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Nishtha Nagral, Vrunda Joshi, Karan Baria, Pathik Parikh, Aabha Nagral, Jayanthi Shastri, Chandrakant Pawar
INTRODUCTION: Acute viral hepatitis is a common problem in India. World wide data shows that 5 to 20 percent of this is caused by non A-E hepatitis. There is no data in India regarding non A-E hepatitis. We carried out this study to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, risk factors and outcome of non A-E hepatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single centre study, we evaluated all patients admitted with features of acute viral hepatitis at our hospital between the period of February to July 2015...
January 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Evelyne Brisebois, Marc Veillette, Vanessa Dion-Dupont, Jacques Lavoie, Jacques Corbeil, Alexander Culley, Caroline Duchaine
Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
C Sikora, G Tipples, X-L Pang, A Andonov
We identified a case of acute Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection linked to cannabis use. The local Public Health department received report of a man in his mid-20s with a classic presentation of hepatitis - jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, general malaise, and dark urine - as well as elevated serum aminotransferase levels and a positive anti-HAV IgM. Upon questioning, he reported no contact with ill individuals, or travel outside his metropolitan area. His exclusive source of water was the local municipal supply...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
N Cook, I Bertrand, C Gantzer, R M Pinto, A Bosch
Although information is limited, it is evident that prolonged persistence of infectious Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a factor in the transmission of the virus via fresh produce. Consequently, data on persistence of the virus on produce, and in environments relevant to production, such as soils, water and surfaces, are required to fully understand the dynamics of transmission of HAV via foods. Furthermore, information on effective disinfection procedures is necessary to implement effective post-harvest control measures...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Adrian Jenkins, Rehan Minhas, Clare Morris, Neil Berry
The World Health Organization (WHO) international standard for hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA nucleic acid assays was characterized by complete genome sequencing. The entire coding sequence and noncoding regions were assigned HAV genotype IB. This information will aid the design, development, and evaluation of HAV RNA amplification assays.
May 10, 2018: Genome Announcements
Rocío Lorenzo Ortega, Blanca O Donnell Cortés, Rocío Ortiz González Serna, Virtudes Gallardo García, Begoña López Hernández
OBJECTIVE: Sexual transmission of hepatitis A (HAV) is documented, mainly by risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM). There have been HAV outbreaks in MSM in countries of the European Union in the last years. The aim of this work was to study HAV epidemiology in Andalusia in the last 10 years (2007-2017) and the outbreaks among MSM in this period. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive study of HAV cases reported in the Andalusia Epidemiological Surveillance System between January 2007 and May 2017...
May 9, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
A Bhagey, K Foster, S Ralph, A Wardropper, C White, V Wholey, S Duncan
BASHH guidelines recommend that 'the hepatitis A virus total antibody test can be offered to at-risk patients whose immune status is unknown … depending on local funding arrangements'. We sought to measure the local prevalence of anti-hepatitis A (HAV) IgG in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM), to inform the utility of pre-vaccination screening. We assessed the prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in HIV-negative MSM who attended sexual health services in County Durham and Darlington, UK, from March to August 2017...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Chien-Yu Cheng, Hao-Hsin Wu, Huachun Zou, Yi-Chun Lo
In Taiwan, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A (AHA) infection has been identified since June 2015. Approximately half of the cases occurred in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC)-operated National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify the incidence of AHA during 2011-2016. Between June 2015 and December 2016, a total of 1,268 AHA cases were documented, and 601 cases (47.4%) were co-infected with HIV; the majority of whom were MSM (98.4%)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Eleonora Cella, Elisabetta Riva, Silvia Angeletti, Marta Fogolari, Aletheia Blasi, Vittoria Scolamacchia, Silvia Spoto, Riccardo Bazzardi, Alessia Lai, Caterina Sagnelli, Evangelista Sagnelli, Massimo Ciccozzi
Despite a significantly decrease of acute hepatitis A in the last two decades in Italy, outbreaks mostly occurring in southern Italy were observed. In this study, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to analyze the origin of these epidemics. At this aim, five different datasets of hepatitis A virus sequences were built to perform genotyping by the neighbor-joining method, to estimate the evolutionary rates by using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, to investigate the demographic history by independent MCMC runs enforcing both a strict and relaxed clock...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Stanley M Lemon, Christopher M Walker
Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Stanley M Lemon, Christopher M Walker
The recognition of hepatitis E as a discreet disease entity in the late 1970s followed the development of serological tests for hepatitis A and the discovery that large waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in India were not caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). These "enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis" outbreaks had distinctive epidemiologic features, including the highest attack rates among young adults, little secondary household transmission of infection, and severe disease in pregnant women...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Harvey J Alter
