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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919226/validation-of-hav-biomarker-2a-for-differential-diagnostic-of-hepatitis-a-infected-and-vaccinated-individuals-using-multiplex-serology
#1
Katrin Bohm, Angela Filomena, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Gérard Krause, Claudia Sievers
BACKGROUND: Worldwide about 1.5 million clinical cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections occur every year and increasingly countries are introducing HAV vaccination into the childhood immunization schedule with a single dose instead of the originally licenced two dose regimen. Diagnosis of acute HAV infection is determined serologically by anti-HAV-IgM detection using ELISA. Additionally anti-HAV-IgG can become positive during the early phase of symptoms, but remains detectable after infection and also after vaccination against HAV...
September 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919035/development-of-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-hepatitis-a-virus-concentration-from-green-onion
#2
Yan Zheng, Yuan Hu
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause serious liver disease and even death. HAV outbreaks are associated with the consumption of raw or minimally processed produce, making it a major public health concern. Infections have occurred despite the fact that effective HAV vaccine has been available. Development of a rapid and sensitive HAV detection method is necessary for an investigation of an HAV outbreak. Detection of HAV is complicated by the lack of a reliable culture method. In addition, due to the low infectious dose of HAV, these methods must be very sensitive...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918454/assessment-of-thermotactile-and-vibrotactile-thresholds-for-detecting-sensorineural-components-of-the-hand-arm-vibration-syndrome-havs
#3
Ying Ye, Michael J Griffin
BACKGROUND: Thermotactile thresholds and vibrotactile thresholds are measured to assist the diagnosis of the sensorineural component of the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether thermotactile and vibrotactile thresholds distinguish between fingers with and without numbness and tingling. METHODS: In 60 males reporting symptoms of the hand-arm vibration syndrome, thermotactile thresholds for detecting hot and cold temperatures and vibrotactile thresholds at 31...
September 16, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914805/a-recombinant-hav-expressing-a-neutralization-epitope-of-hev-induces-immune-response-against-hav-and-hev-in-mice
#4
Kui Xiang, Yuri Kusov, Guan Ying, Wang Yan, Yi Shan, Wu Jinyuan, Yin Na, Zhou Yan, Li Hongjun, Sun Maosheng
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are causative agents of acute viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Both viruses place a heavy burden on the public health and economy of developing countries. To test the possibility that HAV could be used as an expression vector for the development of a combination vaccine against hepatitis A and E infections, recombinant HAV-HEp148 was created as a vector to express an HEV neutralization epitope (HEp148) located at aa 459-606 of the HEV capsid protein...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910270/updated-dosing-instructions-for-immune-globulin-human-gamastan-s-d-for-hepatitis-a-virus-prophylaxis
#5
Noele P Nelson
GamaSTAN S/D (Grifols Therapeutics, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) is a sterile, preservative-free solution of immune globulin (IG) for intramuscular administration and is used for prophylaxis against disease caused by infection with hepatitis A, measles, varicella, and rubella viruses (1). GamaSTAN S/D is the only IG product approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hepatitis A virus (HAV) prophylaxis. In July 2017, GamaSTAN S/D prescribing information was updated with changes to the dosing instructions for hepatitis A preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis indications...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890866/improving-brain-delivery-of-biomolecules-via-bbb-modulation-in-mouse-and-rat-detection-using-mri-nirf-and-mass-spectrometry
#6
Kavisha R Ulapane, Ngoc On, Paul Kiptoo, Todd D Williams, Donald W Miller, Teruna J Siahaan
There is an urgent need to develop new and alternative methods to deliver functional biomolecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the activity of blood-brain barrier (BBB) modulators (i.e., HAV and ADT peptides) to deliver functional biomolecules (i.e., galbumin, IRdye800cw-cLABL, and cIBR7) to the brains of mice and rats. HAV6, cHAVc3, and ADTC5 peptides but not HAV4 peptide significantly enhanced the brain delivery of 65 kDa galbumin compared to control in Balb/c mice as quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887164/type-a-viral-hepatitis-a-summary-and-update-on-the-molecular-virology-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Stanley M Lemon, Jördis J Ott, Pierre Van Damme, Daniel Shouval
