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Allopurinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046317/vasoactivity-of-nitrite-in-the-iliac-artery-of-the-toad-rhinella-marina
#1
Leonard George Forgan, Melenaite Sofele, Bryony Alice McNeill, Melissa S Cameron, John A Donald
Nitrite (NO2(-)) causes vasodilation in mammals due to the formation of (nitric oxide) NO by endogenous NO2(-) reduction in the vascular wall. In this study, we determined if a similar mechanism operates in amphibians. Dual-wire myography of the iliac artery from Rhinella marina showed that applied NO2(-) caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation in normoxia (21% O2; EC50 438 µM). Hypoxia (0.63% O2) significantly increased the maximal dilation to NO2(-) by 5 % (P = 0.0398). The addition of oxyhemoglobin significantly increased the EC50 (P = 0...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042453/bisphenol-a-promotes-hyperuricemia-via-activating-xanthine-oxidase
#2
Linqiang Ma, Jinbo Hu, Jiayu Li, Yi Yang, Linkun Zhang, Lingyun Zou, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Yue Wang, Ting Luo, Xiaojiao Xiang, Hua Qing, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Chaodong Wu, Zhihong Wang, John Cijiang He, Qifu Li, Shumin Yang
The prevalence of hyperuricemia has increased rapidly over the past decades. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor. We investigated the effects of BPA on uric acid metabolism and its potential mechanisms. Experiments were performed in different animal models, cell cultures, and humans. In 3 different animal models, BPA exposure increased serum and hepatic uric acid with enhanced activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in liver, whereas the excretion of uric acid was unchanged. Both in vivo and in vitro, BPA-induced uric acid production was decreased after treatment with allopurinol, which is a XO inhibitor...
October 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032766/the-effects-of-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-inhibitors-on-hepatic-efflux-and-uptake-transporters
#3
Jonathan Cheong, Jason S Halladay, Jasleen K Sodhi, Emile Plise, Laurent Salphati
BACKGROUND: Non-selective chemical inhibitors of phase I and phase II enzymes are commonly used in in vitro metabolic studies to elucidate the biotransformation pathways of drugs. However, the inhibition of the inhibitors on efflux and uptake transporters is not well investigated, potentially leading to unexpected and ambiguous results in these studies. OBJECTIVE: The commonly used metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), SKF-525A, pargyline, allopurinol, menadione, methimazole, piperine and raloxifene, were examined for their potential inhibition of the major hepatic ABC (ATP binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters...
October 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032030/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-n-4-alkoxy-3-cyanophenyl-isonicotinamide-nicotinamide-derivatives-as-novel-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors
#4
Ting-Jian Zhang, Song-Ye Li, Lin Wang, Qi Sun, Qing-Xia Wu, Yi Zhang, Fan-Hao Meng
A series of N-(4-alkoxy-3-cyanophenyl)isonicotinamide/nicotinamide derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory potency in vitro against xanthine oxidase. The isonicotinamide series was considerably more effective than the nicotinamide series. SARs analysis revealed that the isonicotinoyl moiety played a significant role on the inhibition and that a benzyl ether tail (e.g., ortho-cyanobenzoxy) linked to the benzonitrile moiety benefits the inhibitory potency. Among these compounds, 10q (IC50 = 0...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028079/potency-on-lowering-serum-uric-acid-in-gout-patients-a-pooled-analysis-of-registrative-studies-comparing-febuxostat-vs-allopurinol
#5
M Cutolo, M A Cimmino, F Perez-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia leading to urate crystal formation in tissues represents the pathophysiological mechanism of gout. Guidelines recommend a therapeutic target of serum urate concentration (sUA) <6 mg/dL, or even lower (≤5 mg/dL) in patients with large deposits. We conducted an analysis with the aim to achieve additional insights into the urate-lowering efficacy of two xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol and febuxostat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of phase III trials on allopurinol and febuxostat, including 4101 patients with gout and hyperuricemia...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019592/the-influence-of-allopurinol-and-post-conditioning-on-lung-injuries-induced-by-lower-limb-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-wistar-rats
#6
Hugo Genki Kagawa Akahane, Ricardo Zanetti Gomes, Katia Sabrina Paludo, Filipe Linhares, Luana Lopes
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of allopurinol and of post-conditioning on lung injuries induced by lower-limb ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty rats were used. They were divided in 5 groups: (1) group A: abdominal aortic dissection only, (2) group B: ischemia and reperfusion, (3) group C: administered allopurinol (100mg/Kg) a few hours before procedure, (4) group D: post-conditioned and (5) group E: administered allopurinol and post-conditioned. With the exception of group A, all groups were submitted to infrarenal aortic ischemia for 2 hours, and reperfusion for 72 hours...
