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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451899/cooperation-enhanced-by-the-coevolution-of-teaching-activity-in-evolutionary-prisoner-s-dilemma-games-with-voluntary-participation
#1
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Yini Geng, Jiahua Jin, Fei Chen, Lei Shi
Voluntary participation, as an additional strategy involved in repeated games, has been proved to be an efficient way to promote the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. Besides, current studies show that the coevolution of teaching activity can promote cooperation. Thus, inspired by aforementioned above, we investigate the effect of coevolution of teaching activity on the evolution of cooperation for prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation: when the focal player successfully enforces its strategy on the opponent, his teaching ability will get an increase...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451424/risk-factors-of-sexual-assault-and-victimization-among-youth-in-custody
#2
Eileen M Ahlin
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450123/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-prisoners
#3
Jacob M Smith, A Ziggy Uvin, Alexandria Macmadu, Josiah D Rich
Purpose of Review: The review details recent literature reports regarding Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and, in particular, Hepatitis B prevalence/incidence in incarcerated populations around the world. Furthermore, the review will summarize the national/international guidelines regarding HBV and look at diagnosis, vaccination, treatment, and linkage to care after release. Recent Findings: HBV affects prisoners at a much higher rate than the general populations. Many who are at increased risk for HBV infection are also at increased risk for incarceration...
September 2017: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449824/reduced-self-control-after-3-months-of-imprisonment-a-pilot-study
#4
Jesse Meijers, Joke M Harte, Gerben Meynen, Pim Cuijpers, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Prison can be characterized as an impoverished environment encouraging a sedentary lifestyle with limited autonomy and social interaction, which may negatively affect self-control and executive function. Here, we aim to study the effects of imprisonment on self-control and executive functions, and we report the change in neuropsychological outcome after 3 months of imprisonment. Materials and Methods: Participants were 37 male inmates in a remand prison in Amsterdam, Netherlands, who completed six tests of a computerized neuropsychological test battery (the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery) in the first week of arrival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447405/the-representation-of-vulnerable-populations-in-quality-improvement-studies
#5
Asaph Rolnitsky, Maksim Kirtsman, Hanna R Goldberg, Michael Dunn, Chaim M Bell
Purpose: A mapping review to quantify representation of vulnerable populations, who suffer from disparity and often inequitable healthcare, in quality improvement (QI) research. Data sources: Studies published in 2004-2014 inclusive from Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases for English language research with the terms 'quality improvement' or 'quality control' or 'QI' and 'plan-do-study-act' or 'PDSA' in the years 2004-2014 inclusively. Study selection: Published clinical research that was a QI-themed, as identified by its declared search terms, MESH terms, abstract or title...
February 13, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446961/psychopathic-men-deficits-in-general-mental-ability-not-emotion-perception
#6
Sally G Olderbak, Andreas Mokros, Joachim Nitschke, Elmar Habermeyer, Oliver Wilhelm
Psychopathy is characteristically associated with deficits in emotion perception; however, findings surrounding this deficit are actually quite mixed. This is most likely due to limitations of study methodology, including the use of tasks with unknown or poor psychometric properties, underpowered samples, and a lack of control for third variables. We present a study that addressed these limitations. A sample of men (n = 339) ranging across the psychopathy continuum, recruited in and out of the German prison system, completed three psychometrically validated tasks that assessed the ability to perceive facially expressed emotions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445042/working-dogs-transfer-different-tasks-in-reciprocal-cooperation
#7
Nastassja Gfrerer, Michael Taborsky
Direct reciprocity can establish stable cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is a common assumption of direct reciprocity models that agents exchange like with like, but this is not necessarily true for natural interactions. It is yet unclear whether animals apply direct reciprocity rules when successive altruistic help involves different tasks. Here, we tested whether working dogs transfer help from one to another cooperative task in an iterated prisoner's dilemma paradigm. In our experiment, individual dogs received help to obtain food from a conspecific, which involved a specific task...
