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Allopurinol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916655/allopurinol-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Osita N Okafor, K Farrington, Diana A Gorog
Epidemiological studies indicate that hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alongside uric acid formation, increased xanthine oxidase activity also results in the formation of oxidative free radicals and superoxide particles. Oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, including endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and impaired myocardial energetics. Allopurinol, a competitive xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in addition to reducing serum uric acid levels, can act as a free radical scavenger...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916277/the-cost-effectiveness-of-hla-b-5801-screening-to-guide-initial-urate-lowering-therapy-for-gout-in-the-united-states
#2
Eric Jutkowitz, Maureen Dubreuil, Na Lu, Karen M Kuntz, Hyon K Choi
OBJECTIVE: Positive HLA-B*5801 carriers are at greater risk of experiencing rare but severe allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) [i.e., Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)]; however, HLA-B*5801 prevalence and AHS risk vary by race/ethnicity. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of HLA-B*5801 testing according to race/ethnicity in the United States. METHODS: We determined the cost-effectiveness of universal testing for HLA-B*5801 compared to no testing prior to the initiation of allopurinol per US major race/ethnicity groups...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906636/urat1-uox-double-knockout-mice-are-experimental-animal-models-of-renal-hypouricemia-and-exercise-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#3
Makoto Hosoyamada, Yu Tsurumi, Hidenori Hirano, Naoko H Tomioka, Yuko Sekine, Takayuki Morisaki, Shunya Uchida
Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI)...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900940/acute-kidney-injury-in-allopurinol-induced-dress-syndrome-a-case-report-of-concurrent-tubulointerstitial-nephritis-and-kidney-limited-necrotizing-vasculitis%C3%A2
#4
Anthony J Esposito, Ryan C Murphy, Mirna N Toukatly, Osama W Amro, Bryan R Kestenbaum, Behzad Najafian
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare but potentially fatal adverse drug reaction with variable renal involvement. We report the case of a man who presented with allopurinol-induced DRESS and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring hemodialysis. Kidney biopsy revealed eosinophilic tubulointerstitial nephritis and necrotizing vasculitis of the intralobular arteries without systemic markers of vasculitis. After cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids, his symptoms and AKI resolved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of kidney-limited necrotizing vasculitis, questioning whether a biopsy should be routinely performed in patients with DRESS accompanied by severe AKI...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895289/management-prevention-and-treatment-of-canine-leishmaniosis-in-north-eastern-spain-an-online-questionnaire-based-survey-in-the-province-of-girona-with-special-emphasis-on-new-preventive-methods-canileish-vaccine-and-domperidone
#5
S Lladró, A Picado, C Ballart, M Portús, M Gállego
Knowledge of how canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is being managed clinically and its epidemiology is very important, since dogs are the main reservoir of human leishmaniosis. This study reports the results obtained through a questionnaire-based survey of veterinary practitioners in Girona province, a recognised, but non-documented endemic area in north-eastern Spain. The primary objective was to obtain data on the clinical management of CanL, focusing particularly on new preventive methods and therapeutic tools...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894951/a-pilot-study-of-cxcl8-levels-in-crystal-proven-gout-patients-during-allopurinol-treatment-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Laura Kienhorst, Hein Janssens, Tim Radstake, Piet van Riel, Hans Jacobs, Elly van Koolwijk, Ellen van Lochem, Matthijs Janssen
OBJECTIVES: Gout is associated with cardiovascular diseases, and systemic inflammation has a role in this. CXCL8 (interleukin 8) levels were increased in synovial fluid of gout patients, and in serum in gout patients irrespective of their disease activity. We hypothesized that the well-known cardiovascular protective effects of allopurinol could be related to effects of this drug on CXCL8 levels. METHODS: Patients with a crystal proven gout diagnosis, who newly started allopurinol treatment, were included in this prospective cohort study...
