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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092416/persistence-of-antibody-to-hepatitis-a-virus-20-years-after-receipt-of-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-alaska
#1
Ian D Plumb, Lisa R Bulkow, Michael G Bruce, Thomas W Hennessy, Julie Morris, Karen Rudolph, Philip Spradling, Mary Snowball, Brian J McMahon
Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children ≥1 year old to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However the duration of vaccine-induced immunity is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of Alaska Native persons 20 years after HAV vaccination. Children aged 3-6 years had been previously randomized to receive 3 doses of HAV vaccine (360 ELISA units/dose) at: A) 0,1,2 months; B) 0,1,6 months; and C) 0,1,12 months. We measured anti-HAV antibody concentrations every 2-3 years; described geometric mean concentrations (GMC) and the proportion with protective antibody (≥20 mIU mL-1) over time; and modelled change in GMC using fractional polynomial regression...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#2
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091579/impact-of-age-and-vaccination-history-on-long-term-serological-responses-after-symptomatic-b-pertussis-infection-a-high-dimensional-data-analysis
#3
Inonge van Twillert, Axel A Bonačić Marinović, Betsy Kuipers, Jacqueline A M van Gaans-van den Brink, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Cécile A C M van Els
Capturing the complexity and waning patterns of co-occurring immunoglobulin (Ig) responses after clinical B. pertussis infection may help understand how the human host gradually loses protection against whooping cough. We applied bi-exponential modelling to characterise and compare B. pertussis specific serological dynamics in a comprehensive database of IgG, IgG subclass and IgA responses to Ptx, FHA, Prn, Fim2/3 and OMV antigens of (ex-) symptomatic pertussis cases across all age groups. The decay model revealed that antigen type and age group were major factors determining differences in levels and kinetics of Ig (sub) classes...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091126/association-between-perfluoroalkyl-substance-exposure-and-asthma-and-allergic-disease-in-children-as-modified-by-mmr-vaccination
#4
Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Tina Kold Jensen, Christa Elyse Osuna, Maria Skaalum Petersen, Ulrike Steuerwald, Flemming Nielsen, Lars K Poulsen, Pál Weihe, Philippe Grandjean
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089593/physician-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-hepatitis-a-and-current-practices-regarding-hepatitis-a-vaccination-delivery
#5
Noele P Nelson, Mandy Allison, Megan C Lindley, Michaela Brtnikova, Lori A Crane, Brenda L Beaty, Laura P Hurley, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To assess physicians' 1) knowledge and attitudes about hepatitis A disease and HepA vaccine, and 2) child care and school HepA vaccine mandates; 3) practices related to HepA vaccine delivery; 4) factors associated with strongly recommending HepA vaccine to all 1-2 year olds; and 5) feasibility of implementing HepA catch-up vaccination at health maintenance visits. METHODS: A national survey was conducted among representative networks of pediatricians and family medicine physicians (FMs) from March to June, 2014 by e-mail or mail based on provider preference...
January 9, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088399/the-timing-of-pertussis-cases-in-unvaccinated-children-in-an-outbreak-year-oregon-2012
#6
Steve G Robison, Juventila Liko
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether, during a 2012 pertussis outbreak, unvaccinated and poorly vaccinated cases occurred earlier on a community level. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric pertussis among children 2 months to 10 years of age in the Oregon Sentinel Surveillance region during an epidemic starting at the beginning of 2012 were stratified by immunization status, age, zip code, and calendar date of disease onset. Differences in median onset as days between fully or mostly vaccinated, poorly vaccinated, and unvaccinated cases were examined overall and within local zip code areas...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088130/vaccine-candidates-against-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Ava Behrouzi, Farzam Vaziri, Fatemeh Rahimi-Jamnani, Parviz Afrough, Mohammad Rahbar, Fereshteh Satarian, Seyed Davar Siadat
Nonencapsulated, nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains an important cause of acute otitis and respiratory diseases in children and adults. NTHi bacteria are one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections, including acute otitis media, cystic fibrosis, and community-acquired pneumonia among children, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can also cause chronic diseases such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the lower respiratory tract of adults...
