, David I Stuart, Zihe Rao
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070204/evaluation-of-lactobacillus-coryniformis-cect5711-strain-as-a-coadjuvant-in-a-vaccination-process-a-randomised-clinical-trial-in-healthy-adults
#4
Noemí Redondo, Esther Nova, Alina Gheorghe, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Aurora Hernández, Ascensión Marcos
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of probiotics on the immune system have been extensively evaluated under disease states, their role in healthy situations remains unclear, since changes are hardly expected under immunological homeostasis. EFSA indicates that vaccination protocols could be used to evaluate the potential role of probiotics to improve the immune response against antigen challenges. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 (Lc) on the specific immunity of healthy volunteers undergoing vaccination with Hepatitis A virus (HAV)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060048/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-a-potential-hepatitis-b-booster-vaccination-strategy-using-combined-hepatitis-a-and-b-vaccine
#5
Fangjun Li, Yuansheng Hu, Youming Zhou, Lixin Chen, Wei Xia, Yufei Song, Zhengliang Tan, Lidong Gao, Zhong Yang, Gang Zeng, Xing Han
BACKGROUND: Booster doses could play a major role in those no responders or low responders to primary hepatitis B vaccine. Planed time point for hepatitis A vaccination in China provides a good opportunity to carry out hepatitis B booster dose by using combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. METHOD: A randomized, double blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of toddlers 18-24 months of age receiving three different vaccination regimens: either two doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (group 1), or one dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine plus one dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 2), or two doses of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 3) respectively...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030926/prevalence-of-rotavirus-adenovirus-hepatitis-a-virus-and-enterovirus-in-water-samples-collected-from-different-region-of-peshawar-pakistan
#6
Tahir Ahmad, Najma Arshad, Fazal Adnan, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Muhammad Talha Shahid, Usman Zahoor, Muhammad S Afzal, Sadia Anjum
Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026900/doppler-ultrasound-in-liver-cirrhosis-correlation-of-hepatic-artery-and-portal-vein-measurements-with-model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-score
#7
Hee Sun Park, Terry S Desser, R Brooke Jeffrey, Aya Kamaya
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether hepatic arterial and portal venous Doppler ultrasound measurements of the liver in cirrhotic patients correlate with patients' Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, splenomegaly, or ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sonographic images and reports were reviewed of 264 patients with hepatic cirrhosis who underwent abdominal ultrasound with Doppler in this internal review board-approved retrospective study. MELD scores were recorded at the time of ultrasound...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013247/evidence-for-hepatitis-a-virus-endemic-circulation-in-israel-despite-universal-toddlers-vaccination-since-1999-and-low-clinical-incidence-in-all-age-groups
#8
Yosef Manor, Matthew Lewis, Daniela Ram, Nili Daudi, Orna Mor, Michal Savion, Zipi Kra-Oz, Yonat Shemer Avni, Rivka Sheffer, Daniel Shouval, Ella Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Universal toddlers vaccination (UTV) introduced in 1999, reduced hepatitis A incidence in Israel from 50.4 to <1.0/100,000. The current Hepatitis A virus (HAV) molecular epidemiology in Israel was studied 13-14y post UTV introduction.. METHODS: An outbreak in Tel-Aviv with 75 cases in 2012-2013 was investigated. Real-time RT-PCR and sequencing of the VP1-2A region (1100bp) was done on: a. serum samples from patients with acute Hepatitis A (12/ 75 in Tel-Aviv and 31 patients hospitalized in 3 other major cities in 2011-2013); b...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011965/are-municipal-solid-waste-collectors-at-increased-risk-of-hepatitis-a-virus-infection-a-greek-cross-sectional-study
#9
George Rachiotis, Eva Tsovili, Dimitrios Papagiannis, Adelais Markaki, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Municipal solid waste collectors are reportedly at risk for Hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) as an occupational hazard. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of HAV infection among solid waste collectors in a municipality of the broader region of Attica, Greece. A cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was conducted. Fifty (n=50) waste collectors participated in the study (response rate: 95%). The group of municipal waste collectors was compared to a convenient sample of workers not exposed to solid waste (n=83)...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011355/elimination-of-representative-contaminant-candidate-list-viruses-coxsackievirus-echovirus-hepatitis-a-virus-and-norovirus-from-water-by-coagulation-processes
#10
N Shirasaki, T Matsushita, Y Matsui, K Murai, A Aochi
We examined the removal of representative contaminant candidate list (CCL) viruses (coxsackievirus [CV] B5, echovirus type [EV] 11, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), recombinant norovirus virus-like particles (rNV-VLPs), and murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 by coagulation. Water samples were subjected to coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) followed by either settling or settling and filtration. Together with our previously published results, the removal ratio order, as evaluated by a plaque-forming-unit method or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after settling, was HAV>EV=rNV-VLPs≥CV=poliovirus type 1=MNV>adenovirus type 40 (range, 0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998405/-status-of-seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-in-primary-and-middle-school-students-in-shufu-county-xinjiang-uygur-autonomous-region-of-china
#11
Z B Zhang, Z X Xue, Z G Han, Q Y Yang, X R Zheng, Tuerhong Zulipikaer, M Wang
Objective: To explore the status of seroepidemiology on hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang) and to evaluate the effect of related immunization. Methods: Students in four towns and villages were selected by cluster random sampling method. HAV-IgG, HBsAg, HBsAb and HCV-IgG were detected in Feb to May, 2015. Results: The overall HAV-IgG positive rate was 99.75%, among 4 830 primary and middle school students. The positive rates were seen 99...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993129/hepatitis-viruses-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Yeshambel Belyhun, Melanie Maier, Andargachew Mulu, Ermias Diro, Uwe Gerd Liebert
BACKGROUND: The existing seroepidemiological data on viral hepatitis in Ethiopia showed a wide variation in prevalence pattern and the clinical and public health burden have been underestimated. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a clear and comprehensive estimation of viral hepatitis epidemiology and the potential clinical burdens in Ethiopia. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was carried out from five decades (1968-2015) published studies from biomedical databases; PubMed, Google scholar, Medline and Web of Science...