February 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444084/attributional-style-and-depressive-symptoms-in-a-male-prison-sample
#8
Danny J O'Sullivan, Maura E O'Sullivan, Brendan D O'Connell, Ken O'Reilly, Kiran M Sarma
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442194/-i-don-t-have-to-do-this-all-by-myself-systems-navigation-to-ensure-continuity-of-hiv-care-for-persons-leaving-prison
#9
Shannon M Fuller, Kimberly A Koester, Andres Maiorana, Wayne T Steward, Michelle R Broaddus, Katie Lass, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Evelyn Byrd Quinlivan, Janet J Myers
Ensuring continuity of and retention in care after release from prison is critical for optimizing health outcomes among people living with HIV. As part of a large federal initiative, we conducted qualitative interviews (n = 24) with individuals living with HIV and recently released from prison in four states to understand their experiences in different navigation interventions to improve access to HIV care post-release. Interventions were delivered only in prison, only in the community, or in both settings...
February 13, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439372/work-related-threats-and-violence-in-human-service-sectors-the-importance-of-the-psycho-social-work-environment-examined-in-a-multilevel-prospective-study
#10
Lars Peter Andersen, Annie Hogh, Karin Biering, Charlotte Ann Gadegaard
BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related threats and violence in four high risk human service sectors. METHODS: Questionnaire data was collected from 3011 employees working at psychiatric wards, in the elder sector, in the Prison and Probation Service and at Special Schools...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438397/capacity-of-non-invasive-hepatic-fibrosis-algorithms-to-replace-transient-elastography-to-exclude-cirrhosis-in-people-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#11
Melissa Louise Kelly, Stephen M Riordan, Rohan Bopage, Andrew R Lloyd, Jeffrey John Post
INTRODUCTION: Achievement of the 2030 World Health Organisation (WHO) global hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination targets will be underpinned by scale-up of testing and use of direct-acting antiviral treatments. In Australia, despite publically-funded testing and treatment, less than 15% of patients were treated in the first year of treatment access, highlighting the need for greater efficiency of health service delivery. To this end, non-invasive fibrosis algorithms were examined to reduce reliance on transient elastography (TE) which is currently utilised for the assessment of cirrhosis in most Australian clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435485/evaluating-the-effectiveness-efficiency-and-safety-of-telemedicine-for-urological-care-in-the-male-prisoner-population
#12
Brenton G Sherwood, Yu Han, Kenneth G Nepple, Bradley A Erickson
Introduction: We reviewed the safety and effectiveness of our hospital's urologic telemedicine (TM) program that has been utilized for the Iowa prisoner population for over a decade. Methods: A retrospective review of TM visits of male prisoners from 2007 to 2014 was performed. Effectiveness of TM visits was assessed by 1) concordance of TM and in-person diagnoses, 2) compliance with radiologic and medication orders and 3) in-person visits saved with TM. Safety was assessed by analyzing the number of patients in which an ED visit was required after TM visit and missed or delayed cases of malignancy...
January 2018: Urology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433701/intention-and-initiation-of-breastfeeding-among-women-who-are-incarcerated
#13
Rebecca J Shlafer, Laurel Davis, Lauren A Hindt, Lorie S Goshin, Erica Gerrity
The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative recommends that all mothers be shown how to breastfeed, even when mothers and newborns are separated. Most incarcerated women are separated from their infants after the postpartum hospital stay, creating barriers to breastfeeding. We examined breastfeeding among a sample of women participating in a prison-based pregnancy program. Quantitative data indicated that women who discussed breastfeeding with their doulas were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Three qualitative themes were identified: Benefits of Breastfeeding, Barriers to Breastfeeding, and Role of the Doula...