2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#8
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087146/pcv13-vaccinated-children-still-carrying-pcv13-additional-serotypes-show-similar-carriage-density-to-a-control-group-of-pcv7-vaccinated-children
#9
Ron Dagan, Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Scott Patterson, David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Nurith Porat, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott
BACKGROUND: In addition to reducing vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage rates, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) may decrease carriage density in vaccinated individuals still carrying vaccine serotypes. However, reduction of carriage density has not been systematically studied. This study compared the effect of PCV13 versus PCV7 on carriage density of the serotypes in PCV13 that are not included in PCV7. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study was conducted in southern Israel and included Jewish and Bedouin subjects...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#10
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086810/genotypic-characterization-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-from-patients-in-two-geographical-locations-in-sri-lanka
#11
Ranjan Premaratna, Lucas S Blanton, Dilhar N Samaraweera, G Nalika N de Silva, Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, David H Walker, H J de Silva
BACKGROUND: To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to develop effective vaccines. Genetic and antigenic characterization of OT causing human disease in OT-endemic regions is not known for Sri Lanka...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081056/guidance-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-vaccination-status-and-vaccination-of-children-who-have-received-poliovirus-vaccine-outside-the-united-states
#12
Mona Marin, Manisha Patel, Steve Oberste, Mark A Pallansch
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have declined by >99.9%, from an estimated 350,000 cases of polio each year to 74 cases in two countries in 2015 (1). This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1, 2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), which contains all three poliovirus types (2,3)...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079828/vaccination-with-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-infants-according-to-hiv-status
#13
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Nadia van Niekerk, Peter V Adrian, Clare Cutland, Nancy François, Javier Ruiz-Guiñazú, Juan-Pablo Yarzabal, Marta Moreira, Dorota Borys, Lode Schuerman
BACKGROUND: Phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00829010) to evaluate immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+), HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children. METHODS: Children stratified by HIV status received PHiD-CV primary vaccination (age 6/10/14 weeks; coadministered with routine childhood vaccines) and booster dose (age 9-10 months)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077742/colonization-factors-in-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-strains-in-travelers-to-mexico-guatemala-and-india-compared-with-children-in-houston-texas
#14
Vineetkumar B Kharat, Makhdum Ahmed, Zhi-Dong Jiang, Mark S Riddle, Herbert L DuPont
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can be attributed to around 200 million diarrheal episodes and 380,000 deaths in the developing regions. Travelers' diarrhea occurs in 15-40% of travelers to developing regions with ETEC being the most important etiologic agent. This study aims to describe the distribution of enterotoxins and colonization factor (CF) profiles of ETEC isolates from stool samples of adult travelers acquiring diarrhea in Mexico, Guatemala, and India and a group of children with acute diarrhea in Houston, TX, between 2007 and 2012...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077730/effect-of-an-early-dose-of-measles-vaccine-on-morbidity-between-18-weeks-and-9-months-of-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-guinea-bissau
#15
Vu An Do, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Ane Bærent Fisker, Carlito Balé, Stine Møller Rasmussen, Lone Damkjær Christensen, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Cesário Martins, Peter Aaby, Christine Stabell Benn
BACKGROUND:  Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. METHODS:  Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive 2 doses of MV at 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077584/2-year-efficacy-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-vigoo-enterovirus-71-vaccine-in-healthy-chinese-children-a-randomized-open-label-study
#16
Mingwei Wei, Fanyue Meng, Shiyuan Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuntao Zhang, Qunying Mao, Yuemei Hu, Pei Liu, Nianmin Shi, Hong Tao, Kai Chu, Yuxiao Wang, Zhenglun Liang, Xiuling Li, Fengcai Zhu
BACKGROUND:  This study evaluated the 2-year efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the Vigoo enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine. METHOD:  In an initial phase 3 study, we randomly assigned healthy infants and children aged 6-35 months (ratio, 1:1) to receive 2 doses of either EV71 vaccine (5120 participants) or placebo (5125 participants) at days 0 and 28, and followed them for 12 months after vaccination. In this extended follow-up study, we continued to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the EV71 vaccine for up to 2 years...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077023/hiv-associated-sub-acute-sclerosing-panencephalitis-an-emerging-threat
#17
Abi Manesh, Mahesh Moorthy, Rini Bandopadhyay, Priscilla Rupali
Earlier age of measles virus infection predisposes to development of sub-acute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and this risk is heightened in HIV-infected children. We describe a HIV-infected young adult on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with a non-classical, fulminant form of SSPE to highlight the unpredictable nature of measles presentation. The recent spate of measles outbreaks due to virus introduction in populations with sub-optimal vaccine coverage or waning immunity and co-existing paediatric HIV cohorts is a cause for concern...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076428/does-measles-vaccination-reduce-the-risk-of-acute-respiratory-infection-ari-and-diarrhea-in-children-a-multi-country-study
#18
Rahul Bawankule, Abhishek Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar, Sadanand Shetye
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. METHODS: We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076422/monoclonal-antibody-against-g-glycoprotein-increases-respiratory-syncytial-virus-clearance-in-vivo-and-prevents-vaccine-enhanced-diseases
#19
Hyo-Jeong Lee, Jeong-Yoon Lee, Min-Hee Park, Joo-Young Kim, Jun Chang
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children, and the elderly. The G glycoprotein plays a role in host cell attachment and also modulates the host immune response, thereby inducing disease pathogenesis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 5H6 and 3A5) against G protein core fragment (Gcf), which consisted of amino acid residues 131 to 230 from RSV A2 G protein. Epitope mapping study revealed that 5H6 specifically binds to the G/164-176 peptide that includes conserved sequences shared by both RSV A and B subtypes, and 3A5 binds to the G/190-204 peptide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075671/hospitalization-rates-for-intussusception-in-children-aged-0-59%C3%A2-months-from-2009-to-2014-in-italy
#20
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Fabio Tramuto, Francesco Vitale
The real cause of intussusception is not fully understood and a variety of conditions have been associated with it (Meckel diverticulum, polyps, duplication cysts, parasites, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cystic fibrosis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and infectious gastroenteritis). Furthermore few European countries, following WHO recommendation to monitor baseline incidence of intussusception before implementation of immunization program for rotavirus, used intussusception rate as a baseline value to compare the same figures in the period before and after introduction of vaccination...
January 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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