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Cardiac development, cardiac remodelling, cardiac function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161309/dronedarone-produces-early-regression-of-myocardial-remodelling-in-structural-heart-disease
#1
Begoña Quintana-Villamandos, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, María Jesús Delgado-Martos, David Muñoz-Valverde, María Luisa Soto-Montenegro, Manuel Desco, Emilio Delgado-Baeza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is associated with a greater risk of sustained supraventricular/atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone is an antiarrhythmic agent that was recently approved for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. However, its effect on early regression of LVH has not been reported. We tested the hypothesis that short-term administration of dronedarone induces early regression of LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). METHODS: Ten-month-old male SHRs were randomly assigned to an intervention group (SHR-D), where animals received dronedarone treatment (100 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days, or to a control group (SHR) where rats were given vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152949/effects-of-valproic-acid-on-sympathetic-activity-and-left-ventricularmyocardial-remodelling-in-rats-during-pressure-overload
#2
Yang Liu, Siyu Li, Zhigang Zhang, Zhanjun Lv, Huijie Jiang, Xiao Tan, Fengquan Liu
Background/aim: Pressure overload induces cardiac remodelling and results in heart failure. Enhanced sympathetic outflow participates in the development of cardiac remodelling for the duration of pressure overload as an independent factor. Valproic acid has recently been shown to reduce neuronal injury and have antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We speculate that the drug plays a specific role in alleviating cardiac remodelling by inhibiting sympathetic activity. Materials and methods: Surgery of partial abdominal aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117535/rescuing-infusion-of-mirna-1-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-heart-selective-mirna-deficient-mouse
#3
Shuilian Luo, Yuhang Chen, Rui He, Yujun Shi, Li Su
OBJECTIVE: The decreased expression of muscle-specific microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been found in many cardiovascular diseases and is considered to contribute to heart failure (HF). Here we investigated the role of miR-1 in myocardium protection by infusion of miR-1 in a cardiac global miRNA-deficient mouse. METHODS: We generated a cardiac-selective miRNA-deficient mouse by crossing Dicer(flox/flox) mice with mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of a mouse αMHC promoter...
November 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101178/heart-functional-and-structural-compendium-of-cardiosplenic-and-cardiorenal-networks-in-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-pathology
#4
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Kevin A Ingle
Heart failure (HF) secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) is linked to kidney complications that comprise cellular, structural, functional, and survival indicators. However, the HF research is focused on left ventricle (LV) pathology. Here, we determined the comprehensive functional analysis of LV using echocardiography in transition from acute HF (AHF) to progressive CHF pathology and develop a histological compendium of the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal networks in pathological remodeling. In surgically-induced MI using permanent coronary ligation, the LV dysfunction is pronounced, with myocardium necrosis, wall-thinning and 20-30% LV rupture events that indicated AHF and CHF pathological remodeling in C57BL/6 male mice (2-4 months old; n=50)...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098624/no-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-exercise
#5
Tiago Fernandes, Camila V Gomes-Gatto, Noemy P Pereira, Yahya R Alayafi, Vander J das Neves, Edilamar M Oliveira
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule implicated in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. The identification of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and the subsequent characterization of the mechanisms of cell activation of the enzymes permitted the partial understanding of both the physiological and pathological processes. NO bioavailability plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and its reduction in endothelial cells is strictly associated to endothelial dysfunction which, in turn, correlates with cardiovascular mortality...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094041/microrna-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-cardiac-remodeling
#6
REVIEW
Chao Chen, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Cuiyun Liu, Jinning Gao, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that contain 18-25 nucleotides. The alterations in their expression level play crucial role in the development of many disorders including heart diseases. Myocardial remodeling is the final pathological consequence of a variety of myocardial diseases. miRNAs have central role in regulating pathogenesis of myocardial remodeling by modulating cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocytes injury, cardiac fibrosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response through multiple mechanisms...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075197/the-processes-and-mechanisms-of-cardiac-and-pulmonary-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Lucy A Murtha, Michael J Schuliga, Nishani S Mabotuwana, Sean A Hardy, David W Waters, Janette K Burgess, Darryl A Knight, Andrew J Boyle
Fibrosis is the formation of fibrous connective tissue in response to injury. It is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix components, particularly collagen, at the site of injury. Fibrosis is an adaptive response that is a vital component of wound healing and tissue repair. However, its continued activation is highly detrimental and a common final pathway of numerous disease states including cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Worldwide, fibrotic diseases cause over 800,000 deaths per year, accounting for ~45% of total deaths...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074341/the-clinical-significance-of-endocardial-endothelial-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Sonja Smiljic
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is essential in the embryonic development of the heart, the optimal contractility and rhythm as well as the remodeling of the heart. Endocardial endothelium affect the contractility of cardiomyocytes through paracrine signaling substances such as nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), prostaglandins (PGI2, PGF2, PGE2) and angiotensin II (ANG II). Typical lesions of endocardial endothelium have been described in atrial fibrillation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, sepsis, myocardial infarction, inflammation and thrombosis...
