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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673103/allopurinol-and-endothelial-function-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#1
Manal M Alem
AIM: Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are two inter-related conditions commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The enzyme, xanthine oxidase, is an important contributor to these phenomena but to a variable degree in different patient populations. This meta-analysis will summarize the effect of allopurinol, an established xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on endothelial function among patients with different co-morbidities. METHODS: Medline Complete, PubMed, ProQuest, ClinicalKey, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till 29th July, 2017...
April 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672754/comorbidity-clusters-in-people-with-gout-an-observational-cohort-study-with-linked-medical-record-review
#2
Megan Bevis, Milisa Blagojevic-Bucknall, Christian Mallen, Samantha Hider, Edward Roddy
Objective: To investigate how comorbid conditions cluster in patients with gout in a UK primary care population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using baseline data from a primary-care-based prospective observational cohort of people aged ⩾18 years with gout. Participants with gout were identified through primary care medical records. Factor analysis was performed to obtain distinct clusters of comorbidity variables including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, coronary heart disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer...
April 17, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672130/nadph-oxidase-4-derived-superoxide-mediates-flow-stimulated-nkcc2-activity-in-thick-ascending-limbs
#3
Fara Saez, Nancy J Hong, Jeffrey L Garvin
Luminal flow augments sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb more than can be explained by increased ion delivery. This segment reabsorbs 30% of the filtered load of sodium, playing a key role in its homeostasis. Whether flow elevations enhance Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) activity and the second messenger involved are unknown. We hypothesized that raising luminal flow augments NKCC2 activity by enhancing O2 - production by NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). NKCC2 activity was measured in thick ascending limbs perfused at either 5 or 20 nl/min with and without inhibitors of O2 - production...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671349/in-vitro-and-in-silico-interaction-of-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-seed-extract-with-xanthine-oxidase-and-evaluation-of-antioxidant-activity-as-a-therapeutic-potential
#4
Dhiraj Kumar Choudhary, Abha Mishra
Acetone extract of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was found to be highest total phenol and flavonoid content among all extracts. Antioxidant activity for inhibition percentage (free radical scavenging activity) had 86.47% for acetone extract, and 97.36% for ascorbic acid respectively. IC50 value of ascorbic acid and acetone extact were found to be 9 μg/mL ± 0.20 and 30 μg/mL ± 0.21. Faba bean seeds had catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid and ellagic acid which on molecular docking study revealed that it binds effectively with xanthine oxidase by binding energy of -7...
April 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667911/experimental-heat-stress-nephropathy-and-liver-injury-are-improved-by-allopurinol
#5
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Yuka Sato, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Gabriela E Garcia, Petter Bjornstad, Jaime Butler-Dawson, Cecilia Sorensen, Lee Newman, Lyndsay Krisher, Magdalena Madero, Jason Glaser, Ramon Garcia-Trabannino, Emmanuel Jarquin-Romero, Zhilin Song, Thomas Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America among workers in the sugarcane fields. One hypothesis is that the CKD may be caused by recurrent heat stress and dehydration, and potentially by hyperuricemia. Accordingly, we developed a murine model of kidney injury associated with recurrent heat stress. In the current experiment, we tested whether treatment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces serum urate) provides renal protection against recurrent heat stress and dehydration...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666075/rogue-one-a-story-of-tophaceous-gout-in-the-spine
#6
Karthik Dwarki, Andy Dothard, Bryan Abadie, Matthew C Miles
A 26-year-old man with history of extensive tophaceous gout presented to the referring facility with decreased bilateral lower extremity sensation and motor function that began acutely 1 week prior to admission and had progressed to urinary incontinence. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit due to concern for sepsis secondary to epidural abscess. The patient was started on empiric vancomycin and cefepime. Neurosurgery did not recommend acute neurosurgical intervention given the lack of a compressive lesion...
