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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426700/southern-tunisia-a-still-high-endemicity-area-for-hepatitis-a
#1
Houcine Neffatti, Patricia Lebraud, Corinne Hottelet, Jawher Gharbi, Taieb Challouf, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. METHODS: Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401478/improved-detection-of-norovirus-and-hepatitis-a-virus-in-surface-water-by-applying-pre-pcr-processing
#2
Emmy Borgmästars, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Sofia Persson, Linda Jansson, Peter Rådström, Magnus Simonsson, Johannes Hedman, Ronnie Eriksson
Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of waterborne RNA viruses generally requires concentration of large water volumes due to low virus levels. A common approach is to use dead-end ultrafiltration followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. However, this procedure often leads to the co-concentration of PCR inhibitors that impairs the limit of detection and causes false-negative results. Here, we applied the concept of pre-PCR processing to optimize RT-qPCR detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI), genogroup II (GII), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in challenging water matrices...
April 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395349/examining-the-usefulness-of-iso-10819-anti-vibration-glove-certification
#3
Diandra Budd, Ron House
Anti-vibration gloves are commonly worn to reduce hand-arm vibration exposure from work with hand-held vibrating tools when higher priority and more effective controls are unavailable. For gloves to be marketed as 'anti-vibration' they must meet the vibration transmissibility criteria described in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 10819 (2013). Several issues exist with respect to the methodology used for glove testing as well as the requirements for glove design and composition in ISO 10819 (2013)...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391171/a-two-scale-modeling-and-computational-framework-for-vibration-induced-raynaud-syndrome
#4
Yue Hua, Pierre Lemerle, Jean-François Ganghoffer
Hand-Arm Vibration syndrome (HAVS), usually caused by long-term use of hand-held power tools, can in certain manifestations alter the peripheral blood circulation in the hand-arm region. HAVS typically occurs after exposure to cold, causing an abnormally strong vasoconstriction of blood vessels. A pathoanatomical mechanism suggests that a reduction of the lumen of the blood vessels in VWF (Vibration White Finger) subjects, due to either hypertrophy or thickening of the vessel wall, may be at the origin of the disease...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384115/epidemiological-study-of-hepatitis-a-infection-in-eastern-bulgaria
#5
Gabriela St Tsankova, Tatina T Todorova, Neli M Ermenlieva, Tsvetelina K Popova, Dayana T Tsankova
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an acute, self-limited liver disease transmitted usually through the faecal-oral route via person-to-person contact. Bulgaria has intermediate HAV endemicity with higher susceptibility among adults and recurrent outbreaks. AIM: As HAV infection is strongly related to human movements and represents a significant risk to travelers and migrants, as well as to local population receiving these groups, we set out to analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis A in five of the largest tourist border regions of Bulgaria located in its eastern part: Varna, Shumen, Dobrich, Burgas and Yambol...
March 1, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377449/acute-infectious-hepatitis-in-hospitalised-children-a-british-paediatric-surveillance-unit-study
#6
Serena Braccio, Adam Irwin, Andrew Riordan, Delane Shingadia, Deirdre A Kelly, Sanjay Bansal, Mary Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis remains a key public health priority globally. Most childhood cases are caused by viruses, especially hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study aimed to estimate the burden of acute infectious hepatitis in hospitalised children and to describe their clinical characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: Paediatricians in the UK and Ireland reported cases in children aged 1 month to 14 years diagnosed between January 2014 and January 2015 (inclusive) through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit (BPSU) and completed a detailed questionnaire...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370030/a-nonenveloped-virus-with-a-lipid-envelope-hepatitis-a-virus-as-used-in-virus-reduction-studies
#7
Anna-Maria Kapsch, Maria R Farcet, Gerhard Antoine, Thomas R Kreil
BACKGROUND: Recently, a quasi-lipid-enveloped (LE) form of the traditionally nonlipid-enveloped (NLE) hepatitis A virus (HAV) was described in human serum and cell culture-derived HAV stocks. This discovery challenges the understanding of HAV reduction in virus clearance studies of plasma products, which were performed under the premise of an NLE nature of this virus. Here, the presence of LE particles in HAV stocks used for reduction studies was verified, and the hypothesis that LE and NLE particles might contribute to the differential heat sensitivity of HAV variants during heat treatment of human serum albumin was evaluated...
March 28, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367028/hepatitis-e-virus-a-leading-cause-of-waterborne-viral-hepatitis-in-northwest-districts-of-punjab-india
#8
Maninder Kaur, Shailpreet K Sidhu, Kanwardeep Singh, Pushpa Devi, Manpreet Kaur, Nachhatar Jit Singh
BACKGROUND: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) caused by enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) poses a major health problem in developing countries such as India. Despite improving sanitation, heath awareness, and socioeconomic conditions, these infections continue to occur both in sporadic as well as in epidemic forms in different parts of India. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the total as well as age-specific prevalence rates of HAV and HEV in the outbreaks of waterborne hepatitis in districts surrounding Amritsar region of Punjab...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357965/racial-differences-in-seroprevalence-of-hav-and-hev-in-blood-donors-in-the-western-cape-south-africa-a-clue-to-the-predominant-hev-genotype
#9
T Lopes, R Cable, C Pistorius, T Maponga, S Ijaz, W Preiser, R Tedder, M I Andersson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. This infection causes major water-borne outbreaks in low- and middle-income countries, whilst in industrialised countries this infection is zoonotic. These differences in epidemiology are related to different HEV genotypes. HEV genotype 3 is a zoonotic infection, whilst genotype 2 causes large outbreaks. This study determined the seroprevalence of HEV in blood donors from the Western Cape. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody was detected in 184/300 (61%) donors...