September 21, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068766/the-role-of-autophagy-in-the-heart
#9
Sebastiano Sciarretta, Yasuhiro Maejima, Daniela Zablocki, Junichi Sadoshima
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which cytoplasmic elements are degraded intracellularly. Autophagy has also emerged as a major regulator of cardiac homeostasis and function. Autophagy preserves cardiac structure and function under baseline conditions and is activated during stress, limiting damage under most conditions. It reduces injury and preserves cardiac function during ischemia. It also reduces chronic ischemic remodeling and mediates the cardiac adaptation to pressure overload by restricting misfolded protein accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057207/harnessing-epicardial-progenitor-cells-and-their-derivatives-for-rescue-and-repair-of-cardiac-tissue-after-myocardial-infarction
#10
Krithika S Rao, Jeffrey L Spees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease and stroke lead to the greatest number of deaths worldwide. Despite decreased time to intervention and improvements in the standard of care, 1 out of 5 patients that survive a myocardial infarction (MI) still face long-term chronic heart failure and a 5-year mortality rate of about 50%. Based on their multi-potency for differentiation and paracrine activity, epicardial cells and their derivatives have potential to rescue jeopardized tissue and/or promote cardiac regeneration...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056683/dissecting-the-role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-heart-disease-lessons-from-the-drosophila-genetic-model
#11
REVIEW
Chris J R Hughes, J Roger Jacobs
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffold within organs and tissues that enables cell morphogenesis and provides structural support. Changes in the composition and organisation of the cardiac ECM are required for normal development. Congenital and age-related cardiac diseases can arise from mis-regulation of structural ECM proteins (Collagen, Laminin) or their receptors (Integrin). Key regulators of ECM turnover include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs)...
April 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047083/altered-redox-balance-in-the-development-of-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#12
Nikki L Jernigan, Thomas C Resta, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc
Normally, the pulmonary circulation is maintained in a low-pressure, low-resistance state with little resting tone. Pulmonary arteries are thin-walled and rely heavily on pulmonary arterial distension and recruitment for reducing pulmonary vascular resistance when cardiac output is elevated. Under pathophysiological conditions, however, active vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling lead to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and subsequent pulmonary hypertension (PH). Chronic hypoxia is a critical pathological factor associated with the development of PH resulting from airway obstruction (COPD, sleep apnea), diffusion impairment (interstitial lung disease), developmental lung abnormalities, or high altitude exposure (World Health Organization [WHO]; Group III)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044172/circulating-mir-19b-and-mir-181b-are-potential-biomarkers-for-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#14
Camila Uribe Copier, Luis León, Mauricio Fernández, David Contador, Sebastián D Calligaris
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by metabolic changes in the myocardium that promote a slow and silent dysfunction of muscle fibers, leading to myocardium remodelling and heart failure, independently of the presence of coronary artery diseases or hypertension. At present, no imaging methods allow an early diagnosis of this disease. Circulating miRNAs in plasma have been proposed as biomarkers in the prognosis of several cardiac diseases. This study aimed to determine whether circulating miRNAs could be potential biomarkers of diabetic cardiomyopathy...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042955/intramyocardial-delivery-of-bfgf-with-a-biodegradable-and-thermosensitive-hydrogel-improves-angiogenesis-and-cardio-protection-in-infarcted-myocardium
#15
Hongling Zhu, Xiaoyan Li, Mingjie Yuan, Weiguo Wan, Miaoyang Hu, Xiaoding Wang, Xuejun Jiang
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a known angiogenic factor, may provide a potential strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but it is limited by a relatively short half-life. Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm hydrogel provides a reservoir for the controlled release of growth factors. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of bFGF incorporated into a Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm hydrogel on angiogenesis and cardiac health in a rat model of acute MI, induced by coronary artery ligation. Phosphate-buffered solution (PBS group), Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm hydrogel (Gel group), bFGF in phosphate-buffered solution (bFGF group) or bFGF in hydrogel (Gel + bFGF group) was injected into a peri-infarcted area of cardiac tissue immediately following MI...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038363/moderate-exercise-training-does-not-prevent-the-reduction-in-myocardial-l-type-ca-2-channels-protein-expression-at-obese-rats
