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Cardiac development, cardiac remodelling, cardiac function

Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Irene Salamon, Gloria Saccani Jotti, Gianluigi Condorelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize new knowledge on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) linked to cardiovascular disease, in particular to heart failure. RECENT FINDINGS: LncRNAs are dysregulated in specific developmental and pathological conditions and regulate critical responses to stress. LncRNAs are being recognized as molecules regulating myocardial remodeling during disease, participating for instance in the regulation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and function and fibroblast proliferation...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
John Whitaker, Cory M Tschabrunn, Jihye Jang, Eran Leshem, Mark O'Neill, Warren J Manning, Elad Anter, Reza Nezafat
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) survivors are at risk of complications including heart failure and malignant arrhythmias. PURPOSE: We undertook serial imaging of swine following MI with the aim of characterizing the longitudinal left ventricular (LV) remodeling in a translational model of ischemia-reperfusion-mediated MI. ANIMAL MODEL: Eight Yorkshire swine underwent mid left anterior descending coronary artery balloon occlusion to create an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model of MI...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Jovana Jeremic, Tamara Nikolic Turnic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Nevena Jeremic, Isidora Milosavljevic, Ivan Srejovic, Radmila Obrenovic, Snezana Jancic, Milena Rakocevic, Stevan Matic, Dragan Djuric, Vladimir Jakovljevic
This research is designed to test the hypothesis that elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels in vivo, caused by a deficit in vitamin B complex, promote changes in cardiac function and redox status that lead to heart failure. In order to conduct the study, we used adult male Wistar albino rats (n=30; 4 weeks old; 100±15 g body weight). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) in these animals was achieved by dietary manipulation. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed with a standard rodent chow (control - CF), a diet enriched in methionine with no deficiency in B vitamins (i...
March 6, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Shana R Watson, James D Dormer, Baowei Fei
There has been an increasing interest in studying cardiac fibers in order to improve the current knowledge regarding the mechanical and physiological properties of the heart during heart failure (HF), particularly early HF. Having a thorough understanding of the changes in cardiac fiber orientation may provide new insight into the mechanisms behind the progression of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and HF. We conducted a systematic review on various technologies for imaging cardiac fibers and its link to HF...
March 2, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Lifang Lv, Tianyu Li, Xuelian Li, Chaoqian Xu, Qiushuang Liu, Hua Jiang, Yingnan Li, Yingqi Liu, He Yan, Qihe Huang, Yuhong Zhou, Mingyu Zhang, Hongli Shan, Haihai Liang
Cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by maladaptive cardiac remodeling is the uppermost risk factor for the development of heart failure. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) have various biological functions, and their vital role in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy still needs to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA Plscr4 was upregulated in hypertrophic mice hearts and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated cardiomyocytes. Next, we observed that overexpression of Plscr4 attenuated Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Mario Boehm, Nadine Arnold, Adam Braithwaite, Josephine Pickworth, Changwu Lu, Tatyana Novoyatleva, David G Kiely, Friedrich Grimminger, Hossein A Ghofrani, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Allan Lawrie, Ralph T Schermuly, Baktybek Kojonazarov
BACKGROUND: Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone critically involved in arterial blood pressure regulation. Although pharmacological aldosterone antagonism reduces mortality and morbidity among patients with severe left-sided heart failure, the contribution of aldosterone to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right ventricular (RV) heart failure is not fully understood. METHODS: The effects of Eplerenone (0.1% Inspra® mixed in chow) on pulmonary vascular and RV remodeling were evaluated in mice with pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by Sugen5416 injection with concomitant chronic hypoxia (SuHx) and in a second animal model with established RV dysfunction independent from lung remodeling through surgical pulmonary artery banding...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jaecheol Lee, Ning-Yi Shao, David T Paik, Haodi Wu, Hongchao Guo, Vittavat Termglinchan, Jared M Churko, Youngkyun Kim, Tomoya Kitani, Ming-Tao Zhao, Yue Zhang, Kitchener D Wilson, Ioannis Karakikes, Michael P Snyder, Joseph C Wu
Cardiac development requires coordinated and large-scale rearrangements of the epigenome. The roles and precise mechanisms through which specific epigenetic modifying enzymes control cardiac lineage specification, however, remain unclear. Here we show that the H3K4 methyltransferase SETD7 controls cardiac differentiation by reading H3K36 marks independently of its enzymatic activity. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that SETD7 targets distinct sets of genes to drive their stage-specific expression during cardiomyocyte differentiation...