March 30, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356916/spasmolytic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-two-citrus-sinensis-osbeck-varieties-cultivated-in-mexico
#10
Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Ana Ly Arroyo-Herrera, Jesús Alfredo Araujo-León, Emanuel Hernández Núñez, Rolffy Ortiz Andrade
Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336243/hand-arm-vibration-syndrome-workers-experience-with-functional-impairment-and-disability
#11
Midori Handford, Kiera Lepine, Kristina Boccia, Francesca Ruddick, Darya Alyeksyeyeva, Aaron Thompson, D Linn Holness, Sharon Switzer-McIntyre
STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative and descriptive study. INTRODUCTION: Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a prevalent disease in Canada. There is little work on the perspectives of HAVS patients. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Explore perceptions of disability and functional compromise in patients with HAVS. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with HAVS patients and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: The 11 participants reported numbness, pain, and reduced dexterity, strength, and sensation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322704/transmission-of-hepatitis-a-virus-through-combined-liver-small-intestine-pancreas-transplantation
#12
Monique A Foster, Lauren M Weil, Sherry Jin, Thomas Johnson, Tonya R Hayden-Mixson, Yury Khudyakov, Pallavi D Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Jana M Ritter, Noele Nelson, George Mazariegos, Michael Green, Ryan W Himes, David T Kuhar, Matthew J Kuehnert, Jeffrey A Miller, Rachel Wiseman, Anne C Moorman
Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319799/occurrence-of-hepatitis-a-and-e-and-norovirus-gi-and-gii-in-ready-to-eat-vegetables-in-italy
#13
V Terio, M Bottaro, E Pavoni, M N Losio, A Serraino, F Giacometti, V Martella, A Mottola, A Di Pinto, G Tantillo
Fresh vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads have become increasingly recognized as potential vehicles for foodborne diseases. The EU Reg. 1441/2007 establishes microbiological criteria for bacterial pathogens for products placed on the market during their shelf-life (i.e. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes) for pre-cut fruits and vegetables (RTE) whilst it does not address the problem of contamination by enteric viruses. In this study we investigated the contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) and norovirus (NoV) in 911 ready-to-eat vegetable samples taken from products at retail in Apulia and in Lombardia...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319454/five-year-antibody-persistence-in-children-after-one-dose-of-inactivated-or-live-attenuated-hepatitis-a-vaccine
#14
Zhilun Zhang, Xiangjun Zhu, Yuansheng Hu, Miao Liang, Jin Sun, Yufei Song, Qi Yang, Haiquan Ji, Gang Zeng, Lifei Song, Jiangting Chen
In China, both inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine and live attenuated HA vaccine are available. We conducted a trial to evaluate 5-year immune persistence induced by one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccines in children. Subjects with no HA vaccination history had randomly received one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age. Anti-HAV antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination and at the first, second, and fifth year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A were monitored during the study period...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303345/detection-and-characterization-of-hepatitis-a-virus-circulating-in-egypt
#15
Hazem Hamza, Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Sayed A Fayed, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat, Nagwa Abass El-Esnawy, Emam Abdel-Mobdy
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) still poses a considerable problem worldwide. In the current study, hepatitis A virus was recovered from wastewater samples collected from three wastewater treatment plants over one year. Using RT-PCR, HAV was detected in 43 out of 68 samples (63.2%) representing both inlet and outlet. Eleven positive samples were subjected to sequencing targeting the VP1-2A junction region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all samples belonged to subgenotype IB with few substitutions at the amino acid level...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302512/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-a-hepatitis-b-and-varicella-virus-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ireland
#16
Corinna Sadlier, Anna O'Rourke, Alison Carr, Colm Bergin
Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292796/hand-arm-vibration-syndrome-what-family-physicians-should-know
#17
REVIEW
Shixin Cindy Shen, Ronald A House
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), an important and common occupational disease in Canada. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A MEDLINE search was conducted for research and review articles on HAVS. A Google search was conducted to obtain gray literature relevant to the Canadian context. Additional references were obtained from the articles identified...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285979/the-added-value-of-hepatitis-e-diagnostics-in-determining-causes-of-hepatitis-in-routine-diagnostic-settings-in-the-netherlands
#18
Meintje Doting, Jan Weel, H Niesters, A Riezebos-Brilman, Afke Brandenburg
OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is endemic in Europe and an underdiagnosed and emerging (public) health issue. In recent years commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) that detect antibodies to HEV more adequately, became available. We investigated the added value of this HEV serology in the diagnostic work flow to detect viral causes of recent hepatitis. METHODS: During a two year period (May 2013 - May 2015), HEV serology was added to the hepatitis work flow, consisting of serological detection of hepatitis A-B-C virus (HAV, HBV, HCV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284976/recombinant-vp1-protein-as-a-potential-marker-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-hepatitis-a-virus-infection
#19
Haroldo Cid da Silva Junior, Edimilson Domingos da Silva, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez de Souza Rodrigues, Marco Alberto Medeiros
Since hepatitis A virus (HAV) production is time-consuming and expensive, the use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative source of antigens for diagnostic purposes. The present study aimed to express, purify and evaluate the potential of recombinant VP1 protein (rVP1) as a marker for the diagnosis of acute HAV infection. The rVP1 was expressed and purified successfully from Escherichia coli. The purified rVP1 was used to establish an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-rVP1) for detection of IgM antibodies in sera from HAV-positive patients...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281907/persistence-of-antibodies-20%C3%A2-y-after-vaccination-with-a-combined-hepatitis-a-and-b-vaccine
#20
Pierre Van Damme, Geert Leroux-Roels, P Suryakiran, Nicolas Folschweiller, Olivier Van Der Meeren
Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114)...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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