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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024361/emotional-processing-in-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-exploratory-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
J Fernandes, F Ferreira-Santos, K Miller, S Torres
The role of emotional functioning in the development and maintenance of obesity has been investigated, but the literature is poorly integrated. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to explore emotional processing impairments in obesity. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases were searched in March 2016, yielding 31 studies comparing emotional processing competencies in individuals with obesity, with or without binge eating disorder (BED), and control groups. Meta-analyses demonstrated that individuals with obesity had higher scores of alexithymia (d = 0...
October 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017643/-chinese-consensus-on-cpr-and-american-guidelines-on-cpr
#2
Lixiang Wang, Qingyi Meng, Tao Yu
In the article, we compared "2016 national consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China" and "2015 American Heart Association guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care" with their definition, orientation, characterization, quantifying and thinking mode. Chinese consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) emphasizes the concept of "survival cycle" and focuses on the victim, it defines the rate of survival in its broad sense, and the thinking mode of the document is typically oriental style...
October 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017501/psychometric-properties-of-the-children-s-response-styles-questionnaire-in-a-hong-kong-chinese-community-sample
#3
Barbara Chuen Yee Lo, Yue Zhao, Yim Chi Ho, Terry Kit-Fong Au
BACKGROUND: The Children's Response Styles Questionnaire (CRSQ) is a widely-adopted inventory that assesses response styles in youths. It is useful in examining how coping styles (particularly rumination) may relate to depressive vulnerability in youths. Despite its utility, little is known about its applicability in non-Western cultures and CRSQ has not been evaluated using current psychometric methods including item response theory (IRT). The present study assessed the properties using IRT methods in a Chinese youth sample...
October 10, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986326/event-related-potentials-during-individual-cooperative-and-competitive-task-performance-differ-in-subjects-with-analytic-vs-holistic-thinking
#4
V V Apanovich, B N Bezdenezhnykh, M Sams, I P Jääskeläinen, YuI Alexandrov
It has been presented that Western cultures (USA, Western Europe) are mostly characterized by competitive forms of social interaction, whereas Eastern cultures (Japan, China, Russia) are mostly characterized by cooperative forms. It has also been stated that thinking in Eastern countries is predominantly holistic and in Western countries analytic. Based on this, we hypothesized that subjects with analytic vs. holistic thinking styles show differences in decision making in different types of social interaction conditions...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985725/factors-influencing-the-clinical-decision-making-of-midwives-a-qualitative-study
#5
Darie O A Daemers, Evelien B M van Limbeek, Hennie A A Wijnen, Marianne J Nieuwenhuijze, Raymond G de Vries
BACKGROUND: Although midwives make clinical decisions that have an impact on the health and well-being of mothers and babies, little is known about how they make those decisions. Wide variation in intrapartum decisions to refer women to obstetrician-led care suggests that midwives' decisions are based on more than the evidence based medicine (EBM) model - i.e. clinical evidence, midwife's expertise, and woman's values - alone. With this study we aimed to explore the factors that influence clinical decision-making of midwives who work independently...
October 6, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961598/thinking-about-one-s-feelings-association-between-alexithymia-and-cognitive-styles-in-a-nonclinical-population
#6
Romina Rinaldi, Viorica Radian, Mandy Rossignol, Kendra G Kandana Arachchige, Laurent Lefebvre
Alexithymia is described as a disturbance in the cognitive and affective processing of emotions. Little is known about the cognitive styles associated with this personality trait. In this article, we examine to what extent alexithymia is linked with poorer rational cognitive style. A total of 685 participants from a nonclinical sample completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 along with self-reported and behavioral measures of cognitive styles. Results suggest that people with a high level of self-reported alexithymia show lower rational abilities...