September 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018897/lack-of-evidence-that-soluble-urate-directly-influences-bone-remodelling-a-laboratory-and-clinical-study
#7
Nicola Dalbeth, Bregina Pool, Ashika Chhana, Jian-Ming Lin, Mei Lin Tay, Paul Tan, Karen E Callon, Dorit Naot, Anne Horne, Jill Drake, Gregory D Gamble, Ian R Reid, Andrew Grey, Lisa K Stamp, Jillian Cornish
INTRODUCTION: Numerous observational studies have reported that serum urate concentration positively correlates with bone density and reduced risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to examine whether soluble urate directly influences bone remodelling. METHODS: In laboratory studies, the in vitro effects of soluble urate were examined in osteoclast, osteoblast and osteocyte assays at a range of urate concentrations consistent with those typically observed in humans (up to 0...
October 10, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017379/hla-associated-drug-hypersensitivity-and-the-prediction-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#8
Simone Negrini, Laurent Becquemont
Adverse drug reactions are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and constitute the leading reason of drug withdrawal from the market. Besides classical reactions that are related to pharmacologic activity of the drug, some reactions are unpredictable, not dose dependent, and seem to occur in genetically predisposed individuals. The majority of this reaction is immunologically driven and they are referred to as hypersensitivity reactions. A growing number of studies provided evidences that specific HLA alleles increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity drug reactions...
October 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017068/allopurinol-augmentation-in-acute-mania-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Alexander T Chen, Theodore Malmstrom, Henry A Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of gout. Recent studies have also shown its promise as an adjunctive treatment for manic episodes in bipolar 1 disorder, possibly through mechanisms involving the purinergic pathway. However, its efficacy across studies has been inconsistent, so we conducted a meta-analysis of the published controlled studies with the goal of determining the efficacy profile of allopurinol as an adjunctive treatment for mania in bipolar disorder...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984632/effect-of-high-dose-allopurinol-pretreatment-on-cardiac-biomarkers-of-patients-undergoing-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh-Ansari, Seyed Kianoosh Hosseini, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz, Mohammad Mohammadi, Masumeh Lotfi Tokaldani, Arash Jalali, Hamidreza Pourhosseini
BACKGROUND: Increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species contributes to pathophysiologic states such as endothelial dysfunction, metabolic and functional impairment, inflammatory activation, and other features of cardiovascular pathophysiology. Allopurinol acts as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces the amount of free radicals after reactive oxygen species generation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, all patients admitted with coronary artery disease who are candidates for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982910/febuxostat-as-a-prophylaxis-for-tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-children-with-hematological-malignancies
#11
Kenji Kishimoto, Ryoji Kobayashi, Daiki Hori, Hirozumi Sano, Daisuke Suzuki, Kunihiko Kobayashi
AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine if febuxostat could prevent tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in children who received induction chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 45 pediatric patients with hematological malignancies who received febuxostat (10 mg daily, n=20) or allopurinol (300 mg/m(2) daily, n=25) as a prophylaxis for TLS. RESULTS: A significant decrease of serum uric acid (UA) level was observed in patients with febuxostat over the first 2 days (6...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980503/lesinurad-a-selective-urat-1-inhibitor-with-a-novel-mechanism-in-combination-with-a-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-for-hyperuricemia-associated-with-gout
#12
Emily Huneycutt, Chase Board, Jennifer N Clements
