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Cocaine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#1
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792093/polymer-spray-mass-spectrometric-detection-and-quantitation-of-hydrophilic-compounds-and-some-narcotics
#2
Maria T Dulay, Richard N Zare
RATIONALE: High throughput screening of biofluids is essential in monitoring concentration of a variety of drugs to determine their efficacy and toxicity. Organosiloxane polymers prepared by sol-gel chemistry as sample supports and electrospray-ionization emitters in a single material and as an alternative to paper substrates, is described in this study. METHODS: Hydrophobic drugs and hydrophilic streptomycin were analyzed by polymer-spray MS with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
August 9, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764226/cisplatin-induced-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-dyslipidemia
#3
Lalith Prabhakar Hanchate, Shimpa Rakesh Sharma, Sadhana Madyalkar
Myocardial infarction commonly occurs due to rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and is manifested on coronary angiography. Myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries can occur due to hypercoagulable state, coronary spasm, embolism, arteritis, congenital condition and drugs. Illicit drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines and marijuana are known to cause myocardial infarction. Of the many medications that are associated with cardiovascular toxicity, chemotherapeutic agents form a large group with both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#4
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685296/methamphetamine-induced-toxic-leukoencephalopathy-clinical-radiological-and-autopsy-findings
#5
Jiao Mu, Meiyu Li, Ying Guo, Bin Lv, Mingjie Qiu, Hongmei Dong
Toxic leukoencephalopathy represents a process of structural alteration of the white matter. It is caused by substance abuse including drugs such as heroin, cocaine, toluene and ethanol. We reported the clinical, radiological and autopsy findings of a rare case of toxic leukoencephalopathy following chronic methamphetamine (MA) usage. A 34-year-old man with a 3-year history of MA abuse experienced progressive sluggish state, limb weakness, inability to stand and eating disorders, followed by rapid progression to coma and death...
July 6, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684237/monoaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-cathinone-phthalimide-an-in-vitro-study
#6
Susan M Lantz, Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Elvis Cuevas, Bonnie Robinson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi, Syed Z Imam, Merle G Paule, Syed F Ali
Bath salts, or synthetic cathinones, have cocaine-like or amphetamine-like properties and induce psychoactive effects via their capacity to modulate serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Structurally distinct synthetic cathinones are continuously being generated to skirt existing drug laws. One example of these modified compounds is cathinone phthalimide (CP), which has already appeared on the global market. The lack of toxicological studies on the effects of CP on monoaminergic systems led to the development of the present study in order to generate an acute toxicity profile for CP, and to clarify whether it primarily affects both dopamine and serotonin, like the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and methylone, or primarily affects dopamine, like 3, 4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668338/-analysis-of-prenatal-abuse-in-catalonia-between-the-years-2011-and-2014
#7
Jordi Garcia Garcia, Elena Campistol Mas, María Ángeles López-Vilchez, María José Morcillo Buscato, Antonio Mur Sierra
INTRODUCTION: Foetal abuse is that intentional or negligent act that causes a harmful effect to the foetus. It is a type of abuse difficult to diagnose and handle. Some indicators of suspicion are the absence of gestational control, the maternal consumption of toxic substances, or the problematic maternal social environment. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the cases of foetal abuse registered in Catalonia between 2011 and 2014 to identify the risk profile. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 222 cases of prenatal abuse registered in Catalonia between 2011 and 2014...
June 28, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646469/the-cathinones-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pvp-elicit-different-behavioral-and-molecular-effects-following-acute-exposure
#8
Giuseppe Giannotti, Isabella Canazza, Lucia Caffino, Sabrine Bilel, Andrea Ossato, Fabio Fumagalli, Matteo Marti
Since the mid-to-late 2000s, synthetic cathinones have gained popularity among drug users due to their psychostimulant effects greater than those produced by cocaine and amphetamine. Among them, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one (α-PVP) are ones of the most popular cathinones available in the clandestine market as "bath salts" or "fertilizers." Pre-clinical studies indicate that MDPV and α-PVP induced psychomotor stimulation, affected thermoregulation, and promoted reinforcing properties in rodents...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593024/cardiovascular-mitochondrial-dysfunction-induced-by-cocaine-biomarkers-and-possible-beneficial-effects-of-modulators-of-oxidative-stress
#9
REVIEW
Manuela Graziani, Paolo Sarti, Marzia Arese, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Aldo Badiani, Luciano Saso
Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578226/cocaine-use-may-modify-hiv-art-associated-myocardial-steatosis-and-hepatic-steatosis
#10
Shenghan Lai, Gary Gerstenblith, Richard D Moore, David D Celentano, David A Bluemke, Glenn Treisman, Chia-Ying Liu, Ji Li, Shaoguang Chen, Thomas Kickler, Hong Lai
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that myocardial and hepatic steatosis may be more prevalent in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, factors associated with these conditions have not been thoroughly investigated. The goals of this study were (1) to identify the risk factors for myocardial and hepatic steatosis in HIV-infected African Americans (AAs) and explore whether ART use is independently associated with myocardial and hepatic steatosis, and (2) to examine whether and how cocaine use influences any associations of ART use with myocardial and hepatic steatosis...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501735/dose-and-time-dependent-effects-of-mirtazapine-on-the-expression-of-cocaine-induced-behavioral-sensitization-in-rats
#11
Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Maura Matus-Ortega, Anabel Flores-Zamora, Noe Jurado, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine dependence. Antidepressant medications have been studied as potential therapeutic drugs to relieve a cocaine dependence disorder. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant implicated in reducing behavioral alterations induced by drugs of abuse. We have reported elsewhere that 30mg/kg mirtazapine administered for 30 days during cocaine extinction significantly attenuated the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and decreased the duration of the cocaine-induced locomotor effect...