The hepatitis C story evolved from prospective studies of post-transfusion hepatitis wherein it was observed in the early 1970s that most cases of transfusion-associated hepatitis were serologically (and later molecularly) unrelated to either the hepatitis A (HAV) or hepatitis B (HBV) viruses.[1] This new clinical entity defined only by ALT elevations and serologic exclusion of HAV and HBV was then designated non-A, non-B hepatitis (NANBH). This awkward nomenclature, rather than hepatitis C, was chosen because, at the time, the presumed agent had not yet been proven to be a transmissible virus, nor were the number of potential NANBH agents known...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Madelief Mollers, Ingeborg L A Boxman, Harry Vennema, Ife A Slegers-Fitz-James, Diederik Brandwagt, Ingrid H Friesema, Jenny S Batstra, Margreet J M Te Wierik
This study describes an outbreak investigation of 14 hepatitis A cases in the Netherlands. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IB sequences in cases were highly similar (459/460 nt). The origin of strains could be narrowed to Bulgaria based on information from EPIS-FWD. As an association with consumption of soft fruit was suspected, a case-control study was initiated using a questionnaire and a list of pictures of soft fruit available at the supermarket chain involved. Twelve out of 13 cases consumed a specific frozen raspberry/blueberry product shown on the list (OR 46...
May 4, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), there was a major focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination and improving each component of the hepatitis C care cascade. Several countries and cohorts have demonstrated the remarkable impact that universal HCV testing and unrestricted access to hepatitis C treatment can have on markedly reducing incident HCV infections and HCV infection prevalence, including in people who inject drugs and HIV/HCV-coinfected populations. However, in many settings, substantial barriers to widespread HCV treatment remain, including undiagnosed HCV infection, particularly in populations outside the standard "baby boomer" birth cohort (ie, born 1945-1965); restricted access to hepatitis C treatment in those with known HCV infection; reinfection with HCV; and migration of HCV-infected populations...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Alan G Mayton, William L Porter, Xueyan S Xu, Eric B Weston, Elaine N Rubenstein
Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw ) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ)...
March 2018: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Megan G Hofmeister, Monique A Foster, Eyasu H Teshale
There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996...
April 30, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
John M Cullen, Stanley M Lemon
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) cause acute, self-limiting hepatic infections that are usually spread by the fecal-oral route in humans. Naturally occurring and experimental infections are possible in a variety of nonhuman primates and, in the case of HEV, a number of other species. Many advances in understanding the pathogenesis of these viruses have come from studies in experimental animals. In general, animals infected with these viruses recapitulate the histologic lesions seen in infected humans, but typically with less severe clinical and histopathological manifestations...
April 30, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Kata Farkas, David M Cooper, James E McDonald, Shelagh K Malham, Alexis de Rougemont, Davey L Jones
Enteric viruses represent a global public health threat and are implicated in numerous foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks. Nonetheless, relatively little is known of their fate and stability in the environment. In this study we used carefully validated methods to monitor enteric viruses, namely adenovirus (AdV), JC polyomavirus (JCV), noroviruses (NoVs), sapovirus (SaV) and hepatitis A and E viruses (HAV and HEV) from wastewater source to beaches and shellfish beds. Wastewater influent and effluent, surface water, sediment and shellfish samples were collected in the Conwy catchment (North Wales, UK) once a month for one year...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammad Alsakkal, Mohammad Al-Khateeb, Mohammad Alhalaby, Lina Khouri
Aplastic anemia is a rare complication of viral hepatitis. We present 3 cases of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia after hepatitis A virus infection. One of our cases is the first reported case of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia after fulminant hepatitis A infection. Patient characteristics were consistent with older reports with regard to age and sex. All 3 patients were male individuals under the age of 20. In addition, all 3 patients had A+ blood group. Outcomes in our series were poor because of the unavailability of antithymocyte globulin and bone marrow transplantation...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Petros Kokkinos, Hera Karayanni, Alexandra Meziti, Ria Feidaki, Spyros Paparrodopoulos, Apostolos Vantarakis
The virological quality of surface marine and running water samples collected from Igoumenitsa gulf and Kalamas river (NW Greece) was assessed from October 2012 to September 2013. Sampling sites were exposed to different land and/or anthropogenic effects. Seawater samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations (new harbor, old harbor, wastewater treatment plant outlet, protected Natura area, Drepano beach). Viral targets included human adenoviruses (hAdVs), as index human viruses, while noroviruses (NoVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were also studied...
April 25, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
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