October 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957435/the-predictive-value-of-childhood-recurrent-abdominal-pain-for-adult-emotional-disorders-and-the-influence-of-negative-cognitive-style-findings-from-a-cohort-study
#7
Kate Stein, Rebecca M Pearson, Alan Stein, Mina Fazel
BACKGROUND: Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood is common, with no explanatory pathology identified in the majority of cases. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated an association between childhood RAP and later emotional distress disorders. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding through the analysis of a large dataset, and explore how a negative style of thinking could potentially influence this relationship. METHODS: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a population cohort of children born in the Avon area of the UK, between 1991-1992...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946046/cultural-differences-in-attention-eye-movement-evidence-from-a-comparative-visual-search-task
#8
Albandri Alotaibi, Geoffrey Underwood, Alastair D Smith
Individual differences in visual attention have been linked to thinking style: analytic thinking (common in individualistic cultures) is thought to promote attention to detail and focus on the most important part of a scene, whereas holistic thinking (common in collectivist cultures) promotes attention to the global structure of a scene and the relationship between its parts. However, this theory is primarily based on relatively simple judgement tasks. We compared groups from Great Britain (an individualist culture) and Saudi Arabia (a collectivist culture) on a more complex comparative visual search task, using simple natural scenes...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926539/the-immunology-of-the-allergy-epidemic-and-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#9
REVIEW
Bart N Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. The influence of diet and reduced microbiome diversity now forms the foundation of scientific thinking on how the allergy epidemic occurred, although clear mechanistic insights into the process in humans are still lacking. Here we propose that barrier epithelial cells are heavily influenced by environmental factors and by microbiome-derived danger signals and metabolites, and thus act as important rheostats for immunoregulation, particularly during early postnatal development...
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#10
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914472/imitation-inspiration-and-creation-cognitive-process-of-creative-drawing-by-copying-others-artworks
#11
Takeshi Okada, Kentaro Ishibashi
To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings...
September 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885041/developmental-origins-of-rumination-in-middle-childhood-the-roles-of-early-temperament-and-positive-parenting
#12
Tina H Schweizer, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, Rebecca S Laptook, Daniel N Klein
Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879495/a-quantum-theory-account-of-order-effects-and-conjunction-fallacies-in-political-judgments
#13
James M Yearsley, Jennifer S Trueblood
Are our everyday judgments about the world around us normative? Decades of research in the judgment and decision-making literature suggest the answer is no. If people's judgments do not follow normative rules, then what rules if any do they follow? Quantum probability theory is a promising new approach to modeling human behavior that is at odds with normative, classical rules. One key advantage of using quantum theory is that it explains multiple types of judgment errors using the same basic machinery, unifying what have previously been thought of as disparate phenomena...
September 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875975/-autobiographical-memory-in-depressive-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Paulina Żuchowicz, Justyna Jasionowska, Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail...
August 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840895/the-evaluation-of-a-continuing-professional-development-package-for-primary-care-dentists-designed-to-reduce-stress-build-resilience-and-improve-clinical-decision-making
#15
H R Chapman, S Y Chipchase, R Bretherton
Introduction Stress and burnout are widely accepted as a problem for primary care dental practitioners. Previous programmes to address this issue have met with some success. Burnout is associated with poor coping skills and emotion regulation, and increased rates of clinical errors. Anxiety is associated with poor decision-making and is thought to be associated with poor clinical decision-making. Attempts to improve decision-making use increasing meta-awareness and review of thinking processes. Bibliotherapy is an effective method of delivering cognitive behavioural therapy as self-help or guided self-help (with some therapist input) formats...
August 25, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818636/east-west-paths-to-unconventional-computing
#16
REVIEW
Andrew Adamatzky, Selim Akl, Mark Burgin, Cristian S Calude, José Félix Costa, Mohammad Mahdi Dehshibi, Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Zoran Konkoli, Bruce MacLennan, Bruno Marchal, Maurice Margenstern, Genaro J Martínez, Richard Mayne, Kenichi Morita, Andrew Schumann, Yaroslav D Sergeyev, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Susan Stepney, Karl Svozil, Hector Zenil
Unconventional computing is about breaking boundaries in thinking, acting and computing. Typical topics of this non-typical field include, but are not limited to physics of computation, non-classical logics, new complexity measures, novel hardware, mechanical, chemical and quantum computing. Unconventional computing encourages a new style of thinking while practical applications are obtained from uncovering and exploiting principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of, physical, chemical and living systems; in particular, efficient algorithms are developed, (almost) optimal architectures are designed and working prototypes of future computing devices are manufactured...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813276/fathers-fathering-and-child-psychopathology
#17
REVIEW
Beth Barker, Jane E Iles, Paul G Ramchandani
The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806325/parents-reactions-to-the-diagnosis-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-associations-between-resolution-family-functioning-and-child-behavior-problems
#18
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790961/relationship-of-cognitive-style-and-job-level-first-demonstration-of-cultural-differences
#19
Tetsuya Kageyama, Motoaki Sugiura
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771918/effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-and-positive-psychological-intervention-ppi-on-female-offenders-with-psychological-distress-in-hong-kong
#20
Vivian W M Mak, Calais K Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. AIMS: To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone...
August 2, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
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