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Cocaine toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329388/a-series-of-deaths-involving-carfentanil-in-the-uk-and-associated-post-mortem-blood-concentrations
#1
Simon P Elliott, Elena Hernandez Lopez
The potent opioid and veterinary drug, carfentanil has recently entered the illicit drug market, especially in relation to heroin and cocaine. Recent publications have reported carfentanil concentrations found in fatalities occurring in the USA. This article presents the toxicological findings in seven heroin/cocaine cases occurring in the UK within a short period of time where carfentanil was detected and measured. Carfentanil was detected along with other drugs in all cases with no alcohol detected in the post-mortem blood in any of the cases...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315692/comprehensive-review-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-drugs-and-related-agents
#2
REVIEW
Přemysl Mladěnka, Lenka Applová, Jiří Patočka, Vera Marisa Costa, Fernando Remiao, Jana Pourová, Aleš Mladěnka, Jana Karlíčková, Luděk Jahodář, Marie Vopršalová, Kurt J Varner, Martin Štěrba
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed countries of the world. Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and toxins can significantly contribute to the overall cardiovascular burden and thus deserve attention. The present article is a systematic overview of drugs that may induce distinct cardiovascular toxicity. The compounds are classified into agents that have significant effects on the heart, blood vessels, or both. The mechanism(s) of toxic action are discussed and treatment modalities are briefly mentioned in relevant cases...
January 5, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185916/drug-drug-interactions-in-cocaine-users-and-their-clinical-implications
#3
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Maria Cristina Caroleo
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can induce development of adverse drug reactions or reduce clinical efficacy of the drugs. In this review, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library we searched articles published until January 10, 2017, and described both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. In this review, the nodal points treated focused on: i) cocaine biochemical metabolism described for both, inactive benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl esters and norcocaine active metabolites...
September 20, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181644/effectiveness-of-a-cocaine-hydrolase-for-cocaine-toxicity-treatment-in-male-and-female-rats
#4
Xirong Zheng, Ziyuan Zhou, Ting Zhang, Zhenyu Jin, Xiabin Chen, Jing Deng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
Development of a truly effective medication for treatment of cocaine abuse has been a grand challenge. There is no FDA-approved therapeutic agent specific for cocaine addiction or overdose. An enzyme therapy using an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme could be a promising treatment strategy for cocaine overdose and addiction. One of our previously designed cocaine hydrolases (CocHs), known as CocH1, was fused with human serum albumin (HSA) to prolong the biological half-life. The fusion protein CocH1-HSA is an investigational new drug (IND) approved by the FDA for clinical trials in cocaine addiction treatment, but not in cocaine overdose/toxicity treatment...
November 27, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147477/vanishing-vasculitis-a-case-of-acute-necrotic-skin-findings-without-pathologic-features-of-vasculitis-from-adulterated-cocaine
#5
Adnan Asif Parvez Ghias, Patrick Brine
While the usage of illicit drugs in itself carries significant health risks and associated toxicities, drugs that are adulterated to give them volume, alter their psychogenic properties, and make them cheaper to produce are to be considered even more dangerous. Cocaine is one of them, and it is now most commonly being adulterated with levamisole. We report a case of a 37-year-old female with the chief complaint of painful skin lesions and wounds on both of her upper and lower extremities for three weeks duration...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139537/planaria-an-animal-model-that-integrates-development-regeneration-and-pharmacology
#6
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127295/clinical-potential-of-an-enzyme-based-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-overdose
#7
Ting Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Ziyuan Zhou, Xiabin Chen, Zhenyu Jin, Jing Deng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
It is a grand challenge to develop a truly effective medication for treatment of cocaine overdose. The current available, practical emergence treatment for cocaine overdose includes administration of a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant agent (e.g. diazepam) and/or physical cooling with an aim to relieve the symptoms. The inherent difficulties of antagonizing physiological effects of drugs in the central nervous system have led to exploring protein-based pharmacokinetic approaches using biologics like vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and enzymes...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123854/local-anesthetic-toxicity-acute-and-chronic-management
#8
REVIEW
Kenichi Sekimoto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
