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Cocaine toxicity

Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Hanna N Wetzel, Vladimir L Tsibulsky, Andrew B Norman
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has shown potential as a treatment for cocaine abuse. The humanized recombinant anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the preclinical designation h2E2 has been shown to decrease cocaine concentrations in the brain in rats, but its effects on cocaine self-administration behavior have never been tested. METHODS: The amount of cocaine needed to reinstate self-administration behavior (priming threshold) was calculated and the inter-injection intervals at unit doses of 0...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
John R Richards, Richard A Lange, Thomas C Arnold, B Zane Horowitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
John R Richards, Erik G Laurin, Nabil Tabish, Richard A Lange
BACKGROUND: Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. CASE REPORT: We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lu Cao, Alexey Glazyrin, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized...
September 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Sophie Gosselin, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Robert S Hoffman, Andis Graudins, Christine M Stork, Simon H L Thomas, Samuel J Stellpflug, Bryan D Hayes, Michael Levine, Martin Morris, Andrea Nesbitt-Miller, Alexis F Turgeon, Benoit Bailey, Diane P Calello, Ryan Chuang, Theodore C Bania, Bruno Mégarbane, Ashish Bhalla, Valéry Lavergne
BACKGROUND: Although intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) was first used to treat life-threatening local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, its use has expanded to include both non-local anesthetic (non-LA) poisoning and less severe manifestations of toxicity. A collaborative workgroup appraised the literature and provides evidence-based recommendations for the use of ILE in poisoning. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, data were summarized in four publications: LA and non-LA poisoning efficacy, adverse effects, and analytical interferences...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Mikako Ueno, Tadashi Okamura, Masayoshi Mishina, Yukihito Ishizaka
BACKGROUND: Retrotransposition of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1-RTP) is proposed to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) plasticity by inducing mosaicism of neuronal cells. Clinical studies have identified increased L1 copy numbers in the brains of patients with psychiatric disorders. These observations implicate that L1-RTP is important for neurogenesis and that its deregulation represents a risk factor for mental disorders. However, no supportive evidence is available for understanding the importance of L1-RTP in CNS function...
July 2016: Mobile Genetic Elements
María C De Paoli, Dino Moretti, Carlos M Scolari Pasinato, Martín G Buncuga
The Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel vasculitis with IgA immune complex deposition. The presentation in adults is rare and severe. Reported cases of HSP in patients infected with HIV are scarce. Neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are commonly found in other systemic vasculitis, but rarely in HSP and even more unusual the perinuclear pattern. Beside small vessel vasculitis, positivity of ANCA can be detected in a number of different pathological conditions in association with infectious processes, including HIV, or cocaine use, and especially the pattern of ANCA-p, associated with drugs, inflammatory bowel or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Medicina
Jin Amon, Elsa Stephen, Rif S El-Mallakh
INTRODUCTION: Iloperidone is a recently introduced antipsychotic medication. It is approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. There are no published reports of iloperidone overdosage, but there are eight cases that have been reported to the US Food and Drug Administration. CASE REPORT: A case of a 27-year-old man who took 84 mg of iloperidone while also smoking cocaine is described. He developed a prolonged QTc (527 ms) without arrhythmias and respiratory failure with mandated respiratory support...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Alison M Dines, David M Wood, Christopher Yates, Fridtjof Heyerdahl, Knut Erik Hovda, Isabelle Giraudon, Paul I Dargan
BACKGROUND: Psychosis can be associated with acute recreational drug and novel psychoactive substance (NPS) toxicity. However, there is limited data available on how common this is and which drugs are most frequently implicated. We describe a European case series of psychosis associated with acute recreational drug toxicity, and estimate the frequency of psychosis for different recreational drugs. METHODS: The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) collects data on presentations to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute recreational drug and NPS toxicity at 16 centres in ten countries...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Vivek Kumar, Alessandro Bonifazi, Michael P Ellenberger, Thomas M Keck, Elie Pommier, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher, Eliot Gardner, Zhi-Bing You, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Amy Hauck Newman
