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Children Vaccination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909947/vaccine-rejecting-parents-engagement-with-expert-systems-that-inform-vaccination-programs
#1
Katie Attwell, Julie Leask, Samantha B Meyer, Philippa Rokkas, Paul Ward
In attempting to provide protection to individuals and communities, childhood immunization has benefits that far outweigh disease risks. However, some parents decide not to immunize their children with some or all vaccines for reasons including lack of trust in governments, health professionals, and vaccine manufacturers. This article employs a theoretical analysis of trust and distrust to explore how twenty-seven parents with a history of vaccine rejection in two Australian cities view the expert systems central to vaccination policy and practice...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905982/the-use-of-a-lot-quality-assurance-sampling-methodology-to-assess-and-manage-primary-health-interventions-in-conflict-affected-west-darfur-sudan
#2
Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
October 6, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905835/hemagglutination-inhibiting-antibody-persistence-1-year-after-of-influenza-vaccination-in-korean-children-and-adolescents
#3
Eun-Kyeong Kang, Byung-Wook Eun, Nam-Hee Kim, Yun-Kyung Kim, Jung-Sub Lim, Dong-Ho Kim
This study aimed to assess the one-year immunogenicity of influenza vaccines and the association between immunogenicity at one month and further influenza infections in children aged 6 months to 18 years. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers and GMTs were determined for the recommended influenza strains 0, 1, 6, and 12 months post-vaccination. The serological evidence of influenza infections were defined as the increase of HI titer (HI ≥1:40 and 4-fold rise). The seroprotection rates for strains A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B were 91...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905821/effects-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-boosters-on-anti-hbs-negative-children-after-primary-immunization
#4
Shunshun Lu, Jingjing Ren, Qian Li, Zhenggang Jiang, Yongdi Chen, Kaijin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shigui Yang, Tiansheng Xie, Linna Yang, Jing Li, Jun Yao
This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (< 10 mIU/mL). 225 subjects (mean age, 9.28 ± 2.95 years) included in the study consisted of 123 males and 102 females, with a complete hepatitis B vaccination during infancy. The participants were divided into three groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs level: Group I, < 0.1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to < 1.0 mIU/mL; Group III, 1...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905819/mothers-preferences-regarding-new-combination-vaccines-for-their-children-in-japan-2014
#5
Aiko Shono, Masahide Kondo
A number of new vaccines to prevent childhood diseases have been introduced globally over the last few decades. Only four combination vaccines are currently available in Japan, DTaP/sIPV, DTaP, DT, and MR, leading to complex infant vaccine scheduling. This study aims to investigate mothers' preferences with respect to combination vaccines for their children, should new combination vaccines become available that have not yet been launched in Japan or that will be developed in the future. We conducted a web-based, cross-sectional survey of 1,243 mothers who had at least one child between 2 months and 3 years of age...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905628/-virulence-mechanisms-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#6
Ana Elvira Farfán-García, Sandra Catherine Ariza-Rojas, Fabiola Andrea Vargas-Cárdenas, Lizeth Viviana Vargas-Remolina
Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903416/post-licensure-phase-iv-safety-study-of-a-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-recombinant-vaccine-in-children-in-thailand
#8
Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Pornpimol Pruekprasert, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Chitsanu Pancharoen, Auchara Tangsathapornpong, Peninnah Oberdorfer, Pope Kosalaraksa, Olarn Prommalikit, Suwimon Tangkittithaworn, Phirangkul Kerdpanich, Chonnamet Techasaensiri, Joanna Korejwo, Sunate Chuenkitmongkol, Guy Houillon
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral disease endemic in most countries in Asia. A recombinant live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine, JE-CV, is licensed in 14 countries, including Thailand, for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis in adults and children. METHODS: This was a prospective, phase IV, open-label, multicentre, safety study of JE-CV conducted from November 2013 to April 2015, to evaluate rare serious adverse events (AEs)...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902653/meningococcal-disease-in-children-in-argentina-a-three-year-active-sentinel-hospital-surveillance-study
#9