Local anesthetics are commonly used medicines in clinical settings. They are used for pain management during minor interventional treatments, and for postoperative care after major surgeries. Cocaine is the well-known origin of local anesthetics, and the drug and related derivatives have long history of clinical usage for more than several centuries. Although illegal use of cocaine and its abuse are social problem in some countries, other local anesthetics are safely and effectively used in clinics and hospitals all over the world...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038767/evaluation-of-plasma-cytokines-in-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-in-abstinence-identifies-transforming-growth-factor-alpha-tgf%C3%AE-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-consumption-and-dual-diagnosis
#9
Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Vicente Barrios, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Raquel Nogueira-Arjona, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Maribel Soria, Rafael Campos, Julie Ann Chowen, Jesus Argente, Marta Torrens, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Eva María Marco, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Francisco Javier Pavón, Pedro Araos
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a complex health condition, especially when it is accompanied by comorbid psychiatric disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is associated with difficulties in the stratification and treatment of patients. One of the major challenges in clinical practice of addiction psychiatry is the lack of objective biological markers that indicate the degree of consumption, severity of addiction, level of toxicity and response to treatment in patients with CUD...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993024/exposure-to-cocaine-and-its-main-metabolites-altered-the-protein-profile-of-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Marco Parolini, Luca Bini, Stefano Magni, Alessandro Rizzo, Anna Ghilardi, Claudia Landi, Alessandro Armini, Luca Del Giacco, Andrea Binelli
Illicit drugs have been identified as emerging aquatic pollutants because of their widespread presence in freshwaters and potential toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Among illicit drug residues, cocaine (COC) and its main metabolites, namely benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), are commonly detected in freshwaters worldwide at concentration that can induce diverse adverse effects to non-target organisms. However, the information of toxicity and mechanisms of action (MoA) of these drugs, mainly of COC metabolites, to aquatic species is still fragmentary and inadequate...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987169/neurotoxicology-and-drug-related-disorders
#11
Serge Weis, Andreas Büttner
Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by toxic substances pose a great diagnostic challenge due to the large variety of changes caused in the central and peripheral nervous system. The pathogenetic mechanisms at work are multifaceted and partly not solved. In human drug abusers (cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine and "designer drugs"), a broad spectrum of central nervous system alterations are observed including infarction, intracerebral and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy, infections, neuronal loss, specific astroglial and microglial reaction patterns, and vascular changes, including the endothelial cell as well as the basal lamina...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958905/-uro-and-nephrotoxic-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-literature-review-and-pharmaco-epidemiological-survey-in-france-and-in-the-marseille-area
#12
Marion Gully, Élisabeth Frauger, Michel Spadari, Liselotte Pochard, Vanessa Pauly, Fanny Romain, Bertrand Gondouin, Marion Sallée, Julie Moussi-Frances, Stéphane Burtey, Bertrand Dussol, Laurent Daniel, Joëlle Micallef, Noémie Jourde-Chiche
A great diversification of drugs of abuse has been observed in recent years, both in the populations using them and in the types of drugs. Although dependency and psychiatric disorders associated with the abuse of these substances is well known, somatic complications, uro-nephrotoxicity in particular, are less recognized. We propose here an overview of the products used by drugs abusers in France, through the analysis of the national pharmaco-epidemiological study Observation des produits psychotropes illicites ou détournés de leur utilisation médicamenteuse (OPPIDUM)...
September 25, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953509/procaine-and-local-anesthetic-toxicity-a-collaboration-between-the-clinical-and-basic-sciences
#13
James Seth Jacob, Anthony L Kovac
In 1924, the Therapeutic Research Committee of the American Medical Association appointed a special committee to investigate deaths following the administration of local anesthetics. The Committee for the Study of Toxic Effects of Local Anesthetics found procaine, although a safer clinical alternative to cocaine, was capable of causing death when large doses were injected into tissues and advised that it should be used with caution. This article describes a collaboration beginning in 1928 between Dr John Lundy of the Mayo Clinic and Dr Robert Isenberger of the University of Kansas, which arose from a controversy surrounding systemic adverse reactions to procaine...
