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Cardiac development, cardiac remodelling, cardiac function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094123/myocardial-and-serum-galectin-3-expression-dynamics-marks-post-myocardial-infarction-cardiac-remodelling
#1
Umesh C Sharma, Wassim Mosleh, Milind R Chaudhari, Rujuta Katkar, Brian Weil, Chris Evelo, Thomas R Cimato, Saraswati Pokharel, W Matthijs Blankesteijn, Gen Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) causes significant changes in cardiac morphology and function. Galectin-3 is a novel and potentially therapeutically important mediator of cardiac remodelling. Myocardial and serum galectin-3 expression dynamics in response to the early cardiovascular outcomes after acute MI are not fully elucidated. METHODS: We first performed a comprehensive longitudinal microarray analyses in mice after acute MI. We then measured the serum levels of galectin-3 in a translational porcine model of coronary microembolism-induced post-ischaemic cardiac remodelling...
December 19, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090760/expression-patterns-of-cardiac-aging-in-drosophila
#2
Leah Cannon, Alexander C Zambon, Anthony Cammarato, Zhi Zhang, Georg Vogler, Matthew Munoz, Erika Taylor, Jérôme Cartry, Sanford I Bernstein, Simon Melov, Rolf Bodmer
Aging causes cardiac dysfunction, often leading to heart failure and death. The molecular basis of age-associated changes in cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well-suited to investigate the genetics of cardiac aging. Flies age rapidly over the course of weeks, benefit from many tools to easily manipulate their genome, and their heart has significant genetic and phenotypic similarities to the human heart. Here, we performed a cardiac-specific gene expression study on aging Drosophila and carried out a comparative meta-analysis with published rodent data...
February 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068629/stars-knockout-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-by-suppressing-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation
#3
Zhaoling Shi, Huajie Wu, Jianfeng Luo, Xin Sun
STARS (STriated muscle Activator of Rho Signaling) is a sarcomeric protein, which expressed early in cardiac development and involved in pathological remodeling. Abundant evidence indicated that STARS could regulate cell proliferation, but it's exact function remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of STARS in the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and the potential effect on the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we established a PAH mouse model through chronic hypoxia exposure as reflected by the increased RVSP and RVHI...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065693/inhibition-of-mir-208b-improves-cardiac-function-in-titin-based-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#4
Qifeng Zhou, Sonja Schötterl, Daniel Backes, Eva Brunner, Julia Kelley Hahn, Elena Ionesi, Parwez Aidery, Carsten Sticht, Siegfried Labeit, Reinhard Kandolf, Meinrad Gawaz, Michael Gramlich
BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the result of maladaptive cardiac remodeling, which involves microRNA regulation. In turn, microRNAs can contribute to the remodeling process by post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression networks. The exact role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DCM is largely unknown. Here, we used an inducible DCM mouse model that carries a human truncation mutation in the sarcomeric protein titin to dissect microRNA pathways in DCM development...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062479/loss-of-macrophage-wnt-secretion-improves-remodeling-and-function-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#5
Dahlia Palevski, La-Paz Levin-Kotler, David Kain, Nili Naftali-Shani, Natalie Landa, Tammy Ben-Mordechai, Tal Konfino, Radka Holbova, Natali Molotski, Rina Rosin-Arbesfeld, Richard A Lang, Jonathan Leor
BACKGROUND: Macrophages and Wnt proteins (Wnts) are independently involved in cardiac development, response to cardiac injury, and repair. However, the role of macrophage-derived Wnts in the healing and repair of myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. We sought to determine the role of macrophage Wnts in infarct repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show that the Wnt pathway is activated after MI in mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that isolated infarct macrophages express distinct Wnt pathway components and are a source of noncanonical Wnts after MI...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062414/a-novel-complex-i-inhibitor-protects-against-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#6
Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ian M Robertson, Shereen M Hamza, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Miranda M Sung, Grant Masson, Donna L Beker, Jason R B Dyck
Since left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the susceptibility for the development of other cardiac conditions, pharmacotherapy that mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling may prove to be beneficial in patients with LVH. Previous work has shown that the activation of the energy-sensing kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit some of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in LVH. Of interest, metformin activates AMPK through its inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 in the electron transport chain, and can prevent LVH induced by pressure overload...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003648/cardiac-structural-remodeling-in-hypertensive-cardiomyopathy
#7
Si-Jia Sun, Jia-Lu Yao, Lang-Biao Xu, Qing Rui, Nan-Nan Zhang, Min Chen, Yu-Feng Jiang, Hua-Jia Yang, Ya-Feng Zhou
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is a primary driver of morbidity and mortality, accounts for approximately half of all heart failure cases. Therefore, it is essential to develop preclinical animal models for HFpEF pharmacological treatment strategies. We created a porcine model of severe hypertension and hyperlipidemia by using a combination of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA, 100 mg kg(-1)), Western diet (WD) and angiotensin II infusion. Systolic blood pressure, echocardiography and invasive pressure-volume loop were assessed at baseline, 12 weeks and 18 weeks...
