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Cocaine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501735/dose-and-time-dependent-effects-of-mirtazapine-on-the-expression-of-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats
#1
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Maura Matus-Ortega, Anabel Flores-Zamora, Noe Jurado, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine dependence. Antidepressant medications have been studied as potential therapeutic drugs to relieve a cocaine dependence disorder. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant implicated in reducing behavioral alterations induced by drugs of abuse. We have reported elsewhere that 30mg/kg mirtazapine administered for 30 days during cocaine extinction significantly attenuated the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and decreased the duration of the cocaine-induced locomotor effect...
May 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485734/the-effect-of-crack-cocaine-addiction-and-age-on-the-microstructure-and-morphology-of-the-human-striatum-and-thalamus-using-shape-analysis-and-fast-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#2
E A Garza-Villarreal, M M Chakravarty, B Hansen, S F Eskildsen, G A Devenyi, D Castillo-Padilla, T Balducci, E Reyes-Zamorano, S N Jespersen, P Perez-Palacios, R Patel, J J Gonzalez-Olvera
The striatum and thalamus are subcortical structures intimately involved in addiction. The morphology and microstructure of these have been studied in murine models of cocaine addiction (CA), showing an effect of drug use, but also chronological age in morphology. Human studies using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have shown inconsistencies in volume changes, and have also shown an age effect. In this exploratory study, we used MRI-based volumetric and novel shape analysis, as well as a novel fast diffusion kurtosis imaging sequence to study the morphology and microstructure of striatum and thalamus in crack CA compared to matched healthy controls (HCs), while investigating the effect of age and years of cocaine consumption...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465083/cocaine-sensitization-in-adult-long-evans-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#3
Mellessa M Miller, Jenna L N Sprowles, Jason N Voeller, Abby E Meyer, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely affect the nervous system and more specifically the dopamine system. Developmental PCB exposure in rats has been shown to produce alterations in dopaminergic signaling that persist into adulthood. The reinforcing properties of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this project used a behavioral sensitization paradigm to evaluate whether perinatal PCB exposure altered sensitization to the psychostimulant cocaine...
April 29, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462386/association-of-variants-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-arginine%C3%A2-vasopressin-receptor-1a-with-severe-acetaminophen%C3%A2-liver-injury
#4
Matthew Randesi, Orna Levran, Joel Correa da Rosa, Julia Hankins, Jody Rule, Mary Jeanne Kreek, William M Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF) result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. METHODS: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449966/environmental-concentrations-of-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-modulated-antioxidant-response-and-caused-cyto-genotoxic-effects-in-zebrafish-embryo-cells
#5
Marco Parolini, Anna Ghilardi, Camilla Della Torre, Stefano Magni, Laura Prosperi, Matteo Calvagno, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been recently identified as a serious environmental problem because of the growing evidence regarding their occurrence in aquatic environment and potential toxicity towards non-target organisms. Among them, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly measured in freshwaters worldwide at levels that might cause diverse sub-lethal effects to aquatic organisms. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the potential adverse effects induced by the exposure to environmental concentrations (0...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434975/protection-of-pc12%C3%A2-cells-from-cocaine-induced-cell-death-by-inhibiting-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#6
Frederic Lamarche, Cecile Cottet-Rousselle, Luc Barret, Eric Fontaine
Cocaine abuse induces brain injury and neurodegeneration by a mechanism that has not yet been fully elucidated. Mitochondria play a key role in cell death processes, notably through the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). In this work, we examined the involvement of the PTP in cocaine-induced toxicity in PC12 cell lines. We used two different PTP inhibitors -i.e. cyclosporin A (CsA) and metformin-to assess their ability to counteract the cocaine induced effects. We first observed that a 48 h exposure to cocaine strongly sensitized cells to calcium overload, as measured by the calcium retention capacity...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399647/%C3%AE-blockers-cocaine-and-the-unopposed-%C3%AE-stimulation-phenomenon
#7
John R Richards, Judd E Hollander, Edward A Ramoska, Fareed N Fareed, I Charles Sand, María Manuela Izquierdo Gómez, Richard A Lange
Cocaine abuse remains a significant worldwide health problem. Patients with cardiovascular toxicity from cocaine abuse frequently present to the emergency department for treatment. These patients may be tachycardic, hypertensive, agitated, and have chest pain. Several pharmacological options exist for treatment of cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. For the past 3 decades, the phenomenon of unopposed α-stimulation after β-blocker use in cocaine-positive patients has been cited as an absolute contraindication, despite limited and inconsistent clinical evidence...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384623/investigation-on-the-combined-effect-of-cocaine-and-ethanol-administration-through-a-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-metabolomics-approach
#8
Elena Sánchez-López, Alberto Marcos, Emilio Ambrosio, Oleg A Mayboroda, María Luisa Marina, Antonio L Crego
Alcohol is the most widely consumed legal drug, whereas cocaine is the illicit psychostimulant most commonly used in Europe. The combined use of alcohol and cocaine is frequent among drug-abuse consumers and leads to further exacerbation of health consequences compared to individual consumption. The pharmacokinetic and metabolic interactions leading to an increase in their combined toxicity still remains poorly understood. Here, the first metabolomics study of combined cocaine and ethanol chronic exposure effects is reported...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363516/vascular-disease-in-cocaine-addiction
#9
REVIEW
Keren Bachi, Venkatesh Mani, Devi Jeyachandran, Zahi A Fayad, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best...