The recent and precipitous increase in opioid analgesic abuse and overdose has inspired investigation of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) as a target for therapeutic intervention. Metabolic instability or predicted toxicity has precluded successful translation of previously reported D3R-selective antagonists to clinical use for cocaine abuse. Herein, we report a series of novel and D3R crystal structure-guided 4-phenylpiperazines with exceptionally high D3R affinities and/or selectivities with varying efficacies...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gregory T Collins, Megan Abbott, Kayla Galindo, Elise L Rush, Kenner C Rice, Charles P France
Illicit drug preparations often include more than one pharmacologically active compound. For example, cocaine and synthetic cathinones [e.g., 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)] are often mixed with caffeine before sale. Caffeine is likely added to these preparations because it is inexpensive and legal; however, caffeine might also mimic or enhance some of the effects of cocaine or MDPV. In these studies, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline, and the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine, caffeine, and MDPV were evaluated alone and as binary mixtures (cocaine and caffeine, MDPV and caffeine, and cocaine and MDPV) at fixed-dose ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 relative to the dose of each drug that produced 50% cocaine-appropriate responding...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
A Daveluy, N Castaing, H Cherifi, C Richeva, L Humbert, I Faure, M Labadie, D Allorge, F Haramburu, M Molimard, K Titier
Use of methiopropamine (MPA), a synthetic metamfetamine analog, has been detected since 2011 in Europe, but there is limited information on its acute toxicity. A 30-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department in a confused state, with paranoid delusion, auditory and visual hallucinatory experiences, and incoherent speech following the use of "synthacaine" (a slang term derived from "synthetic" and "cocaine"). Toxicological screening for pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse by liquid chromatography-diode-array detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) detected MPA, which was subsequently quantified by a specific LC-MS-MS method...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Lucas R Watterson, M Foster Olive
Since the mid- to late 2000s, there has been a dramatic rise in the use and abuse of synthetic derivatives of cathinone, a stimulant alkaloid found in the African shrub Catha edulis. Cathinone novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also referred to as synthetic cathinones or "bath salt"-type drugs, have gained popularity among drug users due to their potency, low cost, ease of procurement, and diverse array of evolving chemical structures. While the ability of cathinone NPS to produce psychotomimetic effects, multiple organ system toxicity, and death in humans is well documented, there has been limited scientific investigation into the reinforcing effects and abuse liability of these drugs...
July 19, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
A Saleh, J Tittley, S Anand
"Bath salts" are synthetic designer drugs that have stimulant properties and are a growing medical concern. The chemical compounds in the mixtures have an affinity for receptors in the brain resulting in a stimulant effect similar to that seen with methamphetamines and cocaine. Although illegal in Canada, these drugs are widely available online with over 20 synthetic drugs marketed as "bath salts" and used increasingly among recreational drug users. Much of the medical literature regarding these drugs comes from emergency medicine case reports, which outline the acute, severe medical and psychiatric effects of "bath salt" toxicity...
July 13, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Eric T Shimomura, Alice J Briones, Wendy S Warren, Joseph W Addison, Jessica L Knittel, Sarah A Shoemaker, Taj D King, Thomas Z Bosy
It is reasonable to expect the presence of multiple drugs to present a complicated picture of toxicity. We report a fatal case involving a young man who purchased illicit drugs and knowingly consumed them. After consuming these drugs and going to sleep in his friend's car, he was found unresponsive the next morning with no signs of physical violence. Drugs found in the peripheral blood at autopsy were oxymorphone, methylone and ethanol at concentrations of 0.106, 0.50 and 130 mg/dL, respectively. The levels of oxymorphone and methylone in peripheral blood were comparable to those observed in other reported fatalities...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Kenneth Grasing, Deepan Mathur, Cherilyn DeSouza, Thomas F Newton, David E Moody, Marc Sturgill
BACKGROUND: In rodents, cholinesterase inhibitors can cause sustained decreases in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Nonetheless, cocaine is metabolized by butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), raising concerns that cholinesterase inhibition could increase its peripheral concentrations, perhaps augmenting toxicity. Although donepezil is approved for use in patients and selective for inhibiting acetylcholinesterase over BuChE, no studies have reported cocaine bioavailability in human subjects receiving donepezil...
August 2016: American Journal on Addictions
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