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Cardiac development, cardiac remodelling, cardiac function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927226/female-clock%C3%AE-19-%C3%AE-19-mice-are-protected-from-the-development-of-age-dependent-cardiomyopathy
#1
Faisal J Alibhai, Cristine J Reitz, Willem T Peppler, Poulami Basu, Paul Sheppard, Elena Choleris, Marica Bakovic, Tami A Martino
Aims: Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and they are regulated by the molecular circadian mechanism. Previously, we showed that disruption of the circadian mechanism factor CLOCK in male Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice led to development of age-dependent cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigate the role of biological sex in protecting against heart disease in aging female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Methods and results: Female Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice are protected from the development of cardiomyopathy with age, as heart structure and function are similar to 18 months of age versus female WT mice...
September 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920862/enhanced-endothelium-epithelial-sodium-channel-signaling-prompts-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-obese-female-mice
#2
Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, Michael A Hill, Vincent G DeMarco, Li E Lee, Lixin Ma, Brady J Barron, Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced activation of cell specific mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in obesity plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease including cardiac diastolic dysfunction as a critical prognosticator. Our previous investigations demonstrated that selective endothelium MR activation promotes a maladaptive inflammatory response and fibrosis in cardiovascular tissue in female mice fed a western diet (WD), and this was associated with expression and activation of the epithelial sodium channel on the surface of endothelial cells (EnNaC)...
September 8, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916721/loss-of-cardiac-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-2-results-in-rapamycin-resistant-acetylation-independent-hypertrophy
#3
Andrea S Pereyra, Like Y Hasek, Kate L Harris, Alycia G Berman, Frederick W Damen, Craig J Goergen, Jessica M Ellis
Cardiac hypertrophy is closely linked to impaired fatty acid oxidation, but the molecular basis of this link is unclear. Here, we investigated the loss of an obligate enzyme in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), on muscle and heart structure, function, and molecular signatures in a muscle- and heart-specific CPT2-deficient mouse (Cpt2M-/-) model. CPT2 loss in heart and muscle reduced complete oxidation of long-chain fatty acids by 87% and 69%, respectively, without altering body weight, energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or adiposity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913725/exercise-and-competitive-sport-physiology-adaptations-and-uncertain-long-term-risks
#4
REVIEW
Patrick T Gleason, Jonathan H Kim
The benefits of regular and moderate exercise training on cardiovascular outcomes have been well established. In addition, strenuous exercise training leads to corollary cardiac structural and functional adaptations that are sport-specific and facilitate athletic performance. In this review, the normal physiologic and hemodynamic changes that occur during exercise and the subsequent differential exercise-induced cardiac remodeling patterns that develop will be discussed. Paradoxically, recent data have raised concern about the long-term impact of higher doses of physical activity and exercise on mortality and cardiovascular health outcomes...
September 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912723/increased-hemodynamic-load-in-early-embryonic-stages-alters-myofibril-and-mitochondrial-organization-in-the-myocardium
#5
Madeline Midgett, Claudia S López, Larry David, Alina Maloyan, Sandra Rugonyi
Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac malformation and defects remain unclear. Heart development is a finely orchestrated process with rapid transformations that occur at the tissue, cell, and subcellular levels. Myocardial cells play an essential role in cardiac tissue maturation by aligning in the direction of stretch and increasing the number of contractile units as hemodynamic load increases throughout development...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912121/cortical-bone-stem-cell-therapy-preserves-cardiac-structure-and-function-after-myocardial-infarction
#6
Thomas E Sharp, Giana J Schena, Alexander R Hoachlandr-Hobby, Timothy Starosta, Remus M Berretta, Markus Wallner, Giulia Borghetti, Polina Gross, Daohai Yu, Jaslyn Johnson, Eric A Feldsott, Danielle M Trappanese, Amir Toib, Joseph E Rabinowitz, Jon C George, Hajime Kubo, Sadia Mohsin, Steven R Houser
Rationale: Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) have been shown to reduce ventricular remodeling and improve cardiac function in a murine myocardial infarction (MI) model. These effects were superior to other stem cell types that have been used in recent early stage clinical trials. However, CBSC efficacy has not been tested in a preclinical large animal model using approaches that could be applied to patients. Objective: To determine if post-MI transendocardial injection of allogeneic CBSCs reduces pathological structural and functional remodeling and prevents the development of heart failure in a swine MI model...