November 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874829/plant-expressed-cocaine-hydrolase-variants-of-butyrylcholinesterase-exhibit-altered-allosteric-effects-of-cholinesterase-activity-and-increased-inhibitor-sensitivity
#14
Katherine E Larrimore, I Can Kazan, Latha Kannan, R Player Kendle, Tameem Jamal, Matthew Barcus, Ashini Bolia, Stephen Brimijoin, Chang-Guo Zhan, S Banu Ozkan, Tsafrir S Mor
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme with broad substrate and ligand specificities and may function as a generalized bioscavenger by binding and/or hydrolyzing various xenobiotic agents and toxicants, many of which target the central and peripheral nervous systems. Variants of BChE were rationally designed to increase the enzyme's ability to hydrolyze the psychoactive enantiomer of cocaine. These variants were cloned, and then expressed using the magnICON transient expression system in plants and their enzymatic properties were investigated...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862050/synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba-infidelity-in-patients-presenting-for-emergency-stabilization-in-colorado-a-p-scan-cohort
#15
Nicklaus Brandehoff, Axel Adams, Kyle McDaniel, Samuel D Banister, Roy Gerona, Andrew A Monte
BACKGROUND: Use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has increased over the last decade. During this period, variability of both clinical presentations and chemical compositions of these compounds has increased. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are the most commonly used NPS and there are more than 100 documented unique molecules in this class. "Black Mamba", often associated to ADB-FUBINACA, is the most commonly used SC in Colorado. It has been linked to kidney injury, myocardial toxicity, seizures, and death...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844457/exposure-to-crack-cocaine-causes-adverse-effects-on-marine-mussels-perna-perna
#16
L A Maranho, M K Fontes, A S S Kamimura, C R Nobre, B B Moreno, F H Pusceddu, F S Cortez, D T Lebre, J R Marques, D M S Abessa, D A Ribeiro, C D S Pereira
Our study aimed to evaluate crack cocaine effects in different life stages of the marine mussel Perna perna. For this purpose, fertilization rate, embryo-larval development, lysosomal membrane stability and DNA strand breaks were assessed. Effect concentrations in gametes and in larval development were found after 1h (IC50=23.53mg·L(-1)) and 48h (IC50=16.31mg·L(-1)), respectively. The highest tested concentration showing no acute toxicity (NOEC) was 10mg·L(-1), while the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 20mg·L(-1)...
August 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813206/levamisole-in-illicit-trafficking-cocaine-seized-a-one-year-study
#17
Simona Martello, Massimo Pieri, Cristiano Ialongo, Stefano Pignalosa, Gianluca Noce, Francesca Vernich, Carmelo Russo, Federico Mineo, Sergio Bernardini, Luigi Tonino Marsella
Cocaine use is increasing around the world and its purity is frequently altered through dilution, substitution, contamination, and adulteration. Sugars, talc, starch, and carbonates represent the principal diluents of cocaine, while phenacetin, levamisole, caffeine, and lidocaine are its major adulterants in Europe. Levamisole is used because it is an odorless powder, with physical properties similar to cocaine, and it has reasonable cost and availability, being widely used in veterinary medicine. For this study, we analyzed 88 cocaine samples...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804037/the-longitudinal-effects-of-early-developmental-cadmium-exposure-on-conditioned-place-preference-and-cardiovascular-physiology-in-zebrafish
#18
Marissa Wold, Myranda Beckmann, Shelby Poitra, Ana Espinoza, Robert Longie, Erik Mersereau, Diane C Darland, Tristan Darland
Cadmium (Cd) is a naturally occurring trace metal that is widely considered to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms and a significant health hazard to humans (Amzal et al., 2009; Bernhoft 2013; Burger, 2008; Satarug et al., 2009). The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used as a model organism for toxicological studies with Cd (Banni et al., 2011; Blechinger et al., 2007; Chow et al., 2009; Chow et al., 2008; Favorito et al., 2011; Kusch et al., 2007; Matz et al., 2007; Wang and Gallagher, 2013). We asked what the lasting longitudinal effects would be from short early developmental Cd exposure (between 24 and 96h post-fertilization) in a range that larvae might experience living atop typical Cd-containing surface sediments (0, 0...
August 3, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792093/polymer-spray-mass-spectrometric-detection-and-quantitation-of-hydrophilic-compounds-and-some-narcotics
#19
Maria T Dulay, Richard N Zare
RATIONALE: High-throughput screening of biofluids is essential in monitoring concentration of a variety of drugs to determine their efficacy and toxicity. Organosiloxane polymers prepared by sol-gel chemistry as sample supports, and electrospray ionization emitters in a single material and as an alternative to paper substrates, is described in this study. METHODS: Hydrophobic drugs and hydrophilic streptomycin were analyzed by polymer-spray mass spectrometry with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
October 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764226/cisplatin-induced-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-dyslipidemia
#20
Lalith Prabhakar Hanchate, Shimpa Rakesh Sharma, Sadhana Madyalkar
Myocardial infarction commonly occurs due to rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and is manifested on coronary angiography. Myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries can occur due to hypercoagulable state, coronary spasm, embolism, arteritis, congenital condition and drugs. Illicit drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines and marijuana are known to cause myocardial infarction. Of the many medications that are associated with cardiovascular toxicity, chemotherapeutic agents form a large group with both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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