April 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656998/changes-in-the-concentration-of-anti-leishmania-antibodies-in-saliva-of-dogs-with-clinical-leishmaniosis-after-short-term-treatment
#7
Ana Cantos-Barreda, Damián Escribano, José J Cerón, Fernando Tecles, Luis J Bernal, Silvia Martínez-Subiela
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in the concentration of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva samples from dogs with clinical leishmaniosis after short-term treatment. Twenty dogs with clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities compatible with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) were diagnosed and treated with a standard antimonial plus allopurinol therapy. The concentration of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva was measured at the time of diagnosis (day 0) and after treatment (day 30) by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) and results were compared with those of serum...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628139/drug-repurposing-in-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Usha Panchapakesan, Carol Pollock
Drug repurposing, is the re-tasking of known medications for new clinical indications. Advantages, compared to de novo drug development, include reduced cost and time to market plus the added benefit of a known pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Suitable drug candidates are identified through serendipitous observations, data mining, or increased understanding of disease mechanisms. This review highlights drugs suited for repurposing in kidney disease. The main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease...
April 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614584/-glycogen-storage-disease-type-%C3%A2-a-a-rare-cause-of-gout-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients
#9
N Xu, X M Huang, W G Fang, Y Zhang, Z Q Qiu, X J Zeng
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of secondary gout in glycogen storage disease type Ⅰa (GSD Ⅰa), so as to improve the awareness of this disease. Methods: The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatments and prognosis of 5 GSD Ⅰa patients with secondary gout who had been admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital during 2006 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. GSD Ⅰa was confirmed by liver biopsy and genotyping. Results: Among the 5 patients (median age: 27 years), 3 were males and 2 were females...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607330/the-epidemiology-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-china
#10
Shang-Chen Yang, Sindy Hu, Sheng-Zheng Zhang, Jin-Wen Huang, Jing Zhang, Chao Ji, Bo Cheng
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are life-threatening disease. However, there are only few epidemiologic studies of SJS/TEN from China. To analyze the clinical characteristics, causality, and outcome of treatment for SJS/TEN in China, we reviewed case reports of patients with SJS/TEN from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database from 2006 to 2016 and patients with SJS/TEN who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University during the same period...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601433/thiopurine-optimization-through-combination-with-allopurinol-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Mark R Serpico, Ross Maltz, Wallace Crandall, Josh Bricker, Jennifer L Dotson, Sandra C Kim, Brendan Boyle
OBJECTIVES: Thiopurines are commonly used in the maintenance of remission for children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Variation in drug metabolism may impact hepatotoxicity or therapeutic effect. We aimed to describe our center's experience with thiopurine optimization through the use of reduced thiopurine dosing in combination with allopurinol upon hepatotoxicity, drug metabolite levels and clinical outcomes in children with IBD. METHODS: Patients aged 2-21 years with IBD treated with the combination of thiopurines/allopurinol between 2008-2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597007/design-and-rationale-for-the-veterans-affairs-cooperative-study-program-594-comparative-effectiveness-in-gout-allopurinol-vs-febuxostat-trial
#12
S Timilsina, K Brittan, J R O'Dell, M Brophy, A Davis-Karim, A M Henrie, T Neogi, J Newcomb, P M Palevsky, M H Pillinger, D Pittman, T H Taylor, H Wu, T R Mikuls
BACKGROUND: Gout patients do not routinely achieve optimal outcomes related in part to suboptimal administration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) including first-line xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or febuxostat. Studies leading to the approval of febuxostat compared this agent to allopurinol in inappropriately low, fixed doses. We will compare allopurinol with febuxostat in gout using appropriately titrated doses of both agents and a "treat-to-target" strategy congruent with specialty guidelines...
March 26, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595077/hypouricemic-effects-of-armillaria-mellea-on-hyperuricemic-mice-regulated-through-oat1-and-cnt2
#13
Tianqiao Yong, Shaodan Chen, Yizhen Xie, Diling Chen, Jiyan Su, Ou Shuai, Huiping Hu, Dan Zuo, Danling Liang
Ethanol and water extracts of Armillaria mellea were prepared by directly soaking A. mellea in ethanol (AME) at 65[Formula: see text]C, followed by decocting the remains in water (AMW) at 85[Formula: see text]C. Significantly, AME and AMW at 30, 60 and 120[Formula: see text]mg/kg exhibited excellent hypouricemic actions, causing remarkable declines from hyperuricemic control (351[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L, [Formula: see text]) to 136, 130 and 115[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L and 250, 188 and 152[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L in serum uric acid, correspondingly...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579363/gout-severity-socioeconomic-status-and-work-absence-a-cross-sectional-study-in-primary-care
#14
Zachary Bowen-Davies, Sara Muller, Christian D Mallen, Richard A Hayward, Edward Roddy
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between gout severity and (i) socioeconomic status; (ii) work absence. METHODS: Postal questionnaires were sent to adults registered with 20 general practices who had consulted with gout or been prescribed allopurinol or colchicine in the preceding two years. Gout severity was defined using proxy measures: number of attacks, history of oligo/polyarticular attacks, disease duration, and allopurinol use. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined using the English index of multiple deprivation (IMD) (area-level) using self-reported educational attainment (individual level)...