September 14, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906533/cardiac-diastolic-function-after-recovery-from-pre-eclampsia
#7
P Soma-Pillay, M C Louw, A O Adeyemo, J Makin, R C Pattinson
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. AIMS: The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903498/from-the-cover-lifelong-exposure-of-c57bl-6n-male-mice-to-bisphenol-a-or-bisphenol-s-reduces-recovery-from-a-myocardial-infarction
#8
Amanda Kasneci, Jun Seong Lee, Tae Jin Yun, Jijun Shang, Shaun Lampen, Tamar Gomolin, Cheolho C Cheong, Lorraine E Chalifour
Bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastics to contaminate foodstuffs. Analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), are now used increasingly in manufacturing. Greater BPA exposure has been correlated with exacerbation of cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction (MI). To test the hypothesis that bisphenol exposure impairs cardiac healing, we exposed C57bl/6n mice to water containing 25ng/ml BPA or BPS from conception and surgically induced an MI in adult male progeny. Increased early death and cardiac dilation, and reduced cardiac function were found post-MI in BPA- and BPS-exposed mice...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901418/profilin%C3%A2-1-contributes-to-cardiac-injury-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end%C3%A2-products-in-rats
#9
Dafeng Yang, Weiwei Liu, Liping Ma, Ya Wang, Jing Ma, Minna Jiang, Xu Deng, Fang Huang, Tianlun Yang, Meifang Chen
Cardiac injury, including hypertrophy and fibrosis, induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has an important function in the onset and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Profilin‑1, a ubiquitously expressed and multifunctional actin‑binding protein, has been reported to be an important mediator in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, whether profilin‑1 is involved in AGE‑induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis remains to be determined. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the function of profilin‑1 in cardiac injury induced by AGEs...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900930/cardiac-remodeling-and-disease-soce-and-trpc-signaling-in-cardiac-pathology
#10
Petra Eder
TRPC channels have been suggested as potential candidates mediating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in cardiomyocytes. There is increasing evidence that the TRPC isoforms TRPC1 and TRPC4 might fulfill the function as SOCs, in concert with or in parallel to the key players of SOCE, Orai1, and STIM1. Several other isoforms, e.g., TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7, might rather associate to receptor-activated diacylglycerol (DAG)-sensitive ion channels. However, the exact activation mode has not been elucidated yet, given the characteristic of TRPC channels to heteromerize to unpredictable ion channel assemblies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900153/genetic-ablation-of-fgf23-or-klotho-does-not-modulate-experimental-heart-hypertrophy-induced-by-pressure-overload
#11
Svetlana Slavic, Kristopher Ford, Magalie Modert, Amarela Becirovic, Stephan Handschuh, Andreas Baierl, Nejla Katica, Ute Zeitz, Reinhold G Erben, Olena Andrukhova
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) ultimately leads to heart failure in conditions of increased cardiac pre- or afterload. The bone-derived phosphaturic and sodium-conserving hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and its co-receptor Klotho have been implicated in the development of uremic LVH. Using transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in gene-targeted mouse models, we examine the role of Fgf23 and Klotho in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by pressure overload. TAC profoundly increases serum intact Fgf23 due to increased cardiac and bony Fgf23 transcription and downregulation of Fgf23 cleavage...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890913/markers-of-cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#12
Reshmi Morris, Aparna Prasad, Joseph Asaro, Marla Guzman, Leslie Sanders, Amanda Hauck, Gautam K Singh, Philip T Levy
Background. Cardiovascular complications contribute to the high morbidity and mortality rate among children with anorexia nervosa (AN). Advances in cardiac imaging permit a more comprehensive assessment of myocardial performance in children that could not be previously obtained with conventional imaging. Myocardial strain analysis is an emerging quantitative echocardiographic technique to characterize global and regional ventricular function in children. Objective. To assess global and regional left ventricular (LV0 function in children newly diagnosed with AN with conventional and quantitative 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiographic (2DSTE)-derived strain imaging...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890470/circulating-angptl2-levels-increase-in-humans-and-mice-exhibiting-cardiac-dysfunction
#13
Zhe Tian, Keishi Miyata, Jun Morinaga, Haruki Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Motoyoshi Endo, Jiabin Zhao, Shunshun Zhu, Taichi Sugizaki, Michio Sato, Kazutoyo Terada, Takahiro Okumura, Toyoaki Murohara, Yuichi Oike
BACKGROUND: Recently, it was reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) secreted from a pathologically stressed heart accelerates cardiac dysfunction in an autocrine/paracrine manner, and that suppression of ANGPTL2 production in the heart restored cardiac function and myocardial energy metabolism, thereby blocking heart failure (HF) development. Interestingly, circulating ANGPTL2 concentrations reportedly increase in HF patients, suggesting a possible endocrine effect on cardiac dysfunction...
September 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867689/angptl2%C3%A3-a-new-causal-player-in-accelerating-heart-disease-development-in-the-aging
#14
Yuichi Oike, Zhe Tian, Keishi Miyata, Jun Morinaga, Motoyoshi Endo, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu
In parallel with the increase in the number of elderly people worldwide, the number of patients with heart disease is also rapidly increasing. Of the heart diseases, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure (HF) are strongly associated with adverse health outcomes that decrease productivity in later years. Recently, ANGPTL2, a secreted glycoprotein and member of the angiopoietin-like protein family, has received attention as a causal player in the development of CVD and HF. Prolonged ANGPTL2 autocrine/paracrine signaling in vascular tissue leads to chronic inflammation and pathologic tissue remodeling, accelerating CVD development...