December 22, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000751/suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-ameliorates-chronic-kidney-disease-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-and-diastolic-dysfunction
#8
Antoinette Bugyei-Twum, Armin Abadeh, Kerri Thai, Yanling Zhang, Melissa Mitchell, Golam Kabir, Kim A Connelly
Cardiac fibrosis is a common finding in patients with chronic kidney disease. Here, we investigate the cardio-renal effects of theracurmin, a novel formulation of the polyphenolic compound curcumin, in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Briefly, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo sham or subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) surgery. At 3 weeks post surgery, SNx animals were further randomized to received theracurmin via once daily oral gavage or vehicle for 5 consecutive weeks. At 8 weeks post surgery, cardiac function was assessed via echocardiography and pressure volume loop analysis, followed by LV and renal tissue collection for analysis...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995765/shockwaves-prevent-from-heart-failure-after-acute-myocardial-ischaemia-via-rna-protein-complexes
#9
Can Tepeköylü, Uwe Primessnig, Leo Pölzl, Michael Graber, Daniela Lobenwein, Felix Nägele, Elke Kirchmair, Elisabeth Pechriggl, Michael Grimm, Johannes Holfeld
Shock wave treatment (SWT) was shown to induce regeneration of ischaemic myocardium via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). The antimicrobial peptide LL37 gets released by mechanical stress and is known to form complexes with nucleic acids thus activating Toll-like receptors. We suggested that SWT in the acute setting prevents from the development of heart failure via RNA/protein release. Myocardial infarction in mice was induced followed by subsequent SWT. Heart function was assessed 4 weeks later via transthoracic echocardiography and pressure-volume measurements...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995696/prevention-of-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-by-the-phosphodiesterase-5a-inhibitor-vardenafil-in-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Csaba Mátyás, Balázs T Németh, Attila Oláh, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Dalma Kellermayer, Bálint A Barta, Gábor Szabó, Gábor Kökény, Eszter M Horváth, Beáta Bódi, Zoltán Papp, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has a great epidemiological burden. The pathophysiological role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling has been intensively investigated in HFpEF. Elevated levels of cGMP have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in various cardiovascular diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated the effect of long-term preventive application of the phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) inhibitor vardenafil in diabetic cardiomyopathy-associated HFpEF...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995387/noncoding-rnas-in-heart-failure
#11
Seema Dangwal, Katharina Schimmel, Ariana Foinquinos, Ke Xiao, Thomas Thum
Heart failure is a major contributor to the healthcare burden and mortality worldwide. Current treatment strategies are able to slow down the transition of healthy heart into the failing one; nevertheless better understanding of the complex genetic regulation of maladaptive remodeling in the failing heart is essential for new drug discovery. Noncoding RNAs are key epigenetic regulators of cardiac gene expression and thus significantly influence cardiac homeostasis and functions.In this chapter we will discuss characteristics of noncoding RNAs, especially miRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs, and review recent evidences proving their profound involvement during different stages of heart failure progression...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993643/effects-of-neuregulin-ggf2-cimaglermin-alfa-dose-and-treatment-frequency-on-left-ventricular-function-in-rats-following-myocardial-infarction
#12
Tom J Parry, Anindita Ganguly, Erika L Troy, J Luis Guerrero, Jennifer F Iaci, Maya Srinivas, Andrea M Vecchione, Donald C Button, Craig S Hackett, Ronald Zolty, Douglas B Sawyer, Anthony O Caggiano
Neuregulins are important growth factors involved in cardiac development and response to stress. Certain isoforms and fragments of neuregulin have been found to be cardioprotective. The effects of a full-length neuregulin-1β isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2; USAN/INN; also called cimaglermin) were investigated in vitro. Various dosing regimens were then evaluated for their effects on left ventricular (LV) function in rats with surgically-induced myocardial infarction. In vitro, GGF2 bound with high affinity to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene (ErbB) 4 receptors, potently promoted Akt phosphorylation, as well as reduced cell death following doxorubicin exposure in HL1 cells...
