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Children Vaccination

J F Gruber, S Becker-Dreps, M G Hudgens, M A Brookhart, J C Thomas, M Jonsson Funk
Delays in rotavirus vaccine schedule could improve performance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, delaying the first dose could be detrimental if infants experience severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) early in life. Our objective was to describe the timing and predictors of severe RVGE in unvaccinated children in LMICs. We analysed the placebo arms from two clinical trials (cohort 1: NCT00241644; cohort 2: NCT00362648). We estimated the rate, cumulative incidence (per 1000 infants) and age distribution of severe RVGE episodes...
March 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Chelsea Ryan, Kathryn L Duvall, Emily C Weyant, Kiana R Johnson, David Wood
Though vaccine uptake and public support have risen since the release of the first HPV vaccines, the United States has far lower initiation and completion rates for the HPV vaccine series in comparison to other vaccines indicated for youth. Disparities are even greater in the Appalachian regions. Understanding factors contributing to these discrepancies is vital to improving vaccine rates in Appalachia. A comprehensive literature search identified all articles pertaining to HPV vaccination in children and adolescents living in Appalachia...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Joanna Morrison, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Petch Bunnag, Petra C Gronholm, Georgia Lockwood Estrin
Introduction: In low-income and middle-income countries, it is estimated that one in every three preschool-age children are failing to meet cognitive or socioemotional developmental milestones. Thailand has implemented a universal national developmental screening programme (DSPM) for young children to enable detection of developmental disorders and early intervention that can improve child health outcomes. DSPM implementation is being hampered by low attendance at follow-up appointments when children fail the initial screening...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Wee Ming Koh, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Hanh La, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Alex R Cook
Background: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) affects millions of children across Asia annually, leading to an increase in implemented control policies such as surveillance, isolation and social distancing in affected jurisdictions. However, limited knowledge of disease burden and severity causes difficulty in policy optimisation as the associated economic cost cannot be easily estimated. We use a data synthesis approach to provide a comprehensive picture of HFMD disease burden, estimating infection risk, symptomatic rates, the risk of complications and death, and overall disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) losses, along with associated uncertainties...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Joseph A Lewnard, Yonatan H Grad
After decades of declining mumps incidence amid widespread vaccination, the United States and other developed countries have experienced a resurgence in mumps cases over the last decade. Outbreaks affecting vaccinated individuals and communities with high vaccine coverage have prompted concerns about the effectiveness of the live attenuated vaccine currently in use. It is unclear whether immune protection wanes or whether the vaccine protects inadequately against currently circulating mumps virus lineages. Synthesizing data from six studies of mumps vaccine effectiveness, we estimated that vaccine-derived immune protection against mumps wanes on average 27 years (95% confidence interval, 16 to 51 years) after vaccination...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Halle B Getachew, Rebecca M Dahl, Benjamin A Lopman, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination was introduced in the United States in 2006. Our objectives were to examine reductions in diarrhea-associated health care utilization after rotavirus vaccine implementation and to assess direct vaccine effectiveness (VE) in US children. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using claims data of US children under 5 years of age. We compared rates of diarrhea-associated health care utilization in prevaccine versus post-vaccine introduction years...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
C Morley, K Grimwood, S Maloney, R S Ware
Evidence is emerging regarding the influence of meteorological factors on seasonal respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks. Data however, are limited for subtropical regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. We examined whether meteorological data (daily minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, dew point, daily global solar exposure) and tourist numbers were associated with the incidence of RSV in children aged <5 years for the Gold Coast region of South-East Queensland, Australia (latitude 28...
March 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Richter Razafindratsimandresy, Ondrej Mach, Jean-Michel Heraud, Barivola Bernardson, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Roland W Sutter
Background: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) outbreaks typically occur in areas of low poliovirus immunity. Madagascar successfully eradicated wild poliovirus in 1997; however, multiple VDPV outbreaks have occurred since then, and numerous vaccination campaigns have been carried out to control the VDPV outbreaks. We conducted a survey of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies among Malagasy children to assess performance of vaccination campaigns and estimate the risk of future VDPV outbreaks...