November 25, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891350/hypersensitivity-with-inhalational-budesonide-an-under-recognised-entity
#7
Pramod Kumar Sharma, Neeraj Gupta, Najmul Hasan, Bhaskar Krishnamurthy, Surjit Singh
Hypersensitivity reactions are commonly encountered with drugs such as beta lactams, sulphonamides, allopurinol etc., Corticosteroids are frequently employed in the treatment of drug induced allergic reactions. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that a corticosteroid itself may cause such a reaction as an adverse effect. We had encountered a rare case of hypersensitivity reaction with inhalational budesonide in an eight-year-old boy. The patient developed maculopapular rashes over the back, buttocks and legs accompanied with pruritus within four hours of administration of the first dose...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872837/antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibodies-crescentic-allograft-glomerulonephritis-after-sofosbuvir-therapy
#8
Shilpa Gadde, Belinda Lee, Laura Kidd, Rubin Zhang
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are well known to be associated with several types of vasculitis, including pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, a form of rapid progressive glomerular nephritis (RPGN). ANCA vasculitis has also been reported after administration of propylthiouracil, hydralazine, cocaine (adulterated with levimasole), allopurinol, penicillamine and few other drugs. All previously reported cases of drug-associated ANCA glomerulonephritis were in native kidneys. Sofosbuvir is a new and effective drug for hepatitis C virus infection...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867685/how-i-treat-my-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-with-thiopurines
#9
REVIEW
Berrie Meijer, Chris Jj Mulder, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Nanne K H de Boer
Thiopurines are essential drugs to maintain remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thiopurines used in IBD are azathioprine (2.0-2.5 mg/kg), mercaptopurine (1.0-1.5 mg/kg) and thioguanine (0.2-0.3 mg/kg). However, mainly due to numerous adverse events associated with thiopurine use, almost 50% of the patients have to discontinue conventional thiopurine treatment. Extensive monitoring and the application of several treatment strategies, such as split-dose administration, co-administration with allopurinol or dose reduction/increase, may increase the chance of successful therapy...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863839/antihyperuricemic-effect-of-liquiritigenin-in-potassium-oxonate-induced-hyperuricemic-rats
#10
Long Hongyan, Wu Suling, Zhu Weina, Zhang Yajie, Ruan Jie
The aim is to investigate the anti-hyperuricemic and renal protective effects of liquiritigenin in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Hyperuricemia in rats was induced were induced with potassium oxonate (250mg/kg) intragastrically for 7 days, and liquiritigenin (20, 40mg/kg) and allopurinol (5mg/kg) were daily administrated to the rats orally 1h after the potassium oxonate exposure. Liquiritigenin significantly reversed the elevated productions of uric acid in serum and urine and pro-inflammation cytokines in serum and kidney, which shown that liquiritigenin has renal protective effects...
November 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856422/allopurinol-as-add-on-treatment-for-mania-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carrà
BACKGROUND: Since bipolar disorder seems to be associated with purinergic system dysfunction, allopurinol might be effective in treating symptoms of mania. AIMS: To estimate the efficacy and tolerability of allopurinol as adjunctive treatment for mania symptoms in people with bipolar affective disorder. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of adjunctive allopurinol and placebo on mania symptom changes...
November 17, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853065/comparison-of-the-renoprotective-effect-of-febuxostat-for-the-treatment-of-hyperuricemia-between-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-observational-study
#12
Hiroyuki Ito, Shinichi Antoku, Mariko Abe, Takashi Omoto, Masahiro Shinozaki, Shinya Nishio, Mizuo Mifune, Michiko Togane, Masaya Nakata, Tatsuya Yamashita
Objective The effects of febuxostat therapy on hyperuricemia in patients with and without type 2 diabetes were compared in this retrospective observational study after pair-matching using the propensity scores. Methods In total, 160 patients with hyperuricemia were studied as the treated set, and the 155 subjects in whom the administration of febuxostat was not discontinued during the observation period were investigated in the full analysis. The study subjects were divided into two groups based on the style of initiation of febuxostat: initial and switching therapy from allopurinol administration...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852432/febuxostat-hypersensitivity-another-cause-of-dress-syndrome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
E Paschou, E Gavriilaki, G Papaioannou, A Tsompanakou, A Kalaitzoglou, N Sabanis
Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that during the last years has successfully replaced allopurinol treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricemia. Several adverse events have been observed during therapy with febuxostat. DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) syndrome induced by febuxostat has been poorly described, mainly in patient with CKD who previously developed allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. DRESS syndrome is characterized by manifold cutaneous reactions and systemic disorders with potential devastating consequences...