May 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485734/the-effect-of-crack-cocaine-addiction-and-age-on-the-microstructure-and-morphology-of-the-human-striatum-and-thalamus-using-shape-analysis-and-fast-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging
#12
E A Garza-Villarreal, M M Chakravarty, B Hansen, S F Eskildsen, G A Devenyi, D Castillo-Padilla, T Balducci, E Reyes-Zamorano, S N Jespersen, P Perez-Palacios, R Patel, J J Gonzalez-Olvera
The striatum and thalamus are subcortical structures intimately involved in addiction. The morphology and microstructure of these have been studied in murine models of cocaine addiction (CA), showing an effect of drug use, but also chronological age in morphology. Human studies using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have shown inconsistencies in volume changes, and have also shown an age effect. In this exploratory study, we used MRI-based volumetric and novel shape analysis, as well as a novel fast diffusion kurtosis imaging sequence to study the morphology and microstructure of striatum and thalamus in crack CA compared to matched healthy controls (HCs), while investigating the effect of age and years of cocaine consumption...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465083/cocaine-sensitization-in-adult-long-evans-rats-perinatally-exposed-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#13
Mellessa M Miller, Jenna L N Sprowles, Jason N Voeller, Abby E Meyer, Helen J K Sable
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants known to adversely affect the nervous system and more specifically the dopamine system. Developmental PCB exposure in rats has been shown to produce alterations in dopaminergic signaling that persist into adulthood. The reinforcing properties of psychostimulants are typically modulated via the dopaminergic system, so this project used a behavioral sensitization paradigm to evaluate whether perinatal PCB exposure altered sensitization to the psychostimulant cocaine...
July 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462386/association-of-variants-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-arginine%C3%A2-vasopressin-receptor-1a-with-severe-acetaminophen%C3%A2-liver-injury
#14
Matthew Randesi, Orna Levran, Joel Correa da Rosa, Julia Hankins, Jody Rule, Mary Jeanne Kreek, William M Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen-related acute liver injury and liver failure (ALF) result from ingestion of supratherapeutic quantities of this analgesic, frequently in association with other forms of substance abuse including alcohol, opioids, and cocaine. Thus, overdosing represents a unique high-risk behavior associated with other forms of drug use disorder. METHODS: We examined a series of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 genes related to impulsivity and/or stress responsivity that may modify response to stress...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449966/environmental-concentrations-of-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-modulated-antioxidant-response-and-caused-cyto-genotoxic-effects-in-zebrafish-embryo-cells
#15
Marco Parolini, Anna Ghilardi, Camilla Della Torre, Stefano Magni, Laura Prosperi, Matteo Calvagno, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been recently identified as a serious environmental problem because of the growing evidence regarding their occurrence in aquatic environment and potential toxicity towards non-target organisms. Among them, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly measured in freshwaters worldwide at levels that might cause diverse sub-lethal effects to aquatic organisms. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the potential adverse effects induced by the exposure to environmental concentrations (0...
July 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434975/protection-of-pc12%C3%A2-cells-from-cocaine-induced-cell-death-by-inhibiting-mitochondrial-permeability-transition
#16
Frederic Lamarche, Cecile Cottet-Rousselle, Luc Barret, Eric Fontaine
Cocaine abuse induces brain injury and neurodegeneration by a mechanism that has not yet been fully elucidated. Mitochondria play a key role in cell death processes, notably through the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). In this work, we examined the involvement of the PTP in cocaine-induced toxicity in PC12 cell lines. We used two different PTP inhibitors -i.e. cyclosporin A (CsA) and metformin-to assess their ability to counteract the cocaine induced effects. We first observed that a 48 h exposure to cocaine strongly sensitized cells to calcium overload, as measured by the calcium retention capacity...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399647/%C3%AE-blockers-cocaine-and-the-unopposed-%C3%AE-stimulation-phenomenon
#17
John R Richards, Judd E Hollander, Edward A Ramoska, Fareed N Fareed, I Charles Sand, María Manuela Izquierdo Gómez, Richard A Lange
Cocaine abuse remains a significant worldwide health problem. Patients with cardiovascular toxicity from cocaine abuse frequently present to the emergency department for treatment. These patients may be tachycardic, hypertensive, agitated, and have chest pain. Several pharmacological options exist for treatment of cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. For the past 3 decades, the phenomenon of unopposed α-stimulation after β-blocker use in cocaine-positive patients has been cited as an absolute contraindication, despite limited and inconsistent clinical evidence...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384623/investigation-on-the-combined-effect-of-cocaine-and-ethanol-administration-through-a-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-metabolomics-approach
#18
Elena Sánchez-López, Alberto Marcos, Emilio Ambrosio, Oleg A Mayboroda, María Luisa Marina, Antonio L Crego
Alcohol is the most widely consumed legal drug, whereas cocaine is the illicit psychostimulant most commonly used in Europe. The combined use of alcohol and cocaine is frequent among drug-abuse consumers and leads to further exacerbation of health consequences compared to individual consumption. The pharmacokinetic and metabolic interactions leading to an increase in their combined toxicity still remains poorly understood. Here, the first metabolomics study of combined cocaine and ethanol chronic exposure effects is reported...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363516/vascular-disease-in-cocaine-addiction
#19
REVIEW
Keren Bachi, Venkatesh Mani, Devi Jeyachandran, Zahi A Fayad, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best...
March 14, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314885/adverse-effects-of-levamisole-in-cocaine-users-a-review-and-risk-assessment
#20
REVIEW
Tibor Markus Brunt, Jorrit van den Berg, Ed Pennings, Bastiaan Venhuis
The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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