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, María Rosa Agosti, Gabriela Ensinck, Hector Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Adriana Efron, Mabel Regueira, Ricardo Rüttimann
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is a medical emergency and a serious public health problem. As new meningococcal vaccines become available, MD surveillance is crucial to provide baseline epidemiologic data before implementing preventive measures. We estimated MD incidence and epidemiology in Argentina using hospital-based surveillance. METHODS: 3-year prospective active surveillance in patients ≤15 years of age conducted at 6 pediatric hospital sentinel units (March 2012-February 2015)...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902651/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-influenza-illness-among-children-during-school-based-outbreaks-in-the-2014-2015-season-in-beijing-china
#10
Li Zhang, Peng Yang, Mark G Thompson, Yang Pan, Chunna Ma, Shuangsheng Wu, Ying Sun, Man Zhang, Wei Duan, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about VE against non-medically attended A(H3N2) influenza illness during 2014-2015 when the vaccine component appeared to be a poor match with circulating strains. METHODS: Forty-three eligible school influenza outbreaks in Beijing, China from November 1 to December 31, 2014 were included in this study. The VE of 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was assessed in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza among school-age children through a case-control design, using asymptomatic controls...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902386/establishment-of-memory-cd8-t-cells-with-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-laiv-across-different-vaccination-doses
#11
Zhongfang Wang, Lukasz Kedzierska, Simone Nuessing, Brendon Chua, Sergio M Quiñones-Parra, Victor C Huber, David Jackson, Paul G Thomas, Katherine Kedzierska
FluMist has been used in children and adults for more than ten years. As pre-existing CD8+ T-cell memory pools can provide heterologous immunity against distinct influenza viruses, it is important to understand influenza-specific CD8+ T-cell responses elicited by different LAIV regimens. In this study, we immunized mice intranasally (i.n.) with two different doses of live-attenuated PR8 virus (PR8 ts, H1N1), low and high, and then assessed protective efficacy by challenging animals with heterosubtypic X31-H3N2 virus at 6 weeks post-vaccination...
November 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902376/detection-of-a-novel-equine-like-g3-rotavirus-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-brazil
#12
Sylvia F S Guerra, Luana S Soares, Patrícia S Lobo, Edvaldo T Penha Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa Júnior, Delana A M Bezerra, Lívia R Vaz, Alexandre C Linhares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
Genotype G3P[8] of rotavirus A (RVA) is detected worldwide, usually associated with Wa-like constellation and exhibiting a long RNA migration pattern. More recently, a novel intergenogroup, G3P[8] reassortant variant with a short electropherotype has emerged in Asia, Oceania and Europe, denoting an overall potential of unusual rotavirus strains. During a RVA surveillance in Brazil, G3P[8] strains were found displaying a short electropherotype pattern, which had not been detected before in this region. This study aims to characterize the complete genomes of 10 G3P[8] strains detected in Northern region of Brazil...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901408/four-steps-to-eliminate-or-reduce-pain-in-children-caused-by-needles-part-1
#13
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
Dr Stefan Friedrichsdorf* speaks to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, MD, is medical director of the Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, USA, home to one of the largest and most comprehensive programs of its kind in the country. The interdisciplinary pain team is devoted to prevent and treat acute, procedural, neuropathic, psycho-social-spiritual, visceral, and chronic/complex pain for all inpatients and outpatients in close collaboration with all pediatric subspecialties at Children's Minnesota...
November 30, 2016: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899030/childhood-vaccine-refusal-and-hesitancy-intentions-in-croatia-insights-from-a-population-based-study
#14
Anja Repalust, Sandra Šević, Stanko Rihtar, Aleksandar Štulhofer
Considering that programmatic data suggest a recent rise in vaccine refusal in Croatia, this study, first of its kind in Southeast Europe, aimed to estimate the prevalence, and sociodemographic, and sociocultural determinants of childhood vaccine refusal and hesitancy (CVRH) intentions among Croatian adults. Multi-stage stratified population-based survey included 1000 individuals aged 18-88 years (Mage = 47.7, SD = 17.8), of whom 51.7% were women. The outcome, a categorical indicator, distinguished among individuals who would approve vaccinating their children (vaccine accepting), those who would approve some but not all vaccines (vaccine hesitant), and those who would refuse vaccination (vaccine refusing)...