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety, and role of lesinurad for the management of hyperuricemia associated with gout. DATA SELECTION: A MEDLINE search (2000 to April 2017) was conducted using the terms hyperuricemia, gout, URAT-1, URAT-1 transporter, and lesinurad. Published articles and scientific posters relevant to the efficacy and safety of lesinurad were reviewed and summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS: Lesinurad was evaluated in 3 randomized, phase 3 clinical trials (CRYSTAL, CLEAR 1 and 2)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979780/lesinurad-what-the-nephrologist-should-know
#13
Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Binbin Zheng-Lin, Lara Valiño-Rivas, Ana Belen Sanz, Adrian Mario Ramos, Jose Luño, Marian Goicoechea, Alberto Ortiz
Lesinurad is an oral inhibitor of the monocarboxylic/urate transporter URAT1 encoded by the SLC22A12 gene. Market authorization was granted in February 2016 in Europe and December 2015 in the USA. As a potentially nephrotoxic uricosuric drug acting on the kidney, nephrologists should become familiar with its indications and safety profile. The approved indication is treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor in adult patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid levels with an XO inhibitor alone...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979340/iranian-native-plants-on-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniosis-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Elham Moghaddas, Ali Khamesipour, Mehdi Mohebali, Abdolmajid Fata
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin, and allopurinol. In this study, we explained about the native plant that grows in different regions of Iran and used as anti-leishmanial in Iran and even many other countries. METHODS: This narrative review covers all information about local herbal medicine in Iran that used in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in all the worlds, published in local and international journals from 1996 to 2015 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Science Direct...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974978/can-allopurinol-improve-retinopathy-in-diabetic-rats-oxidative-stress-or-uric-acid-which-one-is-the-culprit
#15
Mohsen Goharinia, Athar Zareei, Mansour Rahimi, Hossein Mirkhani
Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, reduces both plasma uric acid and oxidative stress and shows useful effects on some complications of diabetes. However, it is not defined which of the above mentioned properties are involved. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no study has been done on the effects of allopurinol on diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, the effect of allopurinol on experimental diabetic retinopathy and its possible mechanism has been investigated. Thirty two rats were divided into four groups of eight rats each; (1) normal, (2) diabetic control, (3) diabetic + allopurinol (50 mg/kg...
October 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972678/antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-enzyme-inhibitory-activity-of-natural-plant-flavonoids-and-their-synthesized-derivatives
#16
Shivraj Hariram Nile, Young Soo Keum, Arti Shivraj Nile, Shivkumar S Jalde, Rahul V Patel
The synthesized flavonoid derivatives were examined for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase (XO), urease inhibitory activity, and cytotoxicity. Except few, all the flavonoids under this study showed significant antioxidant activity (45.6%-85.5%, 32.6%-70.6%, and 24.9%-65.5% inhibition by DPPH, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and oxygen radical absorption capacity assays) with promising TNF-α inhibitory activity (42%-73% at 10 μM) and IL-6 inhibitory activity (54%-81% at 10 μM) compared with that of control dexamethasone...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970208/response-to-a-response-to-singh-lesinurad-combination-therapy-with-allopurinol-in-gout-do-clear-studies-make-the-treatment-of-gout-clearer-by-valiyil-and-schechter
#17
Jasvinder A Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968915/allopurinol-and-peripheral-vascular-disease-enough-observational-data-to-warrant-interventional-studies-allopurinol-and-the-prevention-of-vascular-disease
#18
Rebecca Grainger, William J Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#19
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957621/hla-genotyping-for-allopurinol-lessons-learned
#20
Natasha Petry, Sreekanth Chavour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
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