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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674447/cognitive-underpinnings-of-nationalistic-ideology-in-the-context-of-brexit
#1
Leor Zmigrod, Peter J Rentfrow, Trevor W Robbins
Nationalistic identities often play an influential role in citizens' voting behavior and political engagement. Nationalistic ideologies tend to have firm categories and rules for what belongs to and represents the national culture. In a sample of 332 UK citizens, we tested whether strict categorization of stimuli and rules in objective cognitive tasks would be evident in strongly nationalistic individuals. Using voting behavior and attitudes from the United Kingdom's 2016 EU referendum, we found that a flexible representation of national identity and culture was linked to cognitive flexibility in the ideologically neutral Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Remote Associates Test, and to self-reported flexibility under uncertainty...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668391/the-reflective-mind-examining-individual-differences-in-susceptibility-to-base-rate-neglect-with-fmri
#2
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and biases tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642955/successful-implementation-of-lean-as-a-managerial-principle-in-health-care-a-conceptual-analysis-from-systematic-literature-review
#3
Riikka Maijala, Sini Eloranta, Tero Reunanen, Tuija S Ikonen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of leadership and management associated with a successful Lean thinking adaptation in healthcare. DESIGN: A systematic literature review was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PubMed Systematic Review, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete, Emerald, JBI, and Cinahl. Inclusion criteria were: (i) a description of Lean management or leadership in health care, (ii) a reference to Lean thinking, (iii) a peer-reviewed original research article or a literature review, and (iv) a full text article available in English...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615092/improving-the-effectiveness-of-psychological-interventions-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-the-cardiac-rehabilitation-pathway-using-group-based-metacognitive-therapy-pathway-group-mct-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Adrian Wells, Kirsten McNicol, David Reeves, Peter Salmon, Linda Davies, Anthony Heagerty, Patrick Doherty, Rebecca McPhillips, Rebecca Anderson, Cintia Faija, Lora Capobianco, Helen Morley, Hannah Gaffney, Gemma Shields, Peter Fisher
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are prevalent among cardiac rehabilitation patients but pharmacological and psychological treatments have limited effectiveness in this group. Furthermore, psychological interventions have not been systematically integrated into cardiac rehabilitation services despite being a strategic priority for the UK National Health Service. A promising new treatment, metacognitive therapy, may be well-suited to the needs of cardiac rehabilitation patients and has the potential to improve outcomes...
April 3, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605169/burnout-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-paediatric-critical-care-personnel-prediction-from-resilience-and-coping-styles
#5
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Alba Palacios, Jesús Alonso-Tapia, Elena Pérez, Elena Álvarez, Ana Coca, Santiago Mencía, Ana Marcos, Juan Mayordomo-Colunga, Francisco Fernández, Fernando Gómez, Jaime Cruz, Olga Ordóñez, Ana Llorente
INTRODUCTION: Our aims were (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BOS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of Spanish staff working in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare these rates with a sample of general paediatric staff and (2) to explore how resilience, coping strategies, and professional and demographic variables influence BOS and PTSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study. Data were collected in the PICU and in other paediatric wards of nine hospitals...
March 28, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596633/opennotes-in-oncology-oncologists-perceptions-and-a-baseline-of-the-content-and-style-of-their-clinician-notes
#6
Jordan M Alpert, Bonny B Morris, Maria D Thomson, Khalid Matin, Charles E Geyer, Richard F Brown
Patients' ability to access their provider's clinical notes (OpenNotes) has been well received and has led to greater transparency in health systems. However, the majority of this research has occurred in primary care, and little is known about how patients' access to notes is used in oncology. This study aims to understand oncologists' perceptions of OpenNotes, while also establishing a baseline of the linguistic characteristics and patterns used in notes.Data from 13 in-depth, semistructured interviews with oncologists were thematically analyzed...
March 27, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587740/a-communication-focused-curriculum-for-dental-students-an-experiential-training-approach
#7
Simone Alvarez, Jobst-Hendrik Schultz
BACKGROUND: Successful interaction and communication with patients is as vital for dentists as it is for physicians. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development and evaluation of an interactive, experiential training curriculum with an emphasis on communication for dual degree seekers of medicine and dentistry. METHODS: A pre-clinical course with an emphasis in physician/dentist-patient communication and interaction was adapted by a team of subject experts based largely on the propositions of Experiential Learning Theory...
March 27, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573757/the-metacognitive-anger-processing-map-scale-validation-in-a-mixed-clinical-and-a-forensic-in-patient-sample
#8
Stine Bjerrum Moeller, Per Bech
BACKGROUND: The metacognitive approach by Wells and colleagues has gained empirical support with a broad range of symptoms. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale was developed to provide a metacognitive measure on anger (Moeller, 2016). In the preliminary validation, three components were identified (positive beliefs, negative beliefs and rumination) to be positively correlated with the anger. AIMS: To validate the MAP in a sample of mixed clinical patients (n = 88) and a sample of male forensic patients (n = 54)...