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an ancient disease and likely to have afflicted mankind since humans first began to live in groups large enough to sustain transmission of the causative agent, HAV. In reviewing what was known as 'catarrhal jaundice' in 1912, Cockayne noted descriptions of epidemic jaundice extending back to antiquity1. The infectious nature of the disease was proven several decades later in deliberate human transmission studies2. Such experiments led to a clear distinction between hepatitis A ('infectious hepatitis') and hepatitis B ('homologous serum jaundice') and recognition of the lack of cross immunity between these two forms of transmissible hepatitis as early as 19453...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884240/the-serological-markers-of-acute-infection-with-hepatitis-a-b-c-d-e-and-g-viruses-revisited
#8
REVIEW
Robério Amorim de Almeida Pondé
Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882643/efficacy-of-ethanol-against-viruses-in-hand-disinfection
#9
REVIEW
Günter Kampf
Ethanol is used worldwide in healthcare facilities for hand rubbing. It has been described to have a stronger and broader virucidal activity compared to propanols. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of virucidal activity of ethanol in solution or as commercially available products. A systematic search was conducted. Studies were selected when they contained original data on reduction of viral infectivity from suspension tests (49 studies) and contaminated hands (17 studies). Ethanol at 80% was highly effective against all tested 21 enveloped viruses within 30s...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875002/prevalence-of-g6pd-deficiency-in-children-with-hepatitis-a
#10
Ghasem Miri-Aliabad, Ali Khajeh, Tooran Shahraki
Introduction: Hepatitis A virus is the most prevalent viral hepatitis. It is globally a major public health problem with different clinical symptoms. This study aimed at investigating the clinical findings and prevalence of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in children with hepatitis A. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, demographical information, clinical findings, and G6PD level of hepatitis A patients, who were visited at Pediatric Hematology clinic, were entered into the database...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875001/immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-and-hemolytic-anemia-secondary-to-hepatitis-a
#11
Ghasem Miri-Aliabad, Somayeh Rashidi
Hepatitis A is common in children and usually is a self-limiting disease. Although extrahepatic and hematological immune manifestations following acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have rarely been reported, they are frequently observed in other viral hepatitis. In this paper, we report the case of a 3-year-old girl who developed immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and hemolytic anemia after HAV infection. She was presented with malaise, pallor, ecchymosis, petechiae and purpura on the trunk and extremities...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874468/tim1-havcr1-is-not-essential-for-cellular-entry-of-either-quasi-enveloped-or-naked-hepatitis-a-virions
#12
Anshuman Das, Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Olga González-López, Bethany Rhein, Sven Moller-Tank, Rachel Brouillette, Lucinda Hensley, Ichiro Misumi, William Lovell, John M Cullen, Jason K Whitmire, Wendy Maury, Stanley M Lemon
Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1) is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV), an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868989/ergonomics-investigation-for-orientation-of-the-handles-of-wood-routers
#13
Siddharth Bhardwaj, Abid Ali Khan
Improperly designed hand tools not only exposes the workers to potential health risks but also hamper their productivity. This study tries to improve the ergonomics of wood routing tasks, suggesting better handle orientations for hand held wood routers. In this study, seven different handle combinations were tested over two routing tasks (beading and dado) in regard with perceived discomfort, electromyography (EMG) of biceps brachi (BB) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), and hand-arm vibrations (HAV)...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865923/rapid-and-label-free-electrochemical-dna-biosensor-for-detecting-hepatitis-a-virus
#14
Marisa Manzano, Sara Viezzi, Sandra Mazerat, Robert S Marks, Jasmina Vidic
Diagnostic systems that can deliver highly specific and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food and water are of particular interest in many fields including food safety, biosecurity and control of outbreaks. Our aim was the development of an electrochemical method based on DNA hybridization to detect HAV. A ssDNA probe specific for HAV (capture probe) was designed and tested on DNAs from various viral and bacterial samples using Nested-Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (nRT-PCR)...