November 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843869/skin-rash-eosinophilia-and-renal-impairment-in-a-patient-recently-started-on-allopurinol
#14
Ashraf Jmeian, Amer Hawatmeh, Razan Shamoon, Fayez Shamoon, Michael Guma
Allopurinol is a hypoxanthine analog which inhibits xanthine oxidase, it is a widely used medication for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Allopurinol-induced drug-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is an infrequent, life-threatening adverse reaction of allopurinol therapy that is remarkable for the higher mortality rate with the use of allopurinol than with the use of another agent. We present a case of a 62-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease stage 3, hypertension and gout who developed skin rash, eosinophilia, and renal impairment 2 weeks after he was started on allopurinol therapy for gout...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835909/impact-of-hla-b-58-01-allele-and-allopurinol-induced-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions-evidence-from-21-pharmacogenetic-studies
#15
Ran Wu, Yi-Ju Cheng, Li-Li Zhu, Lei Yu, Xue-Ke Zhao, Min Jia, Chang-Hui Wen, Xing-Zhen Long, Ting Tang, Ai-Juan He, Yi-Yan Zeng, Zun-Feng Ma, Zhi Zheng, Mu-Zi Ni, Gong-Jing Cai
Allopurinol is widely used for hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis, but is associated with cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADRs). Recently, HLA-B*58:01 allele was identified as a strong genetic marker for allopurinol-induced CADRs in Han Chinese. However, the magnitude of association and diagnosis value of HLA-B*58:01 in allopurinol-induced CADRs remain inconclusive. To investigate this inconsistency, we conducted a meta-analysis of 21 pharmacogenetic studies, including 551 patients with allopurinol-induced CADRs, and 2,370 allopurinol-tolerant controls as well as 9,592 healthy volunteers...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832384/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-topiroxostat-in-japanese-hyperuricemic-patients-with-or-without-gout-a-randomized-double-blinded-controlled-phase-2b-study
#16
Tatsuo Hosoya, Tomomitsu Sasaki, Tetsuo Ohashi
Topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is used in Japan for the treatment of hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. In terms of the effectiveness of topiroxostat in lowering serum urate levels, the dose-response relationship has been evaluated; however, it remains to be verified. A randomized, multi-center, double-blinded study of topiroxostat was performed for Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout. During the 16-week study, 157 Japanese hyperuricemic patients with or without gout were randomly assigned to receive a placebo, topiroxostat at 120 or 160 mg/day, or allopurinol at 200 mg/day...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830959/neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-an-update-on-disease-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#17
Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Barış Ekici, Burak Tatlı
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important reason for morbidity and mortality in term-born infants. Understanding pathophysiology of the brain damage is essential for the early detection of patients with high risk for HIE and development of strategies for their treatments. Areas covered: This review discusses pathophysiology of the neonatal HIE and its treatment options, including hypothermia, melatonin, allopurinol, topiramate, erythropoietin, N-acetylcyctein, magnesium sulphate and xenon...
November 10, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829805/effect-of-amlodipine-lisinopril-and-allopurinol-on-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#18
Nesreen E M Mohammed, Basim A S Messiha, Ali A Abo-Saif
BACKGROUND: Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents such as acetaminophen may lead to serious liver injury. Calcium deregulation, angiotensin II production and xanthine oxidase activity are suggested to play mechanistic roles in such injury. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the possible protective effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol against experimental acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, aiming to understand its underlying hepatotoxic mechanisms...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826965/validation-of-a-rapid-robust-inexpensive-screening-method-for-detecting-the-hla-b-58-01-allele-in-the-prevention-of-allopurinol-induced-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#19
Dinh Van Nguyen, Christopher Vida, Hieu Chi Chu, Richard Fulton, Jamma Li, Suran L Fernando
The HLA B*58:01 allele has been worldwide reported as a pharmacogenetic susceptibility to allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). To prevent these life-threatening conditions, the American College of Rheumatology hingly recommended that the HLA-B*58:01 be screened prior to the initiation of allopurinol therapy. Therefore, we developed a rapid, robust, inexpensive screening method using SYBR® Green real time PCR to detect the HLA-B*58:01 allele. A total of 119 samples were tested. The assay has a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 69...
January 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825577/efficacy-and-safety-of-febuxostat-in-73-gouty-patients-with-stage-4-5-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-study-of-10-centers
#20
Pierre-Antoine Juge, Marie-Elise Truchetet, Evangeline Pillebout, Sébastien Ottaviani, Cécile Vigneau, Clotilde Loustau, Divi Cornec, Tristan Pascart, Renaud Snanoudj, Florian Bailly, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Alain Saraux, Philippe Dieudé, René-Marc Flipo, Pascal Richette, Frédéric Lioté, Thomas Bardin, Gérard Chalès, Hang-Korng Ea
OBJECTIVES: The allopurinol dose is limited in chronic kidney disease, particularly stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. Febuxostat has a hepatic metabolism and has been approved without dose adaptation in gouty patients with stage 1-3 chronic kidney disease. We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of febuxostat for stage 4/5 chronic kidney disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included patients with (1) a diagnosis of gout, (2) febuxostat treatment, (3) estimated glomerular filtration rate≤30mL/min/1...
November 4, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
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