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Cocaine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#1
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287790/cocaine-self-administration-in-male-and-female-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-pcbs-evaluating-drug-use-in-an-animal-model-of-environmental-contaminant-exposure
#2
Mellessa M Miller, Abby E Meyer, Jenna L N Sprowles, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely impact human health. Ortho-substituted PCBs affect the nervous system, including the brain dopaminergic system. The reinforcing effects of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this study used a preclinical (i.e., rodent) model to evaluate whether developmental contaminant exposure altered intravenous self-administration (IV SA) for the psychostimulant cocaine. Long-Evans rats were perinatally exposed to 6 or 3 mg/kg/day of PCBs throughout gestation and lactation and compared with nonexposed controls...
March 13, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281685/myocardial-oxidative-damage-is-induced-by-cardiac-fas-dependent-and-mitochondria-dependent-apoptotic-pathways-in-human-cocaine-related-overdose
#3
Emanuela Turillazzi, Daniela Cerretani, Santina Cantatore, Anna Ida Fiaschi, Paola Frati, Lucia Micheli, Margherita Neri, Luigi Cipolloni, Marco Di Paolo, Enrica Pinchi, Irene Riezzo, Alessandro Santurro, Annamaria Vullo, Vittorio Fineschi
The aim of this study is to analyse cardiac specimens from human cocaine-related overdose, to verify the hypothesis that cardiac toxicity by acute exposure to high dosage of cocaine could be mediated by unbalanced myocardial oxidative stress, and to evaluate the apoptotic response. To address these issues, biochemical and immunohistological markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress were evaluated. We found that i-NOS, NOX2 and nitrotyrosine expression were significantly higher in the hearts of subjects who had died from high doses of cocaine, compared to the control group...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276094/pathology-of-toxic-leucoencephalopathy-in-drug-abuse-supports-hypoxic-ischemic-pathophysiology-etiology
#4
Murad Alturkustani, Lee-Cyn Ang, David Ramsay
The histopathological features of leucoencephalopathy caused by illicit drugs (such as opioids and cocaine) are well documented in acute cases but not in long-survival cases. There are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this disorder, including hypoperfusion, direct drug toxicity resulting from the neurotoxic effects of the drug itself or contaminants in the illicit drug vehicle. We reviewed the post mortem findings in five males (aged 24 to 56 years, with survival intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 months) with a history of illicit drug use and concomitant fatal white matter changes...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264690/presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-bern-switzerland-associated-with-acute-recreational-drug-toxicity
#5
Evangelia Liakoni, Sabine Müller, Adrian Stoller, Meret Ricklin, Matthias E Liechti, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: Although the recreational use of psychoactive substances is common there is only limited systematic collection of data on acute drug toxicity or hospital presentations. Currently, data from Switzerland are only available from the University Hospital of Basel. The present study aimed to describe the presentations due to recreational drug use at an emergency department in Bern, Switzerland during a 4 year period. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases presenting from May 2012 to April 2016 at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with symptoms/signs consistent with acute toxicity of recreational drug use...
March 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196335/paternal-nicotine-exposure-alters-hepatic-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-offspring
#6
Markus P Vallaster, Shweta Kukreja, Xin Y Bing, Jennifer Ngolab, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper, Oliver J Rando
Paternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal 'quality of life'. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring...
