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Guo-Bin Zhang, Shan-Shan Ren, Bao-Ying Wang, Lian-Qi Tian, Fei-Hong Bing
To investigate the effect of flaccidoside II on the serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rodents. Both mice and rats were injected intraperitoneally with potassium oxonate to induce hyperuricemia. Different dosages of flaccidoside II were orally administrated to hyperuricemic and normal rodents for 7 days, respectively. Liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities in hyperuricemic mice were determined using the colorimetric method. Acute toxicity of flaccidoside II was also evaluated in mice. Allopurinol, as a positive control, was administered under the same treatment scheme...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andrew Jeyaruban, Muriel Soden, Sarah Larkins
To examine the management of gout in general practice in Townsville, Australia, and to explore comorbid conditions in patients with gout. Study will also explore how closely guidelines are being followed in managing gout. Retrospective chart review was conducted from May to November 2014 in three general practices in Townsville. Registers for patients were established by searching "gout" and "gouty arthritis". Three hundred and twenty-one patients were included in the study after excluding inactive patients, patients below age of 18 and patients with cancer...
October 21, 2016: Rheumatology International
Pedro H F Gois, Daniele Canale, Rildo A Volpini, Daniela Ferreira, Mariana M Veras, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels O S Câmara, Maria H M Shimizu, Antonio C Seguro
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most severe complication of rhabdomyolysis. Allopurinol (Allo), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has been in the spotlight in the last decade due to new therapeutic applications related to its potent antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allo in the prevention and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: saline control group; prophylactic Allo (300mg/L of drinking water, 7 days); glycerol (50%, 5ml/kg, IM); prophylactic Allo + glycerol; and therapeutic Allo (50mg/Kg, IV, 30minutes after glycerol injection) + glycerol...
October 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jinyang Shen, Xiaolin Yang, Zhaoqing Meng, Changrun Guo
BACKGROUND: High dietary fructose can cause metabolic syndrome and renal injury. PURPOSE: The effects of protodioscin on metabolic syndrome and renal injury were investigated in mice receiving high-dose fructose. METHODS: Mice received 30% (w/v) fructose in water and standard chow for 6 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and were divided into four groups to receive carboxymethylcellulose sodium, allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and protodioscin (5 and 10 mg/kg) continuously for 6 weeks, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Fatma Eminaga, Jonathan Le-Carratt, Adrian Jones, A Abhishek
The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data...
October 19, 2016: Rheumatology International
Ahmad Separham, Samad Ghaffari, Hossein Najafi, Reza Ghaffari, Mojtaba Ziaee, Hossein Babaei
Allopurinol may have protective effects over ischemic reperfusion injury and reduce infarct size. In this randomized study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of allopurinol in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing thrombolytic therapy. Overall, 140 patients with STEMI were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of allopurinol or placebo before treating with streptokinase. Then, study group received 100 mg of allopurinol daily for 28 days and placebo group received placebo for the same period...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Andrew Finch Rheumatology, Paul Kubler Rheumatologist
Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis that is increasing in prevalence. It is caused by the deposition of urate crystals. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine and corticosteroids are options for the management of acute gout. They are equally efficacious and comorbidities guide the best choice. Allopurinol is an effective treatment for reducing concentrations of uric acid. Renal function guides the starting dose of allopurinol and the baseline serum uric acid concentration guides the maintenance dose...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Melpomeni K Tangalidi, Ioannis L Oikonomidis, Dimitra Psalla, Serafim Papadimitriou, Maria Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Mathios E Mylonakis
A 5.5-year-old, intact male Rottweiler dog was admitted with a history of multifocal nodular tongue lesions which progressively deteriorated during the previous year. Physical examination revealed several reddish nodules with central depression on the surface of the tongue in an otherwise healthy dog. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included eosinophilia and hyperproteinemia. Lingual nodule cytopathology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry revealed Leishmania spp. amastigotes and a severe granulomatous glossitis...
October 18, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Moamen S Refat, Hosam A Saad, Abdel Majid A Adam, Mohamed A Al-Omar, Ahmed M Naglah
The topic of charge-transfer (CT) complexation of vital drugs has attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to their significant physical and chemical properties. In this study, CT complexes derived from the reaction of the anti-hyperuricemic drug allopurinol (Allop) with organic p-acceptors [(picric acid (PA), dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) and chloranil (CHL)] were prepared, isolated and characterized by a range of physicochemical methods, such as IR, Raman, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Marie N Hansen, Jon O Lundberg, Mariacristina Filice, Angela Fago, Nanna M G Christensen, Frank B Jensen
In mammals, treatment with low doses of nitrite have cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion events, due to nitric oxide formation and S-nitrosation of proteins. Interestingly, anoxia-tolerant lower vertebrates possess an intrinsic ability to increase intracellular [nitrite] during anoxia in tissues with high myoglobin and mitochondria contents, such as the heart. Here we test the hypothesis that red and white skeletal muscle develops different nitrite levels in crucian carp exposed to deep hypoxia and whether this correlates with myoglobin concentration...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sophie Gohy, Antoine Froidure, Patrick Lebecque
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and severe side-effect, mainly described after intake of anticonvulsants, allopurinol, or antibiotics. It usually begins within 2 months after drug introduction. Symptoms include cutaneous rash, hematologic abnormalities, and internal organ involvement and the diagnosis might be challenging. This case report illustrates for the first time this life-threatening complication in a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this case, withdrawal of the offending drug was sufficient for full recovery...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
A-K Tausche, M Aringer
Gouty arthritis is the most common form of arthritis in men. As a consequence of persisting hyperuricemia, uric acid crystals are deposited in the intra-articular and periarticular spaces and activate the innate immune system. The clinically impressive abrupt onset monoarticular arthritis in the lower extremities is highly suggestive of a gout attack. Arthrosonography can be used for early detection of crystal deposition on joint cartilage. In synovial fluid the detection of uric acid crystals in polarization microscopy is proof of gout even without the detection of intracellular uric acid crystals...