March 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560307/stress-related-dysfunction-of-the-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-in-high-ruminators-an-fnirs-study
#9
David Rosenbaum, Mara Thomas, Paula Hilsendegen, Florian G Metzger, Florian B Haeussinger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Repetitive thinking styles such as rumination are considered to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. Different situational triggers (e.g., social stressors) have been shown to elicit rumination in subjects exhibiting such habitual thinking styles. At the same time, the process of rumination influences the adaption to stressful situations. The study at hand aims to investigate the effect of trait rumination on neuronal activation patterns during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as the physiological and affective adaptation to this high-stress situation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546821/-asperger-syndrome-and-or-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis-a-differential-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529405/attentional-bias-to-reminders-of-the-deceased-as-compared-with-a-living-attachment-in-grieving
#11
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521887/effects-of-team-based-learning-on-the-core-competencies-of-nursing-students-a-quasi-experimental-study
#12
Kyung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership...
April 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517298/maternal-attachment-style-during-pregnancy-and-becoming-a-mother-in-poland
#13
Anna Zdolska-Wawrzkiewicz, Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś, Mariola Bidzan
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the connections in pregnant women between their mother attachment style and their self-image as a mother, the image of their mother as a mother, and their bond with the unborn child. BACKGROUND: The relationship with one's mother plays a crucial role in the process of becoming a mother. It influences what a pregnant woman thinks about herself as a mother. This relationship is a predictor of the bond with the child during the pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508959/alexithymia-and-mood-recognition-of-emotion-in-self-and-others
#14
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467694/a-new-look-at-the-impact-of-maximizing-on-unhappiness-two-competing-mediating-effects
#15
Jiaxi Peng, Jiaxi Zhang, Yan Zhang, Pinjia Gong, Bing Han, Hao Sun, Fei Cao, Danmin Miao
The current study aims to explore how the decision-making style of maximizing affects subjective well-being (SWB), which mainly focuses on the confirmation of the mediator role of regret and suppressing role of achievement motivation. A total of 402 Chinese undergraduate students participated in this study, in which they responded to the maximization, regret, and achievement motivation scales and SWB measures. Results suggested that maximizing significantly predicted SWB. Moreover, regret and achievement motivation (hope for success dimension) could completely mediate and suppress this effect...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444536/optimizing-the-user-experience-identifying-opportunities-to-improve-use-of-an-inpatient-portal
#16
Daniel M Walker, Terri Menser, Po-Yin Yen, Ann Scheck McAlearney
BACKGROUND:  Patient portals specifically designed for the inpatient setting have significant potential to improve patient care. However, little is known about how the users of this technology, the patients, may interact with the inpatient portals. As a result, hospitals have limited ability to design approaches that support patient use of the portal. OBJECTIVES:  This study aims to evaluate the user experience associated with an inpatient portal. METHODS:  We used a Think-Aloud protocol to study user interactions with a commercially available inpatient portal-MyChart Bedside (MCB)...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433340/worry-and-rumination-do-they-prolong-physiological-and-affective-recovery-from-stress
#17
Lora Capobianco, Julie A Morris, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have been linked to repetitive negative self-regulation styles in the form of worry and rumination respectively. Following predictions of the metacognitive model [Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum], the current study compared the effect on recovery from stress of three strategies: worry, rumination, and distraction using a stress exposure paradigm. It was predicted that worry and/or rumination would be associated with delayed recovery on physiological and/or self-report indices when compared to distraction...
February 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425140/an-experimental-exploration-of-the-effects-of-exposure-to-images-of-nature-on-rumination
#18
Sarah Elizabeth Golding, Birgitta Gatersleben, Mark Cropley
Exposure to natural environments has been shown to have beneficial effects on mood. Rumination is a thinking style associated with negative mood, and sometimes depression, and is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, often with a negative emotional element. This study investigated whether exposure to nature, operationalized using photographs presented as a slideshow, could aid reduction in levels of state rumination. An experimental, within-between (Time x Condition) participant design was used; participants (n = 58) undertook a presentation task designed to induce rumination and influence mood...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358989/daydream-believer-rumination-self-reflection-and-the-temporal-focus-of-mind-wandering-content
#19
Daisy Shrimpton, Deborah McGann, Leigh M Riby
Current research into mind-wandering is beginning to acknowledge that this process is one of heterogeneity. Following on from previous findings highlighting the role of self-focus during mind wandering, the present study aimed to examine individual differences in rumination and self-reflection and the impact such styles of self-focus may have on mind-wandering experiences. Thirty-three participants were required to complete the Sustained Attention Response Task (SART), aimed at inducing mind-wandering episodes, whilst also probing the content of thought in terms of temporal focus...
November 2017: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356452/a-gross-anatomy-flipped-classroom-effects-performance-retention-and-higher-level-thinking-in-lower-performing-students
#20
Leslie J Day
A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112)...
January 22, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
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