March 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Chao Wang, Hongsen Du, Jiqiu Hou, Shasha Yan, Jingjing Yang, Yun Wang, Xiujing Zhang, Lili Zhu, Haibin Zhao
Ischemic myocardium initiates the mobilization and homing of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammation caused by necrotic cardiomyocytes induce major pathological changes (cardiac remodeling and myocardial apoptosis) as well as anxiety disorder. This process may be inhibited by the differentiation and paracrine effects of BM-MSCs. However, the spontaneous mobilization of BMSCs is insufficient to prevent this effect. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of BM-MSCs, ventricular remodeling and anxiety following AMI, methods focused on enhancing BMSCs mobilization are promising...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lu Zhang, Hongli Yin, Lei Jiao, Tianyi Liu, Yuqiu Gao, Yingchun Shao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongli Shan, Ying Zhang, Baofeng Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac fibrosis is an important cardiac remodeling event that can ultimately lead to the development of severe arrhythmia and heart failure. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of caveolin-3 (Cav3) on the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Cav3 expression was decreased in cardiac fibrosis in vivo and in vitro model...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Javed Butler, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Kevin J Anstrom, Priscilla Y Hsue, Raymond J Kim, Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Svati H Shah, Eric J Velazquez, Adrian F Hernandez, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Eugene Braunwald
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with a shift in the epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy from a phenotype of primarily left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction to LV diastolic dysfunction (DD). Patients with HIV receiving ART have higher rates of DD when compared to age-matched controls and develop DD at a younger age. However, little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of DD in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients. Current evidence suggests that immune processes modulate the risk for cardiac involvement in HIV-infected persons...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Timothy Mitchell, James W MacDonald, Sengkeo Srinouanpranchanh, Theodor K Bammler, Sean Merillat, Erica Boldenow, Michelle Coleman, Kathy Agnew, Audrey Baldessari, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Richard R Green, Michael J Gale, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
BACKGROUND: Most early preterm births are associated with intraamniotic infection and inflammation, which can lead to systemic inflammation in the fetus. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome describes elevations in the fetal interleukin-6 level, which is a marker for inflammation and fetal organ injury. An understanding of the effects of inflammation on fetal cardiac development may lead to insight into the fetal origins of adult cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is associated with disruptions in gene networks that program fetal cardiac development...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Nabeel Abdulrahman, Béatrice Jaspard Vinassa, Larry Fliegel, Ayesha Jabeen, Sadaf Riaz, Alain-Pierre Gadeau, Fatima Mraiche
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. One in three cases of heart failure is due to dilated cardiomyopathy. The Na+ /H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1), a multifunctional protein and the key pH regulator in the heart, has been demonstrated to be increased in this condition. We have previously demonstrated that elevated NHE1 activity induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Furthermore, the overexpression of active NHE1 elicited modulation of gene expression in cardiomyocytes including an upregulation of myocardial osteopontin (OPN) expression...
