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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934608/chemical-free-fabrication-of-n-p-dual-doped-honeycomb-like-carbon-as-an-efficient-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction
#2
Lianwen Zhu, Jun Wu, Qiao Zhang, Xiangkui Li, Yiming Li, Xuebo Cao
Heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbons are now emerging as alternatives to platinum and its alloys as electrocatalysts to facilitate oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. However, the synthesis of nanoporous carbons usually involve in complicated procedures and intensive chemicals, which may dramatically raise their manufacture cost that even surpasses that of precious platinum. Herein, we demonstrate the single-step, chemical-free fabrication of N, P dualdoped honeycomb carbon that has hierarchically porous structure and oxygen electrocatalysis activity close to the benchmark Pt/C...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934587/aging-in-the-cardiovascular-system-lessons-from-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome
#3
Magda R Hamczyk, Lara Del Campo, Vicente Andrés
Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients suffering from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic disorder caused by the prelamin A mutant progerin...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#4
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934419/characterizing-antigenic-determinants-in-helicobacter-pylori-caga-capable-of-detecting-serum-antibodies-in-children
#5
Min-Kyoung Shin, Jin-Su Jun, Soon-Wook Kwon, Dong-Hae Lee, Jong-Hun Ha, Jin-Sik Park, Hyung Lyun Kang, Seung Chul Baik, Ji Sook Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Hee-Shang Youn, Myung Je Cho, Woo Kon Lee
Helicobacter pylori can persistently colonize the mucosa of the human stomach, resulting in gastric disorders. Endoscopic biopsy for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination are considered as the most accurate diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection. Serological methods are recommended for children because of invasiveness of the diagnosis mentioned above. Here, the cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (Cag A), as an immunodominant antigen, was subdivided to determine which regions harbor antigenicity for humans...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934391/homozygous-kidins220-loss-of-function-variants-in-fetuses-with-cerebral-ventriculomegaly-and-limb-contractures
#6
I-L Mero, H H Mørk, Y Sheng, A Blomhoff, G L Opheim, Aa Erichsen, M D Vigeland, K K Selmer
Heterozygous mutations in KIDINS220 were recently suggested a cause of spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus and obesity. All patients carried terminal nonsense de novo mutations that seemed to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The mechanism for pathogenicity is yet unexplained, as it seems that heterozygous loss-of-function variants of KIDINS220 are generally well tolerated. We present a consanguineous couple who experienced four pregnancy terminations due to repeated findings in the fetuses comprising enlarged cerebral ventricles and limb contractures...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934390/protein-phosphatase-1-regulates-huntingtin-exon-1-aggregation-and-toxicity
#7
Joana Branco-Santos, Federico Herrera, Gonçalo M Poças, Yolanda Pires-Afonso, Flaviano Giorgini, Pedro M Domingos, Tiago F Outeiro
Huntington's disease is neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein (N17). Here, we analysed the relative contribution of each phosphorylatable residue in the N17 region (T3, S13 and S16) towards huntingtin exon 1 (HTTex1) oligomerization, aggregation and toxicity in human cells and Drosophila neurons. We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation to show that expression of single phosphomimic mutations completely abolished HTTex1 aggregation in human cells...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934368/a-single-danio-rerio-hars-gene-encodes-both-cytoplasmic-and-mitochondrial-histidyl-trna-synthetases
#8
Ashley L Waldron, Sara Helms Cahan, Christopher S Franklyn, Alicia M Ebert
Histidyl tRNA Synthetase (HARS) is a member of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) family of enzymes. This family of 20 enzymes is responsible for attaching specific amino acids to their cognate tRNA molecules, a critical step in protein synthesis. However, recent work highlighting a growing number of associations between ARS genes and diverse human diseases raises the possibility of new and unexpected functions in this ancient enzyme family. For example, mutations in HARS have been linked to two different neurological disorders, Usher Syndrome Type IIIB and Charcot Marie Tooth peripheral neuropathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934248/vps35-deficiency-impairs-slc4a11-trafficking-and-promotes-corneal-dystrophy
#9
Wei Liu, Fu-Lei Tang, Sen Lin, Kai Zhao, Lin Mei, Jian Ye, Wen-Cheng Xiong
Vps35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35) is a major component of retromer that selectively promotes endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of transmembrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, Vps35/retromer's function in the eye or the contribution of Vps35-deficiency to eye degenerative disorders remains to be explored. Here we provide evidence for a critical role of Vps35 in mouse corneal dystrophy. Vps35 is expressed in mouse and human cornea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934194/arginine-vasopressin-ameliorates-spatial-learning-impairments-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-v1a-receptor-and-autophagy-signaling-partially
#10
C Yang, X Zhang, J Gao, M Wang, Z Yang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a major factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. Autophagy activation is believed to provide both beneficial and detrimental roles during hypoxic/ischemic cellular injury. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been strongly involved in many behaviors, especially in learning and memory, the effects of AVP on CCH and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to investigate whether there was neuroprotective effects of AVP on CCH through V1a receptor (an AVP receptor) signaling, permanent bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (two vessel occlusion, 2VO) was used to establish a rat model of CCH, and hypertonic saline (5...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933765/potential-role-of-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sara Anna Bonini, Andrea Mastinu, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Maurizio Memo