October 11, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Mehmet Akif Öztürk, Rıdvan Mercan, Kevser Gök, Ahmet Mesut Onat, Bünyamin Kısacık, Gezmiş Kimyon, Ayşe Balkarlı, Arif Kaya, Veli Çobankara, Mehmet Ali Balcı, ÖmerNuri Pamuk, Gözde Yıldırım Çetin, Mehmet Sayarlıoğlu, Soner Şenel, Mehmet Engin Tezcan, Adem Küçük, Kemal Üreten, Şafak Şahin, Abdurrahman Tufan
Although gout is potentially curable, the management of this disease is often suboptimal. In this study, we investigated the treatment of gout in Turkey and also compared the management approaches to gout in different clinical specialties. Three hundred and nineteen consecutive patients (mean age 58.60 ± 12.8 years; 44 females, 275 males) were included in this multicenter study. A standardized form was generated to collect data about the patient's first admission to health care, the specialty of the doctor first diagnosed the gout, the treatment options for gout including attack management, patient referral, chronic treatment including medical treatment, and life style modifications...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Meenu Pichholiya, Arvind Kumar Yadav, S K Luhadia, Jameela Tahashildar, M L Aseri
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in pyrazinamide (PZA)-induced hyperuricemia in patients taking antitubercular therapy (ATT). METHODS: This randomized controlled study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute of Rajasthan in all the sputum-positive tubercular patients aged between 18 and 65 years of either sex. Serum uric acid level was monitored at 0(th), 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), and 8(th) week of ATT. Patients whose uric acid level was found to be increased at 2(nd) week were finally recruited in the study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Tianqiao Yong, Minglong Zhang, Diling Chen, Ou Shuai, Shaodan Chen, Jiyan Su, Chunwei Jiao, Delong Feng, Yizhen Xie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cordyceps militaris was recorded in the classic traditional Chinese medicine book with the main functions of "protecting liver and enhancing kidney functions", influencing serum uric acid levels. AIM OF STUDY: The aim is to investigate the hypouricemic effects and possible mechanism of C. militaris in hyperuricemic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A water extract (WECM) was prepared by decocting C. militaris directly at 80 (o)C in water bath, followed by lyophilization...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mihnea Zdrenghea, Adela Sitar-Tăut, Gabriel Cismaru, Dumitru Zdrenghea, Dana Pop
Increased uric acid levels are correlated with cardiovascular disease, particularly with ischaemic heart disease. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, especially allopurinol, lower the risk of ischaemic heart disease due to their effects on reactive oxygen species and endothelial function. In chronic stable angina pectoris, allopurinol increases the median time to ST depression, time to chest pain, and total exercise time. On the other hand, it has been reported that allopurinol has a beneficial effect on ischaemic patients referred for angioplasty, but there are insufficient data regarding its effect on acute myocardial infarction patients...
September 9, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Sunao Kojima, Shinobu Kojima, Atsuko Hifumi, Hirofumi Soejima, Hisao Ogawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Samir G Mallat, Sahar Al Kattar, Bassem Y Tanios, Abdo Jurjus
Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism and has been linked to gout and kidney calculi. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension (HTN) are two major public health problems, and both are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence suggests a pathogenic role of hyperuricemia in the development of HTN and CKD, in addition to progression of CKD, by inducing renal inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, several epidemiological studies have linked hyperuricemia with an increased risk of HTN and CKD...
October 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Elizabeth Salt, Amanda T Wiggins, Mary Kay Rayens, Brent J Morris, David Mannino, Andrew Hoellein, Ryan P Donegan, Leslie J Crofford
OBJECTIVE: Inconclusive findings about infection risks, importantly the use of immunosuppressive medications in patients who have undergone large-joint total joint arthroplasty, challenge efforts to provide evidence-based perioperative total joint arthroplasty recommendations to improve surgical outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe risk factors for developing a post-operative infection in patients undergoing TJA of a large joint (total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, or total shoulder arthroplasty) by identifying clinical and demographic factors, including the use of high-risk medications (i...
August 24, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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