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Thinking styles

Charlene R Williams, Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Wendy C Cox, Greene Shepherd
Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs...
September 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jingyang Jiang, Jinghui Ouyang, Haitao Liu
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT...
2016: PloS One
Kinga Morsanyi, Eileen O'Mahony, Teresa McCormack
Recent evidence has highlighted the important role that number ordering skills play in arithmetic abilities (e.g., Lyons & Beilock, 2011). In fact, Lyons et al. (2014) demonstrated that although at the start of formal mathematics education number comparison skills are the best predictors of arithmetic performance, from around the age of 10, number ordering skills become the strongest numerical predictors of arithmetic abilities. In the current study, we demonstrated that number comparison and ordering skills were both significantly related to arithmetic performance in adults, and the effect size was greater in the case of ordering skills...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Katrina Malin, Geoffrey Owen Littlejohn
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Isis F F M Elzakkers, Unna N Danner, Hans W Hoek, Annemarie A van Elburg
BACKGROUND: Mental capacity to consent to treatment in anorexia nervosa is a neglected area in clinical decision-making. AIMS: To examine clinical and neuropsychological parameters associated with diminished mental capacity in anorexia nervosa. METHOD: An explorative study was conducted in 70 adult female patients with severe anorexia nervosa. Mental capacity to consent to treatment was assessed by experienced psychiatrists. Further measurements included the MacCAT-T (to assess mental capacity status), a range of clinical measures (body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity) and neuropsychological tests assessing decision-making, central coherence and set-shifting capacity...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Kelvin L Walls, Mikael Boulic, John W D Boddy
The United Nations "25 × 25 Strategy" of decreasing non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, by 25% by 2025 does not appear to take into account all causes of NCDs. Its focus is on a few diseases, which are often linked with life-style factors with "voluntary" "modifiable behavioral risk factors" causes tending towards an over-simplification of the issues. We propose to add some aspects of our built environment related to hazardous building materials, and detailed form of the construction of infrastructure and buildings, which we think are some of the missing causes of NCDs...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hwanseok Song, Jonathon P Schuldt
Although alternative forms of statistical and verbal information are routinely used to convey species' extinction risk to policymakers and the public, little is known about their effects on audience information processing and risk perceptions. To address this gap in literature, we report on an experiment that was designed to explore how perceptions of extinction risk differ as a function of five different assessment benchmarks (Criteria A-E) used by scientists to classify species within IUCN Red List risk levels (e...
September 30, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Linda M Isbell, Daniel R Rovenpor, Elicia C Lair
Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014)...
October 2016: Emotion
Kate Tchanturia, Emma Larsson, James Adamson
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate group Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) inpatients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We aimed to examine the treatment response of group CRT in AN patients with high or low levels of autistic traits. METHODS: Thirty-five in patients with an AN diagnosis received group CRT intervention for 6 sessions in a national eating disorder unit. All participants completed self-report questionnaires on thinking styles and motivation before and after the intervention...
September 29, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Michaela Wagner-Menghin, Peter Pokieser
Keeping up to date with the increasing amount of health-related knowledge and managing the increasing numbers of patients with more complex clinical problems is a challenge for healthcare professionals and healthcare systems. Health IT applications, such as electronic health records or decision-support systems, are meant to support both professionals and their support systems. However, for physicians using these applications, the applications often cause new problems, such as the impracticality of their use in clinical practice...
September 16, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
LeeAnne B Sherwin, Emily Leary, Wendy A Henderson
There is limited understanding of the influence of psychosocial factors on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which contributes to management difficulties and ineffective long-term treatment. The goal of the current study was to assess the effect illness representations and coping had on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with IBS. Self-report data were collected from 101 adults with IBS. Illness representations were measured with the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire; catastrophizing was measured with the catastrophizing subscale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire; and HRQOL was measured using the IBS-Quality of Life Measure...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Lydia A Shrier, Allegra Spalding
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Depressed young women are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to sexual behavior, including unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Brief sexual risk reduction interventions have not targeted depressed young women's specific needs for affect management and impulse control. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed depressed young women ages 15-23 years engaging in sexual risk behavior about a proposed intervention approach...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lucy E Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties...
August 23, 2016: Ear and Hearing
B A Ali, M Fortún, T Belzunegui, B Ibañez, K Cambra, A Galbete
BACKGROUND: Trauma registries (TR) collect information about trauma patients according to inclusion criteria, and it helps to establish protocols to improve care. However, all TR deal with incompleteness. The aim of this study is to assess the number of patients not included despite fulfilling inclusion criteria in our regional TR and identifying the predictors for being missing. METHODS: The sample was randomly selected. Two months of each year from 2010 to 2014 (5 years) were selected, and medical files of all patients attended in the emergency department room during those months were studied...
August 23, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
Diane Murray, Cathy Sedgeworth, Moira Kinnear, Lesley Diack
AIM: To gather opinions from doctors and pharmacists to improve the design of the PICU MR form generated by the electronic prescribing and clinical notes system to support transfer of care from PICU to downstream wards that use paper systems. METHOD: A purposive sample of 10 forms covering a comprehensive range of medication information common to PICU patients was selected from practice between March 2014 and May 2014. Pharmacists (n=7) and doctors (n=9) who received these forms on downstream wards were invited to participate in semi-structured one-to-one interviews (n=20) with the PICU pharmacist within 48 hrs of receipt to explore their views about the form...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Michael Hock, Jan H Peters, Heinz Walter Krohne
Using a paradigm that allows a quasi-continuous tracking of memory performance over time, two experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that (a) persons with a cognitively avoidant style of coping with threat manifest a dissociation between (intact) short-term and (reduced) long-term retrieval of aversive information and (b) persons with a vigilant coping style recall aversive information particularly well after long retention intervals, provided they are free to think about aversive events. Study 1 (N = 75) showed that avoiders manifest a poor memory for aversive pictures after long retention intervals only...
August 17, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Betteke Maria van Noort, Judith Memering, Ernst Pfeiffer, Ulrike Lehmkuhl, Viola Kappel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a relatively new therapy for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is an increased demand to include the patient view during the evaluation of treatment programs. So far, there is no structured evaluation of the subjective view of adolescents with AN on CRT available. METHODS: 20 patients with AN between the ages of 12 and 18 years completed 10 CRT sessions. 19 patients (age: 15.6±1.3; BMI-percentile: 2.4±3...
August 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Jun Ochiai, Yuko Maie, Yuichi Wada
This study examined the internal and external validity of the Japanese version of the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI: Hiruma, 2000), which was originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1991) based on the framework of Sternberg's (1988) theory of mental self-government. The term "thinking style" refers to the concept that individuals differ in how they organize, direct, and manage their own thinking activities. We administered the Japanese version of the TSI to Japanese participants (N = 655: Age range 20-84 years)...
June 2016: Shinrigaku Kenkyu: the Japanese Journal of Psychology
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