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by neuroanatomical abnormalities indicative of corticogenesis disturbances. At the basis of NDDs cortical abnormalities, the principal developmental processes involved are cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. NDDs are also considered "synaptic disorders" since accumulating evidence suggests that NDDs are developmental brain misconnection syndromes characterized by altered connectivity in local circuits and between brain regions. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play a fundamental role in the regulation of basic neurodevelopmental processes, such as neuronal polarization and migration, neuronal branching and synaptogenesis...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933595/phosphoproteome-based-kinase-activity-profiling-reveals-the-critical-role-of-map2k2-and-plk1-in-neuronal-autophagy
#14
Lei-Lei Chen, Yong-Bo Wang, Ju-Xian Song, Wan-Kun Deng, Jia-Hong Lu, Li-Li Ma, Chuan-Bin Yang, Min Li, Yu Xue
Recent studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of macroautophagy/autophagy may play a central role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, and the induction of autophagy protects against the toxic insults of aggregate-prone proteins by enhancing their clearance. Thus, autophagy has become a promising therapeutic target against neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling together with a computational analysis was performed to delineate the phosphorylation signalling networks regulated by 2 natural neuroprotective autophagy enhancers, corynoxine (Cory) and corynoxine B (Cory B)...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#15
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933415/integrative-systems-biology-investigation-of-fabry-disease
#16
Marco Fernandes, Holger Husi
Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by a deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) and is characterised by intra-lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). We performed a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed publications including high-throughput omics technologies including naïve patients and those undergoing enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). This study describes FD on a systems level using a systems biology approach, in which molecular data sourced from multi-omics studies is extracted from the literature and integrated as a whole in order to reveal the biochemical processes and molecular pathways potentially affected by the dysregulation of differentially expressed molecules...
November 15, 2016: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933264/from-a-better-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-of-action-of-histone-deacetylases-inhibitors-to-the-progress-of-the-treatment-of-malignant-lymphomas-and-plasma-cell-myeloma
#17
Romeo-Gabriel Mihăilă
BACKGROUND: Notable progress has been made in chemo- and immunotherapy of B-cell lymphomas, but less in the treatment of T-cell lymphomas. OBJECTIVE: Histone deacetylases inhibitors are a potentially useful therapeutic mean, as an epigenetic dysregulation is present in lymphomas, and especially in T-cell types. We aimed to study the progress made in this area. METHOD: A minireview was achieved using the articles published in PubMed in the last two years and the new patents made in this field...
September 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933136/coexistence-of-spondyloarthritis-and-joint-hypermobility-syndrome-rare-or-unknown-association
#18
J B Pinto Carneiro, T Pinto de Souza, T M L Antunes de Oliveira, S L Euzébio Ribeiro
We report two cases of siblings presenting coexisting non-radiographic axial spondyloartrhritis and joint hypermobility syndrome, complaining of back pain with morning stiffness, enthesitis, peripheral arthralgia, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level and positive HLA-B27. The association of these two conditions is rare, but especially interesting in view of their contrasting features, one causing axial skeleton stiffness, the other a wider range of peripheral joint movements. Coexistence of these two opposite disorders causes confusion in diagnosis and management, resulting in lower quality of life for patients, as they are in pain from the early stages...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933133/the-effect-of-nerve-mobilization-exercise-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-pilot-study
#19
C-N Lo, G Xia, B P Leung
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints. The neurogenic inflammatory mechanism plays an important role in the inflammatory process of RA, and pathological changes in neural tissues in RA have also been noted. We aim to investigate treatment of the nervous system to relieve joint pain and inflammation in RA. Nerve mobilization, a nervous system-specific therapeutic exercise, was applied on RA patients to determine the effect of nerve mobilization on joint inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933046/nmr-backbone-resonance-assignments-of-the-prodomain-variants-of-bdnf-in-the-urea-denatured-state
#20
Jing Wang, Henrietta Bains, Agustin Anastasia, Clay Bracken
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of proteins which plays a central role in neuronal survival, growth, plasticity and memory. A single Val66Met variant has been identified in the prodomain of human BDNF that is associated with anxiety, depression and memory disorders. The structural differences within the full-length prodomain Val66 and Met66 isoforms could shed light on the mechanism of action of the Met66 and its impact on the development of neuropsychiatric-associated disorders...
September 20, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
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