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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337154/the-reciprocal-relationship-between-suicidality-and-stigma
#1
REVIEW
Bernardo Carpiniello, Federica Pinna
INTRODUCTION: Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma, it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes. METHODS: A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma, public stigma, structural stigma, perceived stigma, self-stigma, suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323539/guns-in-the-home-and-the-possibility-of-aggressive-tendencies-exploring-a-community-sample-of-adolescents-in-low-income-communities
#2
Brad Lian, Beatrice Abiero, Paula Kamara
Firearm violence has been the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in the United States since 2000 and is a major public health concern. But firearms may be related to less lethal forms of violence as well. Here we examine the relationship between the presence of a gun in the home and several behavioral and psychosocial measures related to aggression and violence among adolescents using data from a community-based survey of nearly 2,000 youths living in low-income neighborhoods. Our results indicate that adolescents living in homes where a gun is present display more aggressive attitudes and behaviors than their counterparts living in homes with no gun present...
March 21, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#3
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302434/evaluation-of-low-immunization-coverage-among-the-amish-population-in-rural-ohio
#4
Christine Kettunen, John Nemecek, Olivia Wenger
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review included childhood immunizations among the 10 great public health achievements in the United States in the 20th century. Despite this acknowledged success, childhood immunization rates continue to be much lower in select populations. Amish communities have persistently lower immunization rates. Recent outbreaks in Amish communities include a 2014 measles outbreak in Ohio, resulting in 368 cases reported...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290337/perceptions-of-australian-clients-towards-male-radiographers-working-in-breast-imaging-quantitative-results-from-a-pilot-study
#5
H M Warren-Forward, B Mackie, M Alchin, T Mooney, P Fitzpatrick
AIM: Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Australian women, therefore early breast cancer detection is essential. Female radiographers currently conduct breast screening in Australia; however there is a projected shortage. With many women already feeling apprehensive about attending a breast examination, possible proposals to fill this shortage must be carefully considered. Training male radiographers is one proposal however, this raises some gender concerns...
February 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290102/public-perception-of-the-risks-associated-with-infectious-diseases-in-poland-ebola-and-influenza-and-their-impact-on-the-attitude-to-vaccination
#6
Ernest Kuchar, Kamila Ludwikowska, Dominik Marciniak, Leszek Szenborn, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch
While the Ebola outbreak in 2014 was strongly highlighted in mainstream media and perceived as a threat to public health in Poland, influenza was regarded as a triviality and the vaccination coverage was low. In the present study, by analyzing feedback from an on-line questionnaire (from November 2014 to January 2015) we assessed the knowledge concerning Ebola and influenza together with attitudes to immunization of 544 respondents (45% medical staff). The findings were that 92.6% of respondents declared readiness to vaccination before traveling to endemic regions if a vaccine against Ebola would have existed, but adverse reactions, high costs, and low effectiveness would adversely affect that decision...
March 14, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288729/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-around-drinking-and-driving-in-cambodia-2010-2012
#7
A M Bachani, C B Risko, C Gnim, S Coelho, A A Hyder
OBJECTIVE: Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of disability and death in Cambodia. Economic development has long been associated with rapid increases in road traffic injuries and fatalities. Drink driving is of particular concern in Cambodia. In 2014, the percentage of fatal crashes involving alcohol rose to 17.5% (n = 381), representing a 34.9% (n = 253) increase from 2012. This study aims to illustrate current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around drinking and driving in three Cambodian provinces...
March 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275930/sociodemographic-correlates-of-sexlessness-among-american-adults-and-associations-with-self-reported-happiness-levels-evidence-from-the-u-s-general-social-survey
#8
Jean H Kim, Wilson S Tam, Peter Muennig
Although sexual activity is commonly believed to be a key component of emotional well-being, little is known about the factors associated with the absence of sexual activity or its associations with self-reported happiness. Using the U.S. General Social Survey-National Death Index 2008 dataset, a series of nationally representative surveys (1988-2002), this study analyzed the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with past-year sexlessness and self-reported happiness among American adults (n = 17,744)...