February 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194438/a-role-for-muscarinic-receptors-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-levamisole-induced-autoimmunity
#7
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Monica M Purmalek, Erica Moore, Meryl Waldman, Peter J Walter, H Martin Garraffo, Karran A Phillips, Kenzie L Preston, Jonathan Graf, Mariana J Kaplan, Peter C Grayson
Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug with cholinergic properties, has been implicated in cases of drug-induced vasculitis when added to cocaine for profit purposes. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a cell death mechanism characterized by extrusion of chromatin decorated with granule proteins. Aberrant NET formation and degradation have been implicated in idiopathic autoimmune diseases that share features with levamisole-induced autoimmunity as well as in drug-induced autoimmunity. This study's objective was to determine how levamisole modulates neutrophil biology and its putative effects on the vasculature...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179474/individual-differences-in-the-relative-reinforcing-effects-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-under-fixed-and-progressive-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-in-rats
#8
Brenda M Gannon, Kayla I Galindo, Kenner C Rice, Gregory T Collins
The recreational use of designer drugs, including synthetic cathinones (bath salts), is associated with high levels of abuse and toxicity, and represents a growing threat to public health. MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) is a cocaine-like monoamine uptake inhibitor, and one of the most widely available and abused synthetic cathinones. The present study used male Sprague-Dawley rats to directly compare: (1) the acquisition of responding for MDPV and cocaine under a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement; (2) full dose-response curves for MDPV and cocaine under FR5; and (3) progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153037/global-cocaine-intoxication-research-trends-during-1975-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis-of-web-of-science-publications
#9
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Cocaine is subject to recreational abuse as a stimulant and psychoactive agent, which poses a major worldwide health problem. The aim of the present study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of publication related to cocaine intoxication an insight of the research trends at a global level to enable recommendations for future research strategies in this field. METHODS: Publications about cocaine intoxication were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database on December 28, 2016, and analysed regarding the following bibliometric indicators: research trends, document types, languages, countries/territories with their h-index, collaboration patterns, journals with their impact factors (IF), and institutions...
February 2, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125568/cluster-of-an-unusual-amnestic-syndrome-massachusetts-2012-2016
#10
Jed A Barash, Nick Somerville, Alfred DeMaria
In November 2015, a neurologist in the Boston, Massachusetts, area reported four cases of an uncommon amnestic syndrome involving acute and complete ischemia of both hippocampi, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) (1). A subsequent e-mail alert, generated by the Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine and sent to relevant medical specialists (including neurologists, neuroradiologists, and emergency physicians), resulted in the identification of 10 additional cases that had occurred during 2012-2016...
January 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#11
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828699/levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-toxicity-would-you-recognize-it
#12
Suneela Cherlopalle, Manasa Enja, Melanie Lippmann, Steven Lippmann
Adulteration of cocaine with levamisole is common and can induce serious medical complications. Levamisole is an antihelminthic agent originally approved as an immunomodulator in the treatment of autoimmune disorders and as a chemotherapy adjunct. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2000 but is available in veterinary medicine. Cocaine-using patients may present with nonspecific constitutional symptoms, cutaneous eruptions, leukopenia, vasculitis, and organ damage. Skin manifestations may include severe necrosis, especially of the ear lobes...
July 14, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753008/neurotoxicology-of-synthetic-cathinone-analogs
#13
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736682/the-effects-of-a-repeated-dose-of-a-recombinant-humanized-anti-cocaine-monoclonal-antibody-on-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#14
Hanna N Wetzel, Vladimir L Tsibulsky, Andrew B Norman
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has shown potential as a treatment for cocaine abuse. The humanized recombinant anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the preclinical designation h2E2 has been shown to decrease cocaine concentrations in the brain in rats, but its effects on cocaine self-administration behavior have never been tested. METHODS: The amount of cocaine needed to reinstate self-administration behavior (priming threshold) was calculated and the inter-injection intervals at unit doses of 0...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734823/-ibogaine-structure-influence-on-human-body-clinical-relevance
#15
REVIEW
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729826/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-a-young-man-with-subacute-myelopathy-induced-by-abusive-nitrous-oxide-consumption-a-case-report
#16
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720453/-new-patterns-of-substance-use-and-abuse-among-french-adolescents-a-knowledge-synthesis
#17
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707569/dual-cocaine-and-methamphetamine-cardiovascular-toxicity-rapid-resolution-with-labetalol
#18
John R Richards, Richard A Lange, Thomas C Arnold, B Zane Horowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693072/acute-toxicity-from-topical-cocaine-for-epistaxis-treatment-with-labetalol
#19
John R Richards, Erik G Laurin, Nabil Tabish, Richard A Lange
BACKGROUND: Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis...
March 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660273/role-of-autophagy-in-hiv-pathogenesis-and-drug-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Lu Cao, Alexey Glazyrin, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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