September 2, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865712/microrna-31-promotes-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-ischemic-heart-disease
#15
Eliana C Martinez, Shera Lilyanna, Peipei Wang, Leah A Vardy, Xiaofei Jiang, Arunmozhiarasi Armugam, Kandiah Jeyaseelan, Arthur Mark Richards
RATIONALE: Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a dynamic microRNA response with the potential of yielding therapeutic targets. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel aberrantly expressed cardiac microRNAs post-MI with potential roles in adverse remodeling in a rat model, and to provide post-ischemic therapeutic inhibition of a candidate pathological microRNA in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following microRNA array profiling in rat hearts 2 and 14days post-MI, we identified a time-dependent up-regulation of miR-31 compared to sham-operated rats...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862956/sirtuin-3-deficiency-accelerates-hypertensive-cardiac-remodeling-by-impairing-angiogenesis
#16
Tong Wei, Gaojian Huang, Jing Gao, Chenglin Huang, Mengwei Sun, Jian Wu, Juan Bu, Weili Shen
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that impaired angiogenesis may contribute to hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) has the potential to modulate angiogenesis, but this has not been confirmed. As such, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between SIRT3-mediated angiogenesis and cardiac remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our experiments were performed on SIRT3 knockout and age-matched wild-type mice infused with angiotensin II (1400 ng/kg per minute) or saline for 14 days...
August 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859754/evolution-of-functional-mitral-regurgitation-and-prognosis-in-medically%C3%A2-managed-heart-failure-patients%C3%A2-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#17
Riwa Nasser, Lauranne Van Assche, Anne Vorlat, Tom Vermeulen, Emeline Van Craenenbroeck, Viviane Conraads, Vicky Van der Meiren, Bharati Shivalkar, Paul Van Herck, Marc J Claeys
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether medical management may alter the severity of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and its prognosis in patients who have heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: FMR in patients who have HFrEF is associated with a worse prognosis. It is uncertain to what extent medical management may alter the severity of FMR and its prognosis. METHODS: The extent of FMR was assessed at baseline and after a median follow-up period of 50 months in 163 consecutive HFrEF patients (left ventricular ejection fraction <40%)...
September 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859079/a-computational-model-of-spatio-temporal-cardiac-intracellular-calcium-handling-with-realistic-structure-and-spatial-flux-distribution-from-sarcoplasmic-reticulum-and-t-tubule-reconstructions
#18
Michael A Colman, Christian Pinali, Andrew W Trafford, Henggui Zhang, Ashraf Kitmitto
Intracellular calcium cycling is a vital component of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The key structures responsible for controlling calcium dynamics are the cell membrane (comprising the surface sarcolemma and transverse-tubules), the intracellular calcium store (the sarcoplasmic reticulum), and the co-localisation of these two structures to form dyads within which calcium-induced-calcium-release occurs. The organisation of these structures tightly controls intracellular calcium dynamics. In this study, we present a computational model of intracellular calcium cycling in three-dimensions (3-D), which incorporates high resolution reconstructions of these key regulatory structures, attained through imaging of tissue taken from the sheep left ventricle using serial block face scanning electron microscopy...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852941/monitoring-of-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-pressure-overload-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-with-18-f-fdg-micropet
#19
Andrei Todica, Nick L Beetz, Lisa Günther, Mathias J Zacherl, Ulrich Grabmaier, Bruno Huber, Peter Bartenstein, Stefan Brunner, Sebastian Lehner
PURPOSE: This study aims to analyze the left ventricular function parameters, scar load, and hypertrophy in a mouse model of pressure-overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy over the course of 8 weeks using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) imaging. PROCEDURES: LV hypertrophy was induced in C57BL/6 mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Myocardial hypertrophy developed after 2-4 weeks. ECG-gated microPET scans with [(18)F]FDG were performed 4 and 8 weeks after surgery...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851525/application-of-a-new-procedure-for-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-profiling-of-plasma-amino-acid-related-metabolites-and-untargeted-shotgun-proteomics-to-identify-mechanisms-and-biomarkers-of-calcific-aortic-stenosis
#20
Mariola Olkowicz, Janusz Debski, Patrycja Jablonska, Michal Dadlez, Ryszard T Smolenski
Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) increasingly affects our ageing population, but the mechanisms of the disease and its biomarkers are not well established. Recently, plasma amino acid-related metabolite (AA) profiling has attracted attention in studies on pathology and development of biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, but has not been studied in CAS. To evaluate the potential relationship between CAS and AA metabolome, a new ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 43 AAs in plasma of stenotic patients and age-matched control subjects...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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