December 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992507/trpc4%C3%AE-and-trpc4%C3%AE-similarly-affect-neonatal-cardiomyocyte-survival-during-chronic-gpcr-stimulation
#13
Nadine Kirschmer, Sandra Bandleon, Viktor von Ehrlich-Treuenstätt, Sonja Hartmann, Alice Schaaf, Anna-Karina Lamprecht, Erick Miranda-Laferte, Tanja Langsenlehner, Oliver Ritter, Petra Eder
The Transient Receptor Potential Channel Subunit 4 (TRPC4) has been considered as a crucial Ca2+ component in cardiomyocytes promoting structural and functional remodeling in the course of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. TRPC4 assembles as homo or hetero-tetramer in the plasma membrane, allowing a non-selective Na+ and Ca2+ influx. Gαq protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation is known to increase TRPC4 channel activity and a TRPC4-mediated Ca2+ influx which has been regarded as ideal Ca2+ source for calcineurin and subsequent nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) activation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988927/cardiac-remodelling-in-a-baboon-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-mimics-accelerated-ageing
#14
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Jinqi Li, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
KEY POINTS: Rodent models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) successfully identify mechanisms that can lead to short-term and long-term detrimental cardiomyopathies but differences between rodent and human cardiac physiology and placental-fetal development indicate a need for models in precocial species for translation to human development. We developed a baboon model for IUGR studies using a moderate 30% global calorie restriction of pregnant mothers and used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate offspring heart function in early adulthood...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964749/truncating-de-novo-mutations-in-the-kr%C3%A3-ppel-type-zinc-finger-gene-znf148-in-patients-with-corpus-callosum-defects-developmental-delay-short-stature-and-dysmorphisms
#15
Servi J C Stevens, Anthonie J van Essen, Conny M A van Ravenswaaij, Abdallah F Elias, Jaclyn A Haven, Stefan H Lelieveld, Rolph Pfundt, Willy M Nillesen, Helger G Yntema, Kees van Roozendaal, Alexander P Stegmann, Christian Gilissen, Han G Brunner
BACKGROUND: Krüppel-type zinc finger genes (ZNF) constitute a large yet relatively poorly characterized gene family. ZNF genes encode proteins that recognize specific DNA motifs in gene promotors. They act as transcriptional co-activators or -repressors via interaction with chromatin remodeling proteins and other transcription factors. Only few ZNF genes are currently linked to human disorders and identification of ZNF gene-associated human diseases may help understand their function...
December 13, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956366/biohybrid-cardiac-ecm-based-hydrogels-improve-long-term-cardiac-function-post-myocardial-infarction
#16
Yael Efraim, Hadar Sarig, Noa Cohen Anavy, Udi Sarig, Elio de Berardinis, Su-Yin Chaw, Muthukumar Krishnamoorthi, Jérôme Kalifa, Hanumakumar Bogireddi, Thang Vu Duc, Theodoros Kofidis, Limor Baruch, Freddy Y C Boey, Subbu S Venkatraman, Marcelle Machluf
: Injectable scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration are a promising therapeutic approach for progressive heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI). Their major advantage lies in their delivery modality that is considered minimally invasive due to their direct injection into the myocardium. Biomaterials comprising such scaffolds should mimic the cardiac tissue in terms of composition, structure, mechanical support, and most importantly, bioactivity. Nonetheless, natural biomaterial-based gels may suffer from limited mechanical strength, which often fail to provide the long-term support required by the heart for contraction and relaxation...
December 9, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941647/the-role-of-erk1-2-in-the-development-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#17
REVIEW
Zheng Xu, Jian Sun, Qian Tong, Qian Lin, Lingbo Qian, Yongsoo Park, Yang Zheng
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major complications that accounts for more than half of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality cases. Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from diabetes mellitus cause cardiac oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, impaired cellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, which ultimately lead to DCM...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934662/cardiomyocyte-specific-expression-of-the-nuclear-matrix-protein-ciz1-stimulates-production-of-mono-nucleated-cells-with-an-extended-window-of-proliferation-in-the-postnatal-mouse-heart
#18
Sumia A Bageghni, Georgia A Frentzou, Mark J Drinkhill, William Mansfield, Dawn Coverley, Justin F X Ainscough
Myocardial injury in mammals leads to heart failure through pathological cardiac remodelling that includes hypertrophy, fibrosis and ventricular dilatation. Central to this is inability of the mammalian cardiomyocyte to self-renew due to entering a quiescent state after birth. Modulation of the cardiomyocyte cell-cycle after injury is therefore a target mechanism to limit damage and potentiate repair and regeneration. Here, we show that cardiomyocyte-specific over-expression of the nuclear-matrix--associated DNA replication protein, CIZ1, extends their window of proliferation during cardiac development, delaying onset of terminal differentiation without compromising function...
January 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933370/doxorubicin-induced-chronic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-the-apoptosis-hypothesis-revisited
#19
REVIEW
Cynthia Kankeu, Kylie Clarke, Egle Passante, Heinrich J Huber
The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) has significantly increased survival rates of pediatric and adult cancer patients. However, 10% of pediatric cancer survivors will 10-20 years later develop severe dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), whereby the exact molecular mechanisms of disease progression after this long latency time remain puzzling. We here revisit the hypothesis that elevated apoptosis signaling or its increased likelihood after DOX exposure can lead to an impairment of cardiac function and cause a cardiac dilation...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916592/new-developments-in-cardiac-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Thi Yen Loan Le, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Eddy Kizana, James Jh Chong
Numerous pharmacological and device therapies have improved adverse cardiac remodelling and mortality in heart failure. However, none are able to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Stem cell based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells are new approaches that could potentially achieve the elusive goal of true cardiac regeneration. Over the past two decades, various stem cell based approaches have been shown to improve left ventricular function in pre-clinical animal models...
November 19, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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