March 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#10
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287790/cocaine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-pcbs-evaluating-drug-use-in-an-animal-model-of-environmental-contaminant-exposure
#11
Mellessa M Miller, Abby E Meyer, Jenna L N Sprowles, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely impact human health. Ortho-substituted PCBs affect the nervous system, including the brain dopaminergic system. The reinforcing effects of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this study used a preclinical (i.e., rodent) model to evaluate whether developmental contaminant exposure altered intravenous self-administration (IV SA) for the psychostimulant cocaine. Long-Evans rats were perinatally exposed to 6 or 3 mg/kg/day of PCBs throughout gestation and lactation and compared with nonexposed controls...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281685/myocardial-oxidative-damage-is-induced-by-cardiac-fas-dependent-and-mitochondria-dependent-apoptotic-pathways-in-human-cocaine-related-overdose
#12
Emanuela Turillazzi, Daniela Cerretani, Santina Cantatore, Anna Ida Fiaschi, Paola Frati, Lucia Micheli, Margherita Neri, Luigi Cipolloni, Marco Di Paolo, Enrica Pinchi, Irene Riezzo, Alessandro Santurro, Annamaria Vullo, Vittorio Fineschi
The aim of this study is to analyse cardiac specimens from human cocaine-related overdose, to verify the hypothesis that cardiac toxicity by acute exposure to high dosage of cocaine could be mediated by unbalanced myocardial oxidative stress, and to evaluate the apoptotic response. To address these issues, biochemical and immunohistological markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were evaluated. We found that i-NOS, NOX2 and nitrotyrosine expression were significantly higher in the hearts of subjects who had died from high doses of cocaine, compared to the control group...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276094/pathology-of-toxic-leucoencephalopathy-in-drug-abuse-supports-hypoxic-ischemic-pathophysiology-etiology
#13
Murad Alturkustani, Lee-Cyn Ang, David Ramsay
The histopathological features of leucoencephalopathy caused by illicit drugs (such as opioids and cocaine) are well documented in acute cases but not in long-survival cases. There are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this disorder, including hypoperfusion, direct drug toxicity resulting from the neurotoxic effects of the drug itself or contaminants in the illicit drug vehicle. We reviewed the post mortem findings in five males (aged 24 to 56 years, with survival intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 months) with a history of illicit drug use and concomitant fatal white matter changes...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264690/presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-bern-switzerland-associated-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity
#14
Evangelia Liakoni, Sabine Müller, Adrian Stoller, Meret Ricklin, Matthias E Liechti, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations. Currently, data from Switzerland are only available from the University Hospital of Basel. The present study aimed to describe the presentations due to recreational drug use at an emergency department in Bern, Switzerland during a 4 year period. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases presenting from May 2012 to April 2016 at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity of recreational drug use...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196335/paternal-nicotine-exposure-alters-hepatic-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-offspring
#15
Markus P Vallaster, Shweta Kukreja, Xin Y Bing, Jennifer Ngolab, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper, Oliver J Rando
Paternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal 'quality of life'. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194438/a-role-for-muscarinic-receptors-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-levamisole-induced-autoimmunity
#16
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Monica M Purmalek, Erica Moore, Meryl Waldman, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Karran A Phillips, Kenzie L Preston, Jonathan Graf, Mariana J Kaplan, Peter C Grayson
Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a cell death mechanism characterized by extrusion of chromatin decorated with granule proteins. Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179474/individual-differences-in-the-relative-reinforcing-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-under-fixed-and-progressive-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-in-rats
#17
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
The recreational use of designer drugs, including synthetic cathinones (bath salts), is associated with high levels of abuse and toxicity, and represents a growing threat to public health. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a cocaine-like monoamine uptake inhibitor, and one of the most widely available and abused synthetic cathinones. The present study used male Sprague-Dawley rats to directly compare: (1) the acquisition of responding for MDPV and cocaine under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement; (2) full dose-response curves for MDPV and cocaine under a FR5 schedule; and (3) progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153037/global-cocaine-intoxication-research-trends-during-1975-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-web-of-science-publications
#18
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is subject to recreational abuse as a stimulant and psychoactive agent, which poses a major worldwide health problem. The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of publication related to cocaine intoxication an insight of the research trends at a global level to enable recommendations for future research strategies in this field. METHODS: Publications about cocaine intoxication were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database on December 28, 2016, and analysed regarding the following bibliometric indicators: research trends, document types, languages, countries/territories with their h-index, collaboration patterns, journals with their impact factors (IF), and institutions...
February 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125568/cluster-of-an-unusual-amnestic-syndrome-massachusetts-2012-2016
#19
Jed A Barash, Nick Somerville, Alfred DeMaria
In November 2015, a neurologist in the Boston, Massachusetts, area reported four cases of an uncommon amnestic syndrome involving acute and complete ischemia of both hippocampi, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) (1). A subsequent e-mail alert, generated by the Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine and sent to relevant medical specialists (including neurologists, neuroradiologists, and emergency physicians), resulted in the identification of 10 additional cases that had occurred during 2012-2016...
January 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#20
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
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