August 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860200/acute-hepatitis-a-infection-after-hepatitis-a-immunity-in-a-hiv-positive-individual
#15
Ming Jie Lee, Sam Douthwaite, Ranjababu Kulasegaram
Hepatitis A is a self-limiting infection caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), transmitted predominantly by the faecal-oral route including some sexual practices. Outbreaks are commonly reported in the men who have sex with men (population. Previous exposure is thought to provide life-long immunity against subsequent infections with the development of an HAV IgG response. This paper reports a case of acute Hepatitis A infection, despite evidence of a previously positive Hepatitis A IgG results in an HIV-positive individual...
August 31, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858094/fatal-acute-hepatic-failure-in-a-family-infected-with-the-hepatitis-a-virus-subgenotype-ib-a-case-report
#16
Yuichi Yoshida, Yohei Okada, Akiko Suzuki, Keisuke Kakisaka, Yasuhiro Miyamoto, Akio Miyasaka, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Hiroaki Okamoto
RATIONALE: Hepatitis A viral infection is a well-known cause of subclinical or acute self-limited hepatitis. Few cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-associated acute liver failure (ALF) have been reported in low HAV endemic countries annually. PATIENTS CONCERNS: To investigate the possible factors that affected the severity of HAV infection, a family cluster infected with the HAV subgenotype IB strain, which is not common in Japan, was described. DIAGNOSES: This family consisted of five members who all were infected with HAV...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857896/viral-hepatitis-screening-in-transgender-patients-undergoing-gender-identity-hormonal-therapy
#17
Neeraj Mangla, Rifat Mamun, Ilan S Weisberg
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Viral hepatitis is a global health issue and can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Guidelines for viral hepatitis screening in the transgender population do not exist. Transgender patients may be at higher risk for contracting viral hepatitis due to socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of screening, prevalence, and susceptibility of viral hepatitis, and to identify barriers to screening in transgender patients undergoing gender identity hormonal therapy...
August 29, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840272/the-utility-of-hepatic-artery-velocity-in-diagnosing-patients-with-acute-cholecystitis
#18
Thomas W Loehfelm, Justin R Tse, R Brooke Jeffrey, Aya Kamaya
PURPOSE: To test the diagnostic performance of elevated peak systolic hepatic arterial velocity (HAv) in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. METHODS: 229 patients with an ultrasound (US) performed for right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain were retrospectively reviewed. 35 had cholecystectomy within 10 days of ultrasound and were included as test subjects. 47 had normal US and serology and were included as controls. Each test patient US was reviewed for the presence of gallstones, gallbladder distention, sludge, echogenic pericholecystic fat, pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening, gallbladder wall hyperemia, and reported sonographic Murphy sign...
August 24, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838806/evaluation-of-marker-gene-expression-as-a-potential-predictive-marker-of-leukopenic-toxicity-for-inactivated-influenza-vaccines
#19
Eita Sasaki, Haruka Momose, Yuki Hiradate, Keiko Furuhata, Mamiko Takai, Kazunari Kamachi, Hideki Asanuma, Ken J Ishii, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
The leukopenic toxicity test (LTT) is used to evaluate the safety and lot-to-lot consistency of influenza hemagglutinin split vaccine (HAv) and is included in the Japanese Minimum Requirements for Biological Products. LTT assesses the reduced leukocyte levels in murine peripheral blood after HAv administration. However, they require large numbers of animals, and therefore it would be beneficial to develop a more accurate and sensitive alternative method. In this study, we selected biomarkers of leukocyte reduction from 18 previously identified marker genes that were associated with an abnormal toxicity test (ATT)...
August 21, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827335/cellular-cap-binding-protein-eif4e-promotes-picornavirus-genome-restructuring-and-translation
#20
Brian C Avanzino, Gabriele Fuchs, Christopher S Fraser
Picornaviruses use internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to translate their genomes into protein. A typical feature of these IRESs is their ability to bind directly to the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G component of the eIF4F cap-binding complex. Remarkably, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES requires eIF4E for its translation, but no mechanism has been proposed to explain this. Here we demonstrate that eIF4E regulates HAV IRES-mediated translation by two distinct mechanisms. First, eIF4E binding to eIF4G generates a high-affinity binding conformation of the eIF4F complex for the IRES...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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