March 8, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246098/opiate-addiction-and-overdose-experiences-attitudes-and-appetite-for-community-naloxone-provision
#9
Tomás Barry, Jan Klimas, Helen Tobin, Mairead Egan, Gerard Bury
BACKGROUND: More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use. AIM: To establish GPs' views and experiences of opiate addiction, overdose care, and naloxone provision. DESIGN AND SETTING: An anonymous postal survey to GPs affiliated with the Department of Academic General Practice, University College Dublin, Ireland...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245161/oncology-nurses-perceptions-of-end-of-life-care-in-a-tertiary-cancer-centre-in-qatar
#10
Izette Larraine M Libo-On, Abdulqadir J Nashwan
BACKGROUND: Nurses who work in oncology settings may lack the knowledge and skills required for end-of-life (EoL) care. A clear understanding of nurses' perceptions of EoL care is crucial for the successful improvement of care for terminally ill patients with cancer. Although many studies have underlined nurses' perspectives on EoL care, this is the first such study conducted on oncology nurses in Qatar. PURPOSE: This study primarily sought to measure nurses' perceptions of EoL care at the National Center for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) in Qatar...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240673/survey-of-american-college-of-surgeons-committee-on-trauma-members-on-firearm-injury-consensus-and-opportunities
#11
Deborah A Kuhls, Brendan T Campbell, Peter A Burke, Lisa Allee, Ashley Hink, Robert W Letton, Peter T Masiakos, Michael Coburn, Maria Alvi, Trudy J Lerer, Barbara A Gaines, Michael L Nance, Douglas J E Schuerer, Tina L Palmieri, James W Davis, Douglas M Geehan, James K Elsey, Beth H Sutton, Mark P McAndrew, Ronald I Gross, Donald N Reed, Donald H Van Boerum, Thomas J Esposito, Roxie M Albrecht, Babak Sarani, David S Shapiro, Katie Wiggins-Dohlvik, Ronald M Stewart
BACKGROUND: In the U.S. there is a perceived divide regarding the benefits and risks of firearm ownership. The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma Injury Prevention and Control Committee designed a survey to evaluate Committee on Trauma (COT) member attitudes about firearm ownership, freedom, responsibility, physician-patient freedom and policy, with the objective of using survey results to inform firearm injury prevention policy development. METHODS: A 32 question survey was sent to 254 current U...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225544/in-defense-of-clinical-autopsy-and-its-practice-in-cuba
#12
Alfredo D Espinosa-Brito, José Hurtado de Mendoza-Amat
There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive)...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214237/knowledge-attitudes-and-preferences-of-advance-decisions-end-of-life-care-and-place-of-care-and-death-in-hong-kong-a%C3%A2-population-based-telephone-survey-of-1067-adults
#13
Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Eliza Lai-Yi Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Yuen-Kwan Chau, Janice Y C Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Jean W Woo
OBJECTIVES: According to the 2015 Quality of Death Index published by the Intelligence Unit of the Economist, Hong Kong is ranked 22nd in terms of quality of palliative care in the world, behind many other major developed countries in Asia, including Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea. The objectives of the present study were to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of the general Hong Kong adult population across different age groups regarding end-of-life (EOL) care decisions, place of care and death, as well as advance directive (AD)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212642/beyond-cultural-stereotyping-views-on-end-of-life-decision-making-among-religious-and-secular-persons-in-the-usa-germany-and-israel
#14
Mark Schweda, Silke Schicktanz, Aviad Raz, Anita Silvers
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decision making constitutes a major challenge for bioethical deliberation and political governance in modern democracies: On the one hand, it touches upon fundamental convictions about life, death, and the human condition. On the other, it is deeply rooted in religious traditions and historical experiences and thus shows great socio-cultural diversity. The bioethical discussion of such cultural issues oscillates between liberal individualism and cultural stereotyping...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194680/parental-knowledge-of-cardiovascular-screening-and-prevention-of-sudden-cardiac-arrest-in-youth-athletes
#15
Madison A Wagener, Alex B Diamond, Ashley Rowatt Karpinos