#16
Vitor L da Silva, Ana P Lima-Leopoldo, Artur J T Ferron, Jóctan P Cordeiro, Paula P Freire, Dijon H S de Campos, Carlos R Padovani, Mário M Sugizaki, Antonio C Cicogna, André S Leopoldo
Authors have showed that obesity implicates cardiac dysfunction associated with myocardial L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) activity impairments, as well as moderate exercise training (MET) seems to be an important therapeutic tool. We tested the hypothesis that MET promotes improvements on LTCCS activity and protein expression at obesity induced by unsaturated high-fat diets, which could represent a protective effects against development of cardiovascular damage. Male Wistar rats were randomized in control (C, n = 40), which received a standard diet and obese (Ob; n = 40), which received high-fat diet...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038355/isolated-heart-model-demonstrates-evidence-of-contractile-and-diastolic-dysfunction-in-right-ventricles-from-rats-with-sugen-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Evandro M Neto-Neves, Andrea L Frump, Alexandra Vayl, Jeffrey A Kline, Tim Lahm
Although extensively used for the study of left ventricular function, limited experience exists with the isolated heart model in the evaluation of right ventricular (RV) function. In particular, no published experience exists with this tool in sugen/hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (SuHx-PH), a frequently used model of severe and progressive PH We sought to characterize markers of RV contractile and diastolic function in SuHx-PH and to establish their relationship with markers of maladaptive RV remodeling...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026447/epigenome-alterations-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-its-related-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#18
REVIEW
Igor Gošev, Martina Zeljko, Željko Đurić, Ivana Nikolić, Milorad Gošev, Sanja Ivčević, Dino Bešić, Zoran Legčević, Frane Paić
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiac valve disease, and with current trends in the population demographics, its prevalence is likely to rise, thus posing a major health and economic burden facing the worldwide societies. Over the past decade, it has become more than clear that our traditional genetic views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between AS, proatherogenic risk factors, flow-induced mechanical forces, and disease-prone environmental influences. Recent breakthroughs in the field of epigenetics offer us a new perspective on gene regulation, which has broadened our perspective on etiology of aortic stenosis and other aortic valve diseases...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023958/stroke-induced-chronic-systolic-dysfunction-driven-by-sympathetic-overactivity
#19
Michael Bieber, Rudolf A Werner, Edit Tanai, Ulrich Hofmann, Takahiro Higuchi, Kai Schuh, Peter U Heuschmann, Stefan Frantz, Oliver Ritter, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac diseases are established risk factors for ischemic stroke incidence and severity. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that brain ischemia can cause cardiac dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying this neurogenic heart disease are incompletely understood. Although it is established that ischemic stroke is associated with cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage, elevated cardiac enzymes, and plasma catecholamines in the acute phase, nothing is known about the delayed consequences of ischemic stroke on cardiovascular function...
November 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017166/the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-inflammation-focus-on-kidney-and-vasculature
#20
Zachary Belden, Jeffrey A Deiuliis, Mirela Dobre, Sanjay Rajagopalan
BACKGROUND: The remarkable success of clinical trials in mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) inhibition in heart failure has driven research on the physiological and pathological role(s) of nonepithelial MR expression. MR is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system and is a major determinant of endothelial function, smooth muscle tone, vascular remodeling, fibrosis, and blood pressure. An important new dimension is the appreciation of the role MR plays in immune cells and target organ damage in the heart, kidney and vasculature, and in the development of insulin resistance...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
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