November 29, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898721/hepatitis-b-virus-infections-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-at-deder-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#15
Abdi Umare, Berhanu Seyoum, Tesfaye Gobena, Tamirat Haile Mariyam
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898668/the-long-term-safety-public-health-impact-and-cost-effectiveness-of-routine-vaccination-with-a-recombinant-live-attenuated-dengue-vaccine-dengvaxia-a-model-comparison-study
#16
Stefan Flasche, Mark Jit, Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer, Laurent Coudeville, Mario Recker, Katia Koelle, George Milne, Thomas J Hladish, T Alex Perkins, Derek A T Cummings, Ilaria Dorigatti, Daniel J Laydon, Guido España, Joel Kelso, Ira Longini, Jose Lourenco, Carl A B Pearson, Robert C Reiner, Luis Mier-Y-Terán-Romero, Kirsten Vannice, Neil Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Large Phase III trials across Asia and Latin America have recently demonstrated the efficacy of a recombinant, live-attenuated dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) over the first 25 mo following vaccination. Subsequent data collected in the longer-term follow-up phase, however, have raised concerns about a potential increase in hospitalization risk of subsequent dengue infections, in particular among young, dengue-naïve vaccinees. We here report predictions from eight independent modelling groups on the long-term safety, public health impact, and cost-effectiveness of routine vaccination with Dengvaxia in a range of transmission settings, as characterised by seroprevalence levels among 9-y-olds (SP9)...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898629/influenza-like-illness-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-acute-care-setting
#17
Sharon G Humiston, Thuylinh N Pham
During influenza season, acute respiratory illness due to influenza is difficult to distinguish from other influenza-like illnesses, but testing should be reserved for situations when timely results will influence management or infection control measures. Immunization status and timing of disease onset notwithstanding, a neuraminidase inhibitor should be offered immediately for certain high-risk children; neuraminidase inhibitor treatment should be considered if shorter illness is warranted or an at-risk sibling may be protected...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895844/effect-of-human-rotavirus-vaccine-on-severe-diarrhea-in-african-infants
#18
Shabir A Madhi, Nigel A Cunliffe, Duncan Steele, Desirée Witte, Mari Kirsten, Cheryl Louw, Bagrey Ngwira, John C Victor, Paul H Gillard, Brigitte B Cheuvart, Htay H Han, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis among young children worldwide. Data are needed to assess the efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine in African children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in South Africa (3166 infants; 64.1% of the total) and Malawi (1773 infants; 35.9% of the total) to evaluate the efficacy of a live, oral rotavirus vaccine in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893898/association-between-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-vaccination-in-pregnancy-and-early-childhood-morbidity-in-offspring
#19
Anders Hviid, Henrik Svanström, Ditte Mølgaard-Nielsen, Philipp Lambach
Importance: Several studies investigating potential adverse effects of the pandemic A(H1N1) vaccine have supported that influenza A(H1N1) vaccination does not increase the risk for major pregnancy and birth adverse outcomes, but little is known about possible adverse effects in offspring of A(H1N1)-vaccinated mothers beyond the perinatal period and into early childhood. Objective: To evaluate whether pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination in pregnancy increases the risk for early childhood morbidity in offspring...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893896/association-between-influenza-infection-and-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Ousseny Zerbo, Yinge Qian, Cathleen Yoshida, Bruce H Fireman, Nicola P Klein, Lisa A Croen
Importance: Maternal infections and fever during pregnancy are associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between influenza vaccination during pregnancy and ASD. Objective: To investigate the association between influenza infection and vaccination during pregnancy and ASD risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 196 929 children born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010, at a gestational age of at least 24 weeks...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
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