March 26, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568997/-severe-skin-reactions-due-to-new-medications
#15
REVIEW
M Mockenhaupt, M Paulmann
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and a specific form of hypersensitivity syndrome which is nowadays called "drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms" (DRESS) are severe, mainly drug-induced skin reactions. Whereas SJS/TEN is considered one reaction entity of different severity, DRESS has to be distinguished from SJS/TEN but also from other severe exanthems due to multiorgan involvement. Although SJS/TEN is generally referred to as drug reaction, in total only about three quarters of the cases are actually caused by drugs...
April 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566736/impact-of-diuretics-on-the-urate-lowering-therapy-in-patients-with-gout-analysis-of-an-inception-cohort
#16
Laura Ranieri, Carolina Contero, Maria-Luisa Peral, Irene Calabuig, Pedro Zapater, Mariano Andres
BACKGROUND: Diuretics have been associated with impaired response and refractoriness in gout, but whether this effect is still present with new urate-lowering drugs (ULD) and treat-to-target strategies is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of the diuretics on the response to ULD in patients with gout.  METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of an inception cohort. Participants were classified according to the type of ULD prescribed. We analysed the maximal dose of ULD (primary outcome variable), serum urate (SU) reduction, and the achievement of different SU targets (6 mg/dL, 5 mg/dL, and 4 mg/dL), according to the type of ULD prescribed and use of diuretics (loop and/or thiazide)...
March 22, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564734/drug-induced-skin-adverse-reactions-the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-their-prevention
#17
REVIEW
Kalliopi Gerogianni, Aspasia Tsezou, Konstantinos Dimas
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) affect many patients and remain a major public health problem, as they are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that ADRs are responsible for about 6% of hospital admissions and about 9% of hospitalization costs. Skin is the organ that is most frequently involved in ADRs. Drug-induced skin injuries vary from mild maculopapular eruptions (MPE) to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that are potentially life threatening. Genetic factors have been suggested to contribute to these SCARs, and most significant genetic associations have been identified in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557073/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-lesinurad-allopurinol-versus-febuxostat-for-the-management-of-gout-hyperuricemia-in-italy
#18
M Ruggeri, M Basile, C Drago, F R Rolli, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Until very recently the only therapeutic alternative for the management of patients affected by gout/hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line treatment based on allopurinol alone or who cannot tolerate allopurinol was febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase non-purine-selective inhibitor. Lately, however, a new therapeutic alternative has become available for the management of this pathology: lesinurad, a urate transporter inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: To objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of lesinurad/allopurinol in comparison with febuxostat as a second-line therapeutic strategy for the management of patients affected by gout and hyperuricemia that did not respond to a first-line therapy based on allopurinol alone...
March 19, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554974/renal-dialysis-and-long-term-treatment-of-a-dog-with-kidney-disease-associated-with-canine-leishmaniosis
#19
Gad Baneth, Gilad Segev, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Hila Chen, Sharon Kuzi
BACKGROUND: Renal disease is considered the main cause of natural mortality in dogs with canine leishmaniosis. The pathological mechanisms associated with kidney injury in canine leishmaniosis include immune complex glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis and occasionally renal amyloidosis. Proteinuria is a frequent finding in canine leishmaniosis and its quantification by the urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPC) is an important parameter in the staging of canine lesihmaniosis as presented by the LeishVet group...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554944/first-report-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-the-endangered-orangutan-pongo-pygmaeus-pygmaeus-in-madrid-spain
#20
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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