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death in youth athletes. Survival from out- of-hospital SCA depends on prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluated parental knowledge, experience, and attitudes related to cardiovascular screening, SCA, and CPR/AED use in youth athletes and made comparisons between parents who are employed in healthcare and parents who are not employed in healthcare. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, experiences, and attitudes of 91 parents of youth athletes who attended a community-based cardiovascular screening event...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166912/tuberculosis-knowledge-and-attitude-in-aspiring-doctors-and-nurses-is-it-time-for-our-tb-teaching-methods-to-evolve
#16
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Monalisa D'Souza, Ramesh Chandra Sahoo
BACKGROUND: India accounts for nearly 24% of all the new tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. A good core knowledge and a positive outlook towards TB patients among our aspiring doctors and nurses are necessities for India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by the WHO as a part of its post-2015 global TB strategy and to successfully combat the newer challenges posed by this disease in the future. AIMS: To evaluate knowledge related to transmission, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis amongst medical and nursing students...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166425/subjective-nearness-to-death-and-end-of-life-anxieties-the-moderating-role-of-ageism
#17
Yoav S Bergman, Ehud Bodner, Amit Shrira
OBJECTIVES: Subjective nearness to death (SNtD), or individuals' subjective evaluation of how close they are to death, has been demonstrated to be an important predictor for different aspects of the individual's aging process across the life cycle. However, the relationship between SNtD and anxieties linked with the aging process has not been examined among individuals who may be in the initial stages of experiencing the first physical and cognitive signs of aging. Thus, this study examined the association between SNtD and aging, dying, and death anxieties...
February 6, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165540/attitudes-towards-organ-donation-and-relation-to-wish-to-donate-posthumously
#18
Julius Weiss, David Shaw, Roger Schober, Viviana Abati, Franz F Immer, Comité National du Don d'Organes Cndo
BACKGROUND: Organs donated for transplantation remain a scarce resource in Switzerland. One of the reasons for this situation is the high percentage of patients or families who refuse to consent to donation. This study aimed to provide an overview of attitudes towards organ donation among Swiss residents, including any intention to donate organs after death, and whether they had already declared their wish and/or communicated it to anyone. METHODS: A representative poll investigating the attitude of the Swiss population towards deceased organ donation was conducted between 16 and 28 March 2015...
February 6, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156672/attitude-and-support-to-inform-clinical-predictions-of-survival-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#19
David L Ma, Kim Paulson, Sunita Ghosh, Bronwen LeGuerrier, Karen P Chu, Diane Severin, Fleur Huang, Sharon Watanabe, Ann Huot, John Amanie, Samir Patel, Tirath Nijjar, Ericka Wiebe, Brita Lavender Danielson, Brock J Debenham
39 Background: Tumour factors (eg primary site, size) helpful in prognostication in early stage cancer may be less important than patient factors, such as Karnofsky performance status (KPS), later in the disease trajectory. We evaluated the utilization of the parameters attitude (ATT) and psychosocial support (PSS) in predicting remaining lifespan by two experienced multidisciplinary teams (MDT). METHODS: After clinical assessment of consecutive patients, a quantitative clinical prediction of survival (CPS) was made prospectively, independently and anonymously by each health care provider (HCP)...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156668/who-chooses-palliative-chemotherapy-when-a-cure-is-possible-results-of-a-risk-tolerance-survey-of-laypersons
#20
Karen Scherr, Annabel Wang, Monica Lemmon, Peter A Ubel
35 Background: Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face a difficult choice about whether to receive palliative chemotherapy or high-dose, potentially-curative chemotherapy that poses a risk of early death. How people weigh these factors in decision-making is unknown. We hypothesized that the possibility of cure primarily drives decision-making, regardless of treatment risk. METHODS: We designed an electronic survey describing two treatment paths: (1) high-dose chemotherapy with possibility of cure but a 10% risk of early death, and (2) palliative chemotherapy with no chance of cure but no risk of early death...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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