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Cardiac development, cardiac remodelling, cardiac function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#1
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324309/the-promising-future-of-ventricular-restraint-therapy-for-the-management-of-end-stage-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Naveed, Imran Shair Mohammad, Li Xue, Sara Khan, Wang Gang, Yanfang Cao, Yijie Cheng, Xingxing Cui, Chen DingDing, Yu Feng, Wang Zhijie, Zhou Xiaohui
Complicated pathophysiological syndrome associated with irregular functioning of the heart leading to insufficient blood supply to the organs is linked to congestive heart failure (CHF) which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Numerous factors can add to heart failure (HF) pathogenesis, including myocardial infarction (MI), genetic factors, coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemia or hypertension. Presently, most of the therapies against CHF cause modest symptom relief but incapable of giving significant recovery for long-term survival outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324263/the-role-of-pro-fibrotic-biomarkers-in-paroxysmal-and-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Adina Elena Stanciu, Radu Gabriel Vatasescu, Marcel Marian Stanciu, Nafija Serdarevic, Maria Dorobantu
PURPOSE: Signaling pathways involved in electrical, structural and contractile remodeling processes behind development and progression of atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been completely elucidated, but it seems to be related to complex interactions among neurohormonal and cellular mediators. We aimed to investigate interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as biomarkers of atrial remodeling, in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF, and their correlation with N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and left atrial (LA) diameter...
January 8, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317587/-progress-in-the-study-on-roles-of-cathepsin-in-hypertension
#4
Zhouyangfan Peng, Yapei Li, Pingyu Zeng, Xiaohui Li
Cardiovascular remodeling or dysfunction-induced abnormal cardiac output, blood volume and peripheral vascular resistance is an important pathophysiological mechanism for the occurrence and development of hypertension. Cathepsins are widely expressed in human various tissue and cells and they are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension through activation of renin - angiotensin system, degradation of cytoplasmic matrix, proliferation of smooth muscle cell and hypertrophy of myocyte. The clinical studies have found that cathepsins can be used as a biomarker for hypertension...
December 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286395/benefits-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-in-an-asynchronous-heart-failure-model-induced-by-left-bundle-branch-ablation-and-rapid-pacing
#5
Jingfeng Wang, Zhenning Nie, Haiyan Chen, Xianhong Shu, Zhaohua Yang, Ruiming Yao, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286102/pin1-facilitates-isoproterenol%C3%A2-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-and-collagen-deposition-by-promoting-oxidative-stress-and-activating-the-mek1-2%C3%A2-erk1-2-signal-transduction-pathway-in-rats
#6
Xian Wu, Mingjiang Li, Su-Qin Chen, Sha Li, Furong Guo
Peptidyl‑prolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a member of a large superfamily of phosphorylation‑dependent peptidyl‑prolyl cis/trans isomerases, which not only regulates multiple targets at various stages of cellular processes, but is also involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including microbial infection, cancer, asthma and Alzheimer's disease. However, the role of Pin1 in cardiac fibrosis remains to be fully elucidated. The present study investigated the potential mechanism of Pin1 in isoprenaline (ISO)‑induced myocardial fibrosis in rats...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283973/tenascin-c-promotes-chronic-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-hypertrophy-and-myocardial-fibrosis
#7
Bruno K Podesser, Maximilian Kreibich, Elda Dzilic, David Santer, Lorenz Förster, Sandra Trojanek, Dietmar Abraham, Martin Krššák, Klaus U Klein, Eva V Tretter, Christoph Kaun, Johann Wojta, Barbara Kapeller, Inês Fonseca Gonçalves, Karola Trescher, Attila Kiss
AIMS: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis ultimately leading to increased myocardial stiffness and reduced contractility. There is substantial evidence that the altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and Tenascin-C (TN-C) are associated with the progression of adverse LV remodeling. However, the role of TN-C in the development of LV hypertrophy because of chronic pressure overload as well as the regulatory role of TN-C on MMPs remains unknown...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279414/t-tubule-remodeling-and-increased-heterogeneity-of-calcium-release-during-the-progression-to-heart-failure-in-intact-rat-ventricle
#8
Jasleen K Singh, Varderes Barsegyan, Nikhil Bassi, William Marszalec, Shannon Tai, Shruthi Mothkur, Maaz Mulla, Elsa Nico, Yohannes Shiferaw, Gary L Aistrup, John Andrew Wasserstrom
A highly organized transverse-tubule (TT) system is essential to normal Ca2+ cycling and cardiac function. We explored the relationship between the progressive disruption of TTs and resulting Ca2+ cycling during the development of heart failure (HF). Confocal imaging was used to measure Ca2+ transients and 2-D z-stack images in left ventricular epicardial myocytes of intact hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto control rats. TT organization was measured as the organizational index (OI) derived from a fast Fourier transform of TT organization...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275952/late-onset-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-patients-undergoing-mitral-valve-repair-for-type-ii-dysfunction