March 2018: Heliyon
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Jingjing Li, Hao Pan, Xiangshi Wang, Qirong Zhu, Yanling Ge, Jiehao Cai, Yuefang Li, Aimei Xia, Jiayu Hu, Mei Zeng
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is mainly epidemic in China and Southeast Asian countries. A novel enterovirus 71 vaccine has been available in China for preventing severe HFMD since 2016. Knowledge of the dynamic epidemiology of HFMD in different regions is necessary for appropriate intervention strategies. This study focused on the citywide surveillance data on the epidemiology and etiology of HFMD in Shanghai during 2014-2016. In these 3 years, the total numbers of reported HFMD cases were 65,018, 39,702, and 57,548, respectively; the numbers of severe cases (case-severity ratios) were 248 (0...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Abram L Wagner, Nijika Shrivastwa, Rachel C Potter, Sarah K Lyon-Callo, Matthew L Boulton
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of Michigan children with sickle cell disease (SCD) who were vaccinated according to pneumococcal vaccination recommendations and, secondarily, to examine uptake of meningococcal vaccine, and to compare up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status between children with and without SCD. STUDY DESIGN: Children with SCD who were born in Michigan were matched to controls without SCD using age, sex, race, and zip code. Using data from the state immunization registry, we assessed the significance of SCD status on UTD vaccination in logistic regression models...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Yotam Ophir, Kathleen Hall Jamieson
Background: People's intentions to use vaccines are influenced by their beliefs about both the specific vaccine and the disease it prevents. In the absence of firm beliefs about Zika virus (ZIKV), individuals may base their intentions to vaccinate against it on beliefs about other vaccines, and specifically the misbelief that MMR causes autism. Methods: A survey of 3337 Americans, using a random-digit-dialing sample of landline telephone households and cell-phones...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Kyung Suk Lee, Ye-Rin Lee, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide, and vaccination prevents rotaviral gastroenteritis. Since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Korea in 2007, the prevalence of rotaviral gastroenteritis has decreased. However, little is known on the economic burden of rotavirus infection and its variations in Korea. Here, we estimated the economic costs of rotavirus infection from 2009 to 2012 using nationwide data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) claims. Socioeconomic costs were subdivided into direct and indirect and measured with a prevalence-based approach...
2018: PloS One
Selvakumar Ambika, Krishnakumar Padmalakshmi, Viswanathan Venkatraman, Olma V Noronha
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis in children is an uncommon disorder which usually occurs after a viral illness or vaccination and, less frequently, occurs as a manifestation of a demyelinating disorder. Pediatric optic neuritis usually is bilateral and presents with optic disc edema, recovers rapidly with steroid therapy, and generally has low conversion rate to multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We report the clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric optic neuritis in Indian population, for which little data are available...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Gabriele Donzelli, Giacomo Palomba, Ileana Federigi, Francesco Aquino, Lorenzo Cioni, Marco Verani, Annalaura Carducci, Pierluigi Lopalco
In Italy, the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy has increased with time and represents a complex problem that requires a continuous monitoring. Misinformation on media and social media seems to be one of the determinants of the vaccine hesitancy since, for instance, 42.8 percent of Italian citizens used the internet to obtain vaccine information in 2016. This article reports a quantitative analysis of 560 YouTube videos related to the link between vaccines and autism or other serious side effects on children...
March 19, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Richard L Hutchison, Janet O'Rear, Cindy Olson-Burgess, Angela L Myers
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of providing immediate access to the influenza vaccination for patients seen in a pediatric hand surgery clinic. Our hypothesis was that providing access would increase the rate of vaccination. METHODS: This pilot study was a randomized, controlled, prospective clinical trial that included all patients seen by a single surgeon, on a single day each week, in a hospital-based pediatric hand surgery practice clinic from October 18, 2016, to March 14, 2017...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Bernie Endyarni Medise, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar, Rini Mulia Sari
INTRODUCTION: High rate of influenza infection in children made influenza vaccination strongly recommended for all person aged >6 months in Indonesia. Bio Farma Trivalent Influenza HA (Flubio®) vaccine has been used in adolescents and adults, resulted in increased seroconversion, seroprotection rates and geometric mean titer (GMT). However, no data is available regarding its efficacy and safety in children. This study aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Flubio® vaccine in infants and children...
March 15, 2018: Vaccine
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Julia Lynch, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Thomas F Wierzba, Jean-Louis Excler, Amit Saha, Md Taufiqul Islam, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Farhana Khanam, Mohiul I Chowdhury, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Deok Ryun Kim, Ashraf U Siddik, Nirod C Saha, Alejandro Cravioto, Ajit P Singh, John D Clemens
BACKGROUND: A single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is attractive because it reduces logistical challenges for vaccination and could enable more people to be vaccinated. Previously, we reported the efficacy of a single dose of an OCV vaccine during the 6 months following dosing. Herein, we report the results of 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial done in Dhaka, Bangladesh, individuals aged 1 year or older with no history of receipt of OCV were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated OCV or oral placebo...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
J Hansen, L Zhang, A Eaton, R Baxter, C A Robertson, M D Decker, D P Greenberg, E Bassily, N P Klein
BACKGROUND: Menactra® vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the United States in 2005 for persons 11-55 years of age, in 2007 for children 2-10 years of age, and in 2011 for infants/toddlers 9-23 months of age. We conducted two studies at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated health care organization, to assess the safety of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds and 9-23-month-olds receiving the vaccine during routine clinical care. METHODS: We conducted observational, retrospective studies of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds (October 2007-October 2010) and in 9-23-month-olds (June 2011-June 2014)...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Qiru Su, Chao Ma, Ning Wen, Chunxiang Fan, Hong Yang, Huaqing Wang, Zundong Yin, Zijian Feng, Lixin Hao, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: Rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) became available in China in 1993 and was introduced nationwide into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 2008. We evaluated implementation and impact of RCV from 2 years prior to nationwide introduction through the 10 years after nationwide introduction. METHODS: We analyzed RCV lot-release (doses distributed) data, 1- and 2-dose RCV coverage, and rubella data from China's nationwide disease surveillance system to describe the current status and changes in rubella epidemiology between 2005 and 2017...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
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