December 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986562/free-fatty-acids-or-high-concentration-glucose-enhances-hepatitis-a-virus-replication-in-association-with-a-reduction-in-glucose-regulated-protein-78-expression
#13
Nan Nwe Win, Tatsuo Kanda, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Hiroaki Okamoto, Osamu Yokosuka, Hiroshi Shirasawa
Although the interaction between host and hepatitis A virus (HAV) factors could lead to severe hepatitis A, the exact mechanism of acute liver failure caused by HAV infection is not yet fully understood. The effects of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus on HAV replication are still unknown. Here, we examined the effects of free fatty acids or high-concentration glucose on HAV replication and the effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway-related genes in human hepatocytes...
December 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982290/hepatitis-a-seroprevalence-in-public-school-children-in-campos-dos-goytacazes-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil-prior-to-the-introduction-of-the-hepatitis-a-universal-childhood-vaccination
#14
Charbell Miguel Kury, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Jaquelline Pereira da Silva, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Claudia Lamarca Vitral
This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV). The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A...
November 1, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981277/a-dilemma-at-gray-scale-thyroid-ultrasound-microcalcification-or-not-differentiation-with-acoustic-radiation-force-impulse-imaging-virtual-touch-imaging
#15
Duzgun Yildirim, Cesur Samanci, Fethi Emre Ustabasioglu, Deniz Alis, Bulent Colakoglu, Alev Bakır, Onur Tutar, Ahmet Erdem Kilavuz, Ahmet Kaur
AIMS: To evaluate the capacity of virtual touch imaging (VTI) of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) techniquein the differential diagnosis of micro-echogenicities in thyroid nodules. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised 28patients. Gray scale and ARFI displacement maps were used during ultrasound examination.In the same session, fine needleaspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples were obtained from the dominant nodule hav-ing micro-echogenicities. Two radiologists blinded to the FNAB results and clinical data of the patients evaluated these images and rated ARFI echogenicities according to the degree of shining points on the displacement maps and classified them as isohypoechogenic, isohyperechogenic, and obvious hyperechogenic...
December 5, 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978929/-clinical-effect-of-polyvinyl-alcohol-particles-combined-with-chemoembolization-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-complicated-by-hepatic-arteriovenous-shunt-and-related-and-prognostic-factors
#16
Q S Liu, Q L Mei, Y H Li, X F He, Q L Zeng, H J Pang, L J Xiao
Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles combined with chemoembolization using chemotherapeutic agents or chemotherapeutic agents lipiodol emulsion (CALE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated by hepatic arteriovenous shunt (HAVS) and related prognostic factors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 133 patients with HCC complicated by HAVS. HAVS was classified into slow-flow HAVS, intermediate-flow HAVS, and high-flow HAVS, which were treated with 300-500μm, 500-710μm, and 710-1000μm PVA particles, respectively...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943110/food-borne-viruses-in-shellfish-investigation-on-norovirus-and-hav-presence-in-apulia-se-italy
#17
G La Bella, V Martella, M G Basanisi, G Nobili, V Terio, G La Salandra
Shellfish are an important vehicle for transmission of food-borne pathogens including norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). The risks related with consumption of shellfish are greater if these products are eaten raw or slightly cooked. As molluscs are filter-feeding organisms, they are able to concentrate pathogens dispersed in the water. Data on shellfish viral contamination are therefore useful to obtain a background information on the presence of contamination in the environment, chiefly in shellfish production areas and to generate a picture of the epidemiology of viral pathogens in local populations...
December 10, 2016: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925847/effectiveness-of-hepatitis-a-vaccination-as-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#18
Ignasi Parrón, Caritat Planas, Pere Godoy, Sandra Manzanares-Laya, Ana Martínez, Maria Rosa Sala, Sofia Minguell, Nuria Torner, Mireia Jané, Angela Domínguez
Hepatitis A (HA) has been a vaccine-preventable disease since 1995. In Catalonia, a universal combined hepatitis A+B vaccination program of preadolescents was initiated at the end of 1998. However, outbreaks are reported each year and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine or immunoglobulin (IG) is recommended to avoid cases. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of HAV vaccine and IG in preventing hepatitis A cases in susceptible exposed people. A retrospective cohort study of contacts of HA cases involved in outbreaks reported in Catalonia between January 2006 and December 2012 was made...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923925/biliary-secretion-of-quasi-enveloped-human-hepatitis-a-virus
#19
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Lucinda Hensley, Jason K Whitmire, Stanley M Lemon
: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918250/evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-effects-of-n-2-hydroxy-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-chloride-for-improving-live-attenuated-hepatitis-a-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#20
Wei Tao, Ting Fu, Zhuojing He, Ruxi Hu, Lan Jia, Yan Hong
This study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) as an adjuvant for improving a commercial live attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice in the experimental group were intraperitoneally immunized with a solution of HTCC and live attenuated HAV vaccine. And for those injected with sterile water, HTCC or live attenuated HAV vaccine were treated as mock group, negative group, and positive group in turn. The serum HAV-specific IgG titers and the ratios of the serum HAV-specific IgG2a/IgG1 in the experimental group were significantly increased (p = 0...
December 5, 2016: Viral Immunology
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