February 2018: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433604/unchaining-people-with-mental-disorders-medication-is-not-the-solution
#14
Vikram Patel, Kamaldeep Bhui
Chaining of people with mental disorders, and their incarceration and abuse in prisons or mental hospitals, is an affront to psychiatry and humanity. Although mental healthcare always needs attention to cultural and social contexts, this must never be at the cost of allowing human rights violations to go unchallenged. A rights-based approach must enforce well-established international human rights conventions, and scale-up comprehensive community services around the needs and preferences of people affected by mental disorders...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433454/hepatitis-b-c-in-the-countries-of-the-eu-eea-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-among-at-risk-groups
#15
Abby May Falla, Sanne Henrietta Ina Hofstraat, Erika Duffell, Susan Josien Maria Hahné, Lara Tavoschi, Irene Karen Veldhuijzen
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organisation set a goal to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Robust epidemiological information underpins all efforts to achieve elimination and this systematic review provides estimates of HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) among three at-risk populations: people in prison, men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Estimates of the prevalence among the three risk groups included in our study were derived from multiple sources...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432706/-people-don-t-understand-what-goes-on-in-here-a-consensual-qualitative-research-analysis-of-inmate-caregiver-perspectives-on-prison-based-end-of-life-care
#16
Rachel M Depner, Pei C Grant, David J Byrwa, Jennifer M Breier, Jennifer Lodi-Smith, Debra L Luczkiewicz, Christopher W Kerr
BACKGROUND: The age demographic of the incarcerated is quickly shifting from young to old. Correctional facilities are responsible for navigating inmate access to healthcare; currently, there is no standardization for access to end-of-life care. There is growing research support for prison-based end-of-life care programs that incorporate inmate peer caregivers as a way to meet the needs of the elderly and dying who are incarcerated. AIM: This project aims to (a) describe a prison-based end-of-life program utilizing inmate peer caregivers, (b) identify inmate-caregiver motivations for participation, and (c) analyze the role of building trust and meaningful relationships within the correctional end-of-life care setting...
February 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432204/relationship-between-adaptation-and-self-esteem-in-addicted-female-prisoners-in-the-south-east-of-iran
#17
Mahya Torkaman, Sakineh Miri, Jamileh Farokhzadian
Background Reduction of the adaptation and self-esteem can be the consequence of opium addiction and imprisonment. Drug use causes inappropriate behaviors in women, which are quite different from those in men. Social deviations, prostitution, high-risk sexual behaviors, abortion, divorce and imprisonment followed by loss of self-esteem are the consequences of women's addiction. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between adaptation and self-esteem in addicted female prisoners. Methods In this descriptive analytical study, 130 addicted female prisoners were selected from a prison in the south east of Iran using census sampling...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430256/tobacco-use-among-people-who-have-been-in-prison-relapse-and-factors-associated-with-trying-to-quit
#18
Michael R Frank, Rachel Blumhagen, David Weitzenkamp, Shane R Mueller, Brenda Beaty, Sung-Joon Min, Ingrid A Binswanger
Introduction: Tobacco use is common among people who have been in prison. The relationship between social stressors, risky health behaviours, and smoking cessation has not been studied in people recently released from prison. Studying this relationship could yield information that guides strategic and cost-effective tobacco cessation interventions for an under-resourced population. Methods: One hundred and forty-three smokers were interviewed 7 to 21 days after they had been released from USA prisons...
June 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427992/apple-condom-and-cocaine-body-stuffing-in-prison-a-case-report
#19
Benedicte Jalbert, Nguyen Toan Tran, Stephan von Düring, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Ian Fournier, Catherine Hafner, Celestine Dubost, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff
BACKGROUND: Drug dealers and drug users resort to body stuffing to hastily conceal illicit drugs by ingesting their drug packets. This practice represents a medical challenge because rupture of the often insecure packaging can be toxic and even lethal. In an emergency setting, official guidelines are needed to help the medical team decide on the proper treatment. A preliminary observation period is generally accepted but its duration varies from hours to eventual packet expulsion. CASE PRESENTATION: This case involves a 20-year-old white man in detention who claimed to have ingested one cocaine packet wrapped in plastic food-wrap and a condom in anticipation of an impending cell search...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426253/symptom-profile-of-psychiatric-patients-with-psychosis-or-psychotic-mood-disorder-in-prison
#20
J van Beek, P J Vuijk, J M Harte, E J A Scherder
There is evidence that psychiatric patients with psychotic or manic disorders who are incarcerated suffer from the same symptoms as psychiatric patients who are treated in the community. There are also indications that their symptoms might be more severe. The aim of this study was to examine the severity of psychotic and manic symptoms, as well as to collect information about the emotional functioning of patients admitted to a prison psychiatric ward. Incarcerated patients with a diagnosis of psychotic or a manic disorder were examined with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded (BPRS-E)...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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