February 23, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Soichi Sano, Kosei Oshima, Ying Wang, Susan MacLauchlan, Yasufumi Katanasaka, Miho Sano, María A Zuriaga, Minoru Yoshiyama, David Goukassian, Matthew A Cooper, José J Fuster, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that hematopoietic stem cells can undergo clonal expansion secondary to somatic mutations in leukemia-related genes, thus leading to an age-dependent accumulation of mutant leukocytes in the blood. This somatic mutation-related clonal hematopoiesis is common in healthy older individuals, but it has been associated with an increased incidence of future cardiovascular disease. The epigenetic regulator TET2 is frequently mutated in blood cells of individuals exhibiting clonal hematopoiesis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
E A Kochetkova, V A Nevsorova, L G Ugay, Y V Maystrovskaya, T A Brodskaya
PURPOSE: to determine the role of adipokines and vascular remodeling in formation of osteoporosis in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional and hemodynamic parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) T-score in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), blood serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 were measured in 27 patients with severe IPAH and 30 healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Half of IPAH patients had osteoporosis...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
Xiufeng Yu, Xinxin Chen, Xiao Dong Zheng, Junting Zhang, Xijuan Zhao, Ying Liu, Hongyue Zhang, Lixin Zhang, Hao Yu, Min Zhang, Cui Ma, Xuewei Hao, Daling Zhu
Disordered proliferation and angiogenesis of pulmonary artery endothelial cells is an important stage in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Recent studies revealed that GDF11 (growth differentiation factor 11) induces endothelial cells proliferation and migration; however, whether GDF11 is directly involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains unknown. Here, we found that GDF11 was significantly upregulated and activated in 2 experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension models and cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells...
February 20, 2018: Hypertension
Raluca Ileana Mincu, Stefania Lucia Magda, Sorina Mihaila, Maria Florescu, Diana Janina Mihalcea, Andreea Velcea, Adela Chiru, Cristina Tiu, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mircea Cinteza, Dragos Vinereanu
Multiple sclerosis (MS), neurologic disease affecting young population, may cause cardiovascular dysfunction, due to autonomous nervous dysfunction, physical invalidity, increased oxidative stress, and systemic inflammatory status. However, cardiovascular function is rarely evaluated in these patients. We assessed left and right ventricular (LV and RV) function by 2D, 3D, tissue Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography, and vascular function by remodeling, stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction parameters in patients with MS, compared to control subjects...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Guitart-Mampel, A Gonzalez-Tendero, S Niñerola, C Morén, M Catalán-Garcia, I González-Casacuberta, D L Juárez-Flores, O Ugarteburu, L Matalonga, M V Cascajo, F Tort, A Cortés, E Tobias, J C Milisenda, J M Grau, F Crispi, E Gratacós, G Garrabou, F Cardellach
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with cardiovascular remodeling persisting into adulthood. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, essential for embryonic development and cardiovascular function, are regulated by nuclear effectors as sirtuins. A rabbit model of IUGR and cardiovascular remodeling was generated, in which heart mitochondrial alterations were observed by microscopic and transcriptomic analysis. We aimed to evaluate if such alterations are translated at a functional mitochondrial level to establish the etiopathology and potential therapeutic targets for this obstetric complication...
February 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sara Roldan Ramons, Guido Ehrenfried Pieles, Mei Sun, Cameron Slorach, Wei Hui, Mark K Friedberg
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) causes right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, biventricular fibrosis and apoptosis which are attenuated by endothelin-1 (ET1) receptor blockade (ERB). Little is known about the time-course of remodelling and whether early versus late ERB confers improved outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAB was performed in 5-groups of rabbits: Shams, 3W (3-weeksPAB), 6W (6-weeksPAB), 6WERB1 (6-weeksPAB+ERB from day-1) and 6WERB21 (6-weeksPAB+ERB from day-21)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Zhong Chen, Na Xu, Danyang Chong, Shan Guan, Chen Jiang, Zhongzhou Yang, Chaojun Li
Aims: With the maturation of placenta, ventricular chamber maturation enhances cardiac contractile performance to adapt to the metabolic demand of growing embryo. The organization of cardiomyocytes is required for the morphological remodeling in ventricular chamber maturation. However, the mechanism governing the establishment of cardiac cytoarchitecture during ventricular chamber maturation is still poorly studied. Methods and results: Here, we found that the expression of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (Ggpps), which mediates protein geranylgeranylation, increased in the mouse heart after the onset of placental function...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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