#9
Naonori Kawamoto, Tomoyuki Fujita, Satsuki Fukushima, Yusuke Shimahara, Yuta Kume, Yorihiko Matsumoto, Kizuku Yamashita, Junjiro Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: There are few reports regarding factors related to late-onset of atrial fibrillation (Af) after mitral valve repair, which can compromise long-term outcome. We analyzed the risk factors for late Af after mitral valve repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2015, 318 patients (214 males; median, 57.7 years) underwent mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral insufficiency (MI) without concomitant aortic valve disease in our institute. Patients with a history of paroxysmal or chronic Af preoperatively were excluded...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259712/pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-potential-of-cardiac-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Hironori Hara, Norifumi Takeda, Issei Komuro
Inflammatory and fibrotic responses to myocardial damage are essential for cardiac repair; however, these responses often result in extensive fibrotic remodeling with impaired systolic function. Recent reports have suggested that such acute phase responses provide a favorable environment for endogenous cardiac regeneration, which is mainly driven by the division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes (CMs). Existing CMs in mammals can re-acquire proliferative activity after substantial cardiac damage, and elements other than CMs in the physiological and/or pathological environment, such as hypoxia, angiogenesis, and the polarity of infiltrating macrophages, have been reported to regulate replication...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251696/arterial-hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-standard-and-advanced-echocardiography-from-diagnosis-to-prognostication
#11
Matteo Cameli, Giulia E Mandoli, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Elisabetta Cerbai, Stefano Coiro, Michele Emdin, Rossella Marcucci, Doralisa Morrone, Alberto Palazzuoli, Ketty Savino, Luigi Padeletti, Sergio Mondillo, Roberto Pedrinelli
: Structural changes in left and right cardiac chambers that occur in arterial hypertension (AH) may lead to an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Considering that AH is currently the most common cardiovascular disease in the general population, it represents a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation development. This review explores the complex relationship between atrial fibrillation and AH, starting from its pathophysiological basis. It focuses on the role of echocardiography in the management of hypertensive and atrial fibrillation patients, with emphasis on what should be evaluated about left ventricular remodeling, diastolic and systolic function, left atrial (LA) size and function and right ventricular deformation in patients with AH...
February 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249425/evidence-for-functional-par-4-thrombin-receptor-expression-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-its-regulation-by-high-glucose-par-4-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#12
Sonja Kleeschulte, Johann Jerrentrup, Daniel Gorski, Joachim Schmitt, Anke C Fender
BACKGROUND: Thrombin promotes cardiac fibroblast proliferation and fibrosis via protease-activated receptor (PAR-1). PAR-4 is reportedly absent in cardiac fibroblasts. In smooth muscle cells, PAR-4 expression is also low but increases upon hyperglycemia and contributes to vascular remodelling in diabetic mice. We examined if PAR-4 is a glucose-responsive gene with remodelling-related functions in cardiac fibroblasts. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac PAR-4 increased in mice with streptozotocin- or diabetogenic diet (DD)-induced diabetes...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248930/sesamin-protects-against-cardiac-remodeling-via-sirt3-ros-pathway
#13
Di Fan, Zheng Yang, Fang-Yuan Liu, Ya-Ge Jin, Ning Zhang, Jian Ni, Yuan Yuan, Hai-Han Liao, Qing-Qing Wu, Man Xu, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac remodeling is associated with oxidative stress. Sesamin, a well-known antioxidant from sesamin seeds, have been used extensively as traditional health foods. However, there is little known about the effect of sesamin on cardiac remodeling. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether sesamin could protect against cardiac remodeling and to clarify potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The mice were subjected to either transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery (control group)...
December 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248646/symptom-onset-in-aortic-stenosis-relation-to-sex-differences-in-left-ventricular-remodeling
#14
Anvesha Singh, Daniel C S Chan, John P Greenwood, Dana K Dawson, Piotr Sonecki, Kai Hogrefe, Damian J Kelly, Vijay Dhakshinamurthy, Chim C Lang, Jeffery P Khoo, David Sprigings, Richard P Steeds, Ruiqi Zhang, Ian Ford, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Jing Yang, Zhuyin Li, Leong L Ng, Gerry P McCann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish sex differences in remodeling and outcome in aortic stenosis (AS) and their associations with biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis. BACKGROUND: The remodeling response and timing of symptoms is highly variable in AS, and sex plays an important role. METHODS: A total of 174 patients (133 men, mean age 66.2 ± 13.3 years) with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS underwent comprehensive stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, transthoracic echocardiography, and biomarker analysis (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2, -3, -7, -8, and -9; tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -4; syndecan-1 and -4; and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and were followed up at 6-month intervals...
December 8, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216983/atrial-infarction-and-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation-contribute-to-post-mi-remodeling-of-the-left-atrium
#15
Jaume Aguero, Carlos Galan-Arriola, Rodrigo Fernandez-Jimenez, Javier Sanchez-Gonzalez, Nina Ajmone, Victoria Delgado, Jorge Solis, Gonzalo J Lopez, Antonio de Molina-Iracheta, Roger J Hajjar, Jeroen J Bax, Valentin Fuster, Borja Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) remodeling after an acute myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly characterized regarding its determinants or its effect on ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) development. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was: 1) to compare LA structural remodeling in experimental MI swine models recapitulating the effects of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, ischemic MR, and left atrial infarction (LAI); and 2) to analyze how LA remodeling influences ischemic MR development...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216197/shift-toward-greater-pathologic-post-myocardial-infarction-remodeling-with-loss-of-the-adaptive-hypertrophic-signaling-of-alpha1-adrenergic-receptors-in-mice
#16
Che-Chung Yeh, Yanying Fan, Yanchun Xu, Yi-Lin Yang, Paul C Simpson, Michael J Mann
RATIONALE: We have hypothesized that post-infarction cardiac remodeling can be influenced by shifts in the balance between intracellular mediators of "pathologic" and "physiologic" hypertrophy. Although alpha1 adrenergic receptors (alpha1-ARs) mediate pro-adaptive hypertrophy during pressure overload, little is known about their role or downstream mediators after myocardial infarction. METHODS: We performed loss-of-function experiments via coronary ligation in alpha1A-AR knockout (AKO) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213128/complement-5a-receptor-deficiency-does-not-influence-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-after-pressure-overload-in-mice
#17
Judith J de Haan, Lena Bosch, Anouska Borgman, Marissa Bastemeijer, Maike A D Brans, Sander M van de Weg, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Joost P G Sluijter, Hamid El Azzouzi, Saskia C A de Jager
Hypertension is one of the most common risk factors for the development heart failure in the general population. Inflammation plays a central role in this adverse remodeling and eventually to the development of heart failure. Circulating levels of Complement factor 5a (C5a) are increased in hypertensive patients and the C5a receptor is associated with the presence of cardiac fibrosis and inflammation in an experimental hypertension model. To test if C5aR is involved in adverse cardiac remodeling following pressure-overload, we induced transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in wildtype and C5a receptor deficient mice (C5aR-/-)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203562/impaired-protein-quality-control-during-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-mice-with-cardiac-restricted-overexpression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor
#18
Justin Hartupee, Gabor D Szalai, Wei Wang, Xiucui Ma, Abhinav Diwan, Douglas L Mann
BACKGROUND: Sustained inflammation in the heart is sufficient to provoke left ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling. Although inflammation has been linked to many of the biological changes responsible for adverse left ventricular remodeling, the relationship between inflammation and protein quality control in the heart is not well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To study the relationship between chronic inflammation and protein quality control, we used a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy driven by cardiac restricted overexpression of TNF (tumor necrosis factor; Myh6-sTNF)...
December 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201159/cardiovascular-risks-in-chronic-kidney-disease-pediatric-patients
#19
Jing Tian, Ling Niu, Xinjiang An
One of the common factors for the premature death in children is advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Most often cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the reason for mortality. The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. The present review is focused on the current views of the cardiovascular risks during CKD in pediatric patients. Variable data sources for the latest literature collection were explored which mainly included PubMed and Google Scholar...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199067/pressure-induced-microstructural-changes-in-porcine-tricuspid-valve-leaflets
#20
Anup D Pant, Vineet S Thomas, Anthony L Black, Taylor Verba, John G Lesicko, Rouzbeh Amini
Quantifying mechanically-induced changes in the tricus anisotropy index, a measure ofpid valve extracellular matrix (ECM) structural components, e.g. collagen fiber spread and distribution, is important as it determines the overall macro-scale tissue responses and subsequently its function/malfunction in physiological/pathophysiological states. For example, functional tricuspid regurgitation, a common tricuspid valve disorder, could be caused by elevated right ventricular pressure